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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350768/diet-affects-gut-microbiota-and-modulates-hospitalization-risk-differentially-in-an-international-cirrhosis-cohort
#1
Jasmohan S Bajaj, Ramazan Idilman, Leila Mabudian, Matthew Hood, Andrew Fagan, Dilara Turan, Melanie B White, Fatih Karakaya, Jessica Wang, Rengül Atalay, Phillip B Hylemon, Edith A Gavis, Robert Brown, Leroy R Thacker, Chathur Acharya, Douglas M Heuman, Masoumeh Sikaroodi, Patrick M Gillevet
The relative ranking of cirrhosis-related deaths differs between high/middle-income countries. Gut microbiome is affected in cirrhosis and related to diet. Our aim was to determine the effect of differing dietary habits on gut microbiota and clinical outcomes. METHODS: Outpatient compensated/decompensated cirrhotics and controls from Turkey and USA underwent dietary and stool microbiota analysis. Cirrhotics were followed till 90-day hospitalizations. Shannon diversity and multi-variable determinants (Cox and binary logistic) of microbial diversity and hospitalizations were studied within/between groups...
January 19, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350757/hepatoprotective-effects-of-sophoricoside-against-fructose-induced-liver-injury-via-regulating-lipid-metabolism-oxidation-and-inflammation-in-mice
#2
Wenfeng Li, Yalong Lu
The dried fruit of Sophora japonica L. is a traditional Chinese herb tea rich in sophoricoside that is an isoflavone glycoside. The aim of current study was to investigate the hepatic protective effect of sophoricoside in high fructose (HF) diet fed mice. Healthy male mice were fed 30% fructose water and treated 80 and 160 mg/kg·bw sophoricoside continuously for 8 wk. Our data showed that administration of sophoricoside at 80 and 160 mg/kg·bw observably decreased the body weight and liver weight in HF-fed mice...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350678/pik3r3-regulates-ppar%C3%AE-expression-to-stimulate-fatty-acid-%C3%AE-oxidation-and-decrease-hepatosteatosis
#3
Xi Yang, Yinjia Fu, Fuqing Hu, Xuelai Luo, Junbo Hu, Guihua Wang
Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling plays an important role in the regulation of cellular lipid metabolism and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, little is known about the role of the regulatory subunits of PI3K in lipid metabolism and NAFLD. In this study, we characterized the functional role of PIK3R3 in fasting-induced hepatic lipid metabolism. In this study, we showed that the overexpression of PIK3R3 promoted hepatic fatty acid oxidation via PIK3R3-induced expression of PPARα, thus improving the fatty liver phenotype in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced mice...
January 19, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345914/comparative-analysis-of-epa-dha-pl-forage-and-liposomes-in-orotic-acid-induced-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-rats-and-their-related-mechanisms
#4
Mengru Chang, Tiantian Zhang, Xiuqing Han, Qingjuan Tang, Teruyoshi Yanagita, Jie Xu, Changhu Xue, YuMing Wang
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become one predictive factor of death from various illnesses. The present study was to comparatively investigate the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid-enriched and docosahexaenoic acid-enriched phospholipids forage (EPA-PL and DHA-PL) and liposomes (lipo-EPA and lipo-DHA) on NAFLD and demonstrate possible protective mechanisms involved. The additive doses of EPA-PL and DHA-PL in all treatment groups were 1 % of total diets, respectively. Results showed that Lipo-EPA could significantly improve hepatic function by down-regulating orotic acid-induced serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels by 55...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345844/assessing-hepatitis-c-spontaneous-clearance-and-understanding-associated-factors-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
Dewi Nur Aisyah, Laura Shallcross, Alice Jane Hully, Alastair O'Brien, Andrew Hayward
