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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444466/interference-and-problem-size-effect-in-multiplication-fact-solving-individual-differences-in-brain-activations-and-arithmetic-performance
#1
Alice De Visscher, Stephan E Vogel, Gernot Reishofer, Eva Hassler, Karl Koschutnig, Bert De Smedt, Roland H Grabner
In the development of math ability, a large variability of performance in solving simple arithmetic problems is observed and has not found a compelling explanation yet. One robust effect in simple multiplication facts is the problem size effect, indicating better performance for small problems compared to large ones. Recently, behavioral studies brought to light another effect in multiplication facts, the interference effect. That is, high interfering problems (receiving more proactive interference from previously learned problems) are more difficult to retrieve than low interfering problems (in terms of physical feature overlap, namely the digits, De Visscher and Noël, 2014)...
February 11, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444420/perineurial-barrier-glia-physically-respond-to-alcohol-in-an-akap200-dependent-manner-to-promote-tolerance
#2
Sarah J Parkhurst, Pratik Adhikari, Jovana S Navarrete, Arièle Legendre, Miguel Manansala, Fred W Wolf
Ethanol is the most common drug of abuse. It exerts its behavioral effects by acting on widespread neural circuits; however, its impact on glial cells is less understood. We show that Drosophila perineurial glia are critical for ethanol tolerance, a simple form of behavioral plasticity. The perineurial glia form the continuous outer cellular layer of the blood-brain barrier and are the interface between the brain and the circulation. Ethanol tolerance development requires the A kinase anchoring protein Akap200 specifically in perineurial glia...
February 13, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444322/physiological-reactions-to-long-term-fishing-in-the-barents-sea
#3
B Netterstrøm, Å M Hansen, D Isaacson, A M Simonsen, P Weihe
Background: Fishing in distant waters for months may induce physiological stress. Aims: To assess the physiological stress reactions in fishermen working for 2-3 months continuously in 6-h shifts on trawlers in the Barents Sea. Methods: The crew of five trawlers fishing in the Barents Sea from January to April 2004 were invited to participate. In the week before and 5-7 days after the trip, the following measures were collected: salivary cortisol four times a day, 24-h urinary cortisol, blood pressure, heart rate, serum cholesterol, serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol), HbA1c (glycosylated haemoglobin) and weight...
February 10, 2018: Occupational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444293/the-som-la-pera-intervention-sustainability-capacity-evaluation-of-a-peer-led-social-marketing-intervention-to-encourage-healthy-lifestyles-among-adolescents
#4
Elisabet Llauradó, Magaly Aceves-Martins, Lucia Tarro, Ignasi Papell-Garcia, Francesc Puiggròs, Jordi Prades-Tena, Helle Kettner, Lluis Arola, Montse Giralt, Rosa Solà
Sustainability capacity, always considered a challenge, is the ability to maintain effective long-term intervention in a community. The aim of the study was to improve the sustainability capacity of effective "Som la Pera," a school-based, peer-led, social-marketing intervention that encourages healthy diet and physical activity, in low socioeconomic adolescents from Spain. The sustainability capacity was analyzed by a "programme sustainability assessment tool (PSAT)" comprising eight domains: political support, funding stability, partnerships, organizational capacity, programme evaluation, programme adaptation, communications, and strategic planning...
February 10, 2018: Translational Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444266/fundamentals-of-glycogen-metabolism-for-coaches-and-athletes
#5
Bob Murray, Christine Rosenbloom
The ability of athletes to train day after day depends in large part on adequate restoration of muscle glycogen stores, a process that requires the consumption of sufficient dietary carbohydrates and ample time. Providing effective guidance to athletes and others wishing to enhance training adaptations and improve performance requires an understanding of the normal variations in muscle glycogen content in response to training and diet; the time required for adequate restoration of glycogen stores; the influence of the amount, type, and timing of carbohydrate intake on glycogen resynthesis; and the impact of other nutrients on glycogenesis...
February 10, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444241/macro-environmental-factors-and-physical-activity-in-28-european-union-countries
#6
Anthony A Laverty, Hayley Thompson, Andreea Cetateanu, Filippos T Filippidis
Data from the representative 2013 Eurobarometer survey were combined with macro-environmental data to assess relationships with different domains of physical activity (PA) in 28 European Union countries. Higher mean annual temperatures were the only macro-environmental factor found to be associated with levels of physical activity; an increase in the mean annual temperature by 1°C was associated with-0.94 fewer minutes of vigorous-intensity activity per week (95% CI: -1.66 to -0.23). This highlights the importance of modifiable influences (e...