New advances in the treatment of hepatitis C provide high levels of sustained viral response but their expense limits availability in publicly funded health systems. The aim of this review is to estimate the proportion of patients who will spontaneously clear HCV and to identify factors that are associated with clearance, to support better targeting of directly acting antivirals. We searched Ovid Embase, Ovid Medline and Pubmed from 1st January 1994 to 30th June 2015 for studies reporting hepatitis C spontaneous clearance and/or demographic, clinical, and behavioural factors associated with clearance...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345322/effect-of-substrate-stiffness-on-hepatocyte-migration-and-cellular-young-s-modulus
#6
Tingting Xia, Runze Zhao, Wanqian Liu, Qiping Huang, Peixing Chen, Yasinta Ningsih Waju, Mohanad Kh Al-Ani, Yonggang Lv, Li Yang
Hepatic fibrosis progress accompanied by an unbalanced extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation and deposition leads to an increased tissue stiffness. Hepatocytes interplay with all intrahepatic cell populations inside the liver. However, how hepatocytes migration and cellular Young's modulus influenced by the substrate stiffness are not well understood. Here, we established a stiffness-controllable in vitro cell culture model by using a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel that mimicked the same physical stiffness as a fibrotic liver...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343427/controlled-attenuation-parameter-and-alcoholic-hepatic-steatosis-diagnostic-accuracy-and-role-of-alcohol-detoxification
#7
Maja Thiele, Vanessa Rausch, Gabriele Fluhr, Maria Kjærgaard, Felix Piecha, Johannes Mueller, Beate Katharina Straub, Monica Lupşor-Platon, Victor De-Ledinghen, Helmut Karl Seitz, Sönke Detlefsen, Bjørn Madsen, Aleksander Krag, Sebastian Mueller
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) is a novel non-invasive measure of hepatic steatosis, but has not been evaluated in alcoholic liver disease. We therefore aimed to validate CAP for assessment of biopsy-verified alcoholic steatosis and to study the effect of alcohol detoxification on CAP. METHODS: Cross-sectional, biopsy-controlled, diagnostic study in four European liver centers. Consecutive alcohol-overusing patients underwent concomitant CAP, regular ultrasound and liver biopsy...
January 14, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342916/coffee-intake-and-liver-steatosis-a-population-study-in-a-mediterranean-area
#8
Nicola Veronese, Maria Notarnicola, Anna Maria Cisternino, Rosa Reddavide, Rosa Inguaggiato, Vito Guerra, Ornella Rotolo, Iris Zinzi, Gioacchino Leandro, Mario Correale, Valeria Tutino, Giovanni Misciagna, Alberto Ruben Osella, Caterina Bonfiglio, Gianluigi Giannelli, Maria Gabriella Caruso For The Micol Group
Coffee drinking seems to have several beneficial effects on health outcomes. However, the effect on hepatic steatosis, depending on a high alcohol consumption (AFLD, alcoholic fatty liver disease) or on metabolic factors (non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, NAFLD), is still equivocal. Thus, we aimed to explore the potential association between coffee consumption and the presence and severity of hepatic steatosis in people with NAFLD or AFLD. In this cross-sectional study, coffee drinking was recorded using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and categorized as yes vs...
January 15, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341528/-n-acetylcysteine%C3%A2-effective-treatment-in-severe-alcoholic-hepatitis%C3%A2
#9
Isaline Verdon, Laurent Spahr, Jacques Serratrice
The use of N-acetylcysteine is of unknown significance when it comes to acute liver failure of other origin but for paracetamol overdose. Current data state its beneficial use when added to standard treatment for acute alcoholic hepatitis, whereas this attitude is less clear for hepatitis of variable other origin. This review of literature attends to evaluate and reveal the possible interest of adding N-acetylcysteine to standard care of acute liver failure due to alcoholism or other non-paracetamol linked causes...
January 17, 2018: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341395/health-of-southern-tasmanian-4-to-6-year-old-children-in-out-of-home-care-compared-to-peers
#10
Marie Rauter, Anagha Jayakar, Tom Clemens, Zaharenia Galanos, Louise Newbery, Andrew Whelan
AIM: To compare the health of 4- to 6-year-old children in out-of-home care (OOHC) in Southern Tasmania with their peers. METHODS: Demographic and health data collection and prospective health assessment of all 4- to 6-year olds in OOHC in Southern Tasmania on 30 August 2011 was undertaken. Data were compared to Tasmanian and/or Australian peers. RESULTS: A total of 109 of 129 children aged 4 to 6 years were included in the study. Time in OOHC was on average 38 (range 0-76) months...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341132/acanthoic-acid-suppresses-lipin1-2-via-tlr4-and-irak4-signalling-pathways-in-etoh-and-lipopolysaccharide-induced-hepatic-lipogenesis
#11
Jian Song, Xin Han, You-Li Yao, Ya-Mei Li, Jing Zhang, Dan-Yang Shao, Li-Shuang Hou, Ying Fan, Shun-Zong Song, Li-Hua Lian, Ji-Xing Nan, Yan-Ling Wu
OBJECTIVES: In alcoholic liver disease, alcohol and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are major stimulation factors of hepatic lipogenesis. Our objective was to determine the protective mechanism of acanthoic acid (AA) in EtOH- and LPS-induced hepatic lipogenesis. METHODS: HSC-T6 cells were treated with ethanol (200 mm) plus LPS (1 μg/ml) for 1 h, followed by AA (10 or 20 μm) for another 6 h. C57BL/6 mice were pretreated with of AA (20 and 40 mg/kg) or equal volume of saline and then exposed to three doses of ethanol (5 g/kg body weight) within 24 h...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341039/covert-hepatic-encephalopathy-leads-to-distinct-alterations-in-the-emotional-state-independently-of-meld-score
#12
Robin Greinert, Cristina Ripoll, Alexander Zipprich
BACKGROUND AND AIMS:  Covert hepatic encephalopathy impairs many aspects of quality of life, although its impact on the emotional state has not been evaluated. This study aims to evaluate the impact of covert hepatic encephalopathy on the emotional state and which factors are associated with changes in the emotional state in patients with cirrhosis. METHODS:  This single-center study included all patients with cirrhosis who underwent the portosystemic encephalopathy syndrome (PSE) test, critical flicker frequency, and emotional state assessment with the Eigenschaftswörterliste 60-S in 2011...
January 16, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340126/hepatosplenic-gamma-delta-t-cell-lymphoma-hsgdtcl-two-rare-case-reports-from-western-india
#13
Irappa Madabhavi, Gaurang Modi, Harsha Panchal, Apurva Patel, Swaroop Revannasiddaiah, Asha Anand, Sonia Parikh, Kshitij Joshi, Malay Sarkar
Peripheral T cell lymphomas are a heterogeneous group of post-thymic, mature lymphoid malignancies, accounting for approximately 10-15% of all non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma (HSGDTCL) is a rare entity, which is characterized by primary extra nodal disease with typical sinusoidal or sinusal infiltration of the liver and the spleen, respectively by expression of the T-cell receptor γδ chain, and by a number of other frequent clinicopathologic features, including aggressive course of disease...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Hematology-oncology and Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337245/hepatic-alcohol-dehydrogenase-deficiency-induces-pancreatic-injury-in-chronic-ethanol-feeding-model-of-deer-mice
#14
Samir M Amer, Kamlesh K Bhopale, Ramu D Kakumanu, Vsevolod L Popov, Bill A Rampy, Inas H El-Mehallawi, Magdy M Ashmawy, G A Shakeel Ansari, Bhupendra S Kaphalia
The single most common cause of chronic pancreatitis (CP, a serious inflammatory disease) is chronic alcohol abuse, which impairs hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, a major ethanol oxidizing enzyme). Previously, we found ~5 fold greater fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs), and injury in the pancreas of hepatic ADH deficient (ADH-) vs. hepatic normal ADH (ADH+) deer mice fed 3.5g% ethanol via liquid diet daily for two months. Therefore, progression of ethanol-induced pancreatic injury was determined in ADH- deer mice fed ethanol for four months to delineate the mechanism and metabolic basis of alcoholic chronic pancreatitis (ACP)...
January 11, 2018: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336434/acg-clinical-guideline-alcoholic-liver-disease
#15
Ashwani K Singal, Ramon Bataller, Joseph Ahn, Patrick S Kamath, Vijay H Shah
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) comprises a clinical-histologic spectrum including fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis (AH), and cirrhosis with its complications. Most patients are diagnosed at advanced stages and data on the prevalence and profile of patients with early disease are limited. Diagnosis of ALD requires documentation of chronic heavy alcohol use and exclusion of other causes of liver disease. Prolonged abstinence is the most effective strategy to prevent disease progression. AH presents with rapid onset or worsening of jaundice, and in severe cases may transition to acute on chronic liver failure when the risk for mortality, depending on the number of extra-hepatic organ failures, may be as high as 20-50% at 1 month...
January 16, 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336004/point-of-care-urine-ethyl-glucuronide-testing-to-detect-alcohol-use-among-hiv-hepatitis-b-virus-coinfected-adults-in-zambia
#16
Michael J Vinikoor, Zude Zyambo, Monde Muyoyeta, Geetanjali Chander, Michael S Saag, Karen Cropsey
In an HIV-hepatitis B virus (HIV-HBV) coinfection cohort in Zambia, we piloted a qualitative point-of-care (POC) test for urine Ethyl glucuronide (uEtG), assessed concordance between uEtG and alcohol use disorders identification test-consumption (AUDIT-C), and identified epidemiological factors associated with underreporting (defined as uEtG-positivity with last reported drink > 7 days prior). Among 211 participants (40.8% women), there were 44 (20.8%) lifetime abstainers, 32 (15.2%) former drinkers, and 135 (64...
January 15, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335425/sparc-expression-is-associated-with-hepatic-injury-in-rodents-and-humans-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#17
Guillermo Mazzolini, Catalina Atorrasagasti, Agostina Onorato, Estanislao Peixoto, Martin Schlattjan, Jan-Peter Sowa, Svenja Sydor, Guido Gerken, Ali Canbay
Mechanisms that control progression from simple steatosis to steato-hepatitis and fibrosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are unknown. SPARC, a secreted matricellular protein, is over-expressed in the liver under chronic injury. Contribution of SPARC accumulation to disease severity is largely unknown in NAFLD. We assessed the hypothesis that SPARC is increased in livers with more necrosis and inflammation and could be associated with more fibrosis. qrt-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and ELISA were employed to localize and quantify changes in SPARC in 62 morbidly obese patients with NAFLD/NASH and in a mouse model of diet-induced-NASH...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334960/arsenic-exposure-and-risk-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nafld-among-u-s-adolescents-and-adults-an-association-modified-by-race-ethnicity-nhanes-2005-2014
#18
Jennifer K Frediani, Eric A Naioti, Miriam B Vos, Janet Figueroa, Carmen J Marsit, Jean A Welsh
BACKGROUND: While associated with obesity, the cause of the rapid rise in prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in children, which is highest among Hispanics, is not well understood. Animal experiments have demonstrated that arsenic exposure contributes to liver injury. Our objective was to examine the association between arsenic exposure and NAFLD in humans and to determine if race/ethnicity modifies the association. METHODS: Urinary inorganic arsenic concentrations among those ≥12 years in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2014 were used to assess the cross-sectional association with serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, a marker of liver dysfunction...
January 15, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334743/-adiponectin-in-patients-with-metabolic-syndrome-and-diseases-of-the-liver-bile-ducts-and-pancreas
#19
Adam Vašura, Martin Blaho, Petr Dítě, Tomáš Kupka, Pavel Svoboda, Arnošt Martínek
Epidemiological data show that the metabolic syndrome can be diagnosed in up to 30 % of the population. Regarding 5 components of the metabolic syndrome, three of them, in case of positivity (visceral obesity, arterial hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, changes of HDL-cholesterol levels and type 2 diabetes mellitus), are pathogenic factors which are the most frequently related to cardiovascular diseases, but currently they are also the focus of interest for gastroenterologists. The relationship between non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis, including non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, has been described...
2018: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331880/preventive-effects-of-indole-3-carbinol-against-alcohol-induced-liver-injury-in-mice-via-antioxidant-anti-inflammatory-and-anti-apoptotic-mechanisms-role-of-gut-liver-adipose-tissue-axis
#20
Youngshim Choi, Mohamed A Abdelmegeed, Byoung-Joon Song
Indole-3-carbinol (I3C), found in Brassica family vegetables, exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancerous properties. Here, we aimed to evaluate the preventive effects of I3C against ethanol (EtOH)-induced liver injury and study the protective mechanism(s) by using the well-established chronic-plus-binge alcohol exposure model. The preventive effects of I3C were evaluated by conducting various histological, biochemical, and real-time PCR analyses in mouse liver, adipose tissue, and colon, since functional alterations of adipose tissue and intestine can also participate in promoting EtOH-induced liver damage...
December 10, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
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