February 9, 2018: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444230/social-movement-involvement-and-healthy-diet-and-activity-behaviors-among-us-adults
#7
Elizabeth A Emley, Dara R Musher-Eizenman
Unhealthy lifestyle behaviors, namely poor diet and inadequate physical activity, significantly contribute to poor health and obesity risk, which in turn impact chronic illness outcomes. A possible approach to improving these health behaviors and subsequent outcomes is to capitalize on the theorized link between social movement involvement and overlapping health behaviors. Social movement involvement may be a viable stealth intervention for health, utilizing intrinsic motivators to improve health without an explicit focus on changing health behavior...
February 12, 2018: Health Promotion International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444141/the-3-min-all-out-test-is-valid-for-determining-critical-power-but-not-anaerobic-work-capacity-in-tethered-running
#8
Maria Carolina Traina Gama, Ivan Gustavo Masselli Dos Reis, Filipe Antônio de Barros Sousa, Claudio Alexandre Gobatto
The purpose of the study was to investigate if the 3-min all-out test (3MT) is valid for obtaining critical power intensity (CP) and the amount of work that can be performed above CP (W') on non-motorized treadmills in tethered running. Eight physically active individuals (24 ± 3 years; 78.3 ± 8.7 kg; 179 ± 5 cm; 9.0 ± 2.5% body fat) performed four different efforts at constant intensity to exhaustion in order to determine CP and W'. The mechanical power values obtained were subsequently plotted with their corresponding time to exhaustion (limit time) for application of three mathematical models: power hyperbolic versus time limit (Hyp), linear power versus 1/time (P vs 1/t) and linear work versus time limit (Ԏ vs t)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444133/a-long-term-mechanistic-computational-model-of-physiological-factors-driving-the-onset-of-type-2-diabetes-in-an-individual
#9
Joydeep Sarkar, Gaurav Dwivedi, Qian Chen, Iris E Sheu, Mark Paich, Colleen M Chelini, Paul M D'Alessandro, Samuel P Burns
A computational model of the physiological mechanisms driving an individual's health towards onset of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is described, calibrated and validated using data from the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP). The objective of this model is to quantify the factors that can be used for prevention of T2D. The model is energy and mass balanced and continuously simulates trajectories of variables including body weight components, fasting plasma glucose, insulin, and glycosylated hemoglobin among others on the time-scale of years...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443744/serum-levels-of-vitamin-a-and-25-hydroxyvitamin-d3-25ohd3-as-reflectors-of-pulmonary-function-and-quality-of-life-qol-in-children-with-stable-asthma-a-case-control-study
#10
Ya-Jie Bai, Ru-Jun Dai
BACKGROUND: This study aims to explore the relationship between serum vitamin A and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD3) levels with pulmonary function and quality of life (QOL) in children with stable asthma. METHODS: A total of 117 cases of children with stable asthma were assigned into the case group and 129 healthy children underwent physical examination during the same period into the control group. Electrochemiluminescence was employed to determine serum vitamin A and 25OHD3 levels...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443730/prospective-associations-between-measures-of-gross-and-fine-motor-coordination-in-infants-and-objectively-measured-physical-activity-and-sedentary-behavior-in-childhood-erratum
#11
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443643/comprehensive-examination-of-the-athlete-s-shoulder
#12
Eric J Cotter, Charles P Hannon, David Christian, Rachel M Frank, Bernard R Bach
CONTEXT: Shoulder pain and dysfunction are common, with patients presenting complaints to both primary and orthopaedic physicians. History and physical examination remain essential to creating a differential diagnosis, even as noninvasive imaging has improved. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Literature was obtained through keyword searches based on the pathology in question (eg, rotator cuff) and the keywords physical examination using PubMed from January 1, 1980, through September 20, 2017...
February 1, 2018: Sports Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443538/arthroscopic-surgery-or-physical-therapy-for-patients-with-femoroacetabular-impingement-syndrome-a-randomized-controlled-trial-with-2-year-follow-up
#13
Nancy S Mansell, Daniel I Rhon, John Meyer, John M Slevin, Bryant G Marchant
BACKGROUND: Arthroscopic hip surgery has risen 18-fold in the past decade; however, there is a dearth of clinical trials comparing surgery with nonoperative management. PURPOSE: To determine the comparative effectiveness of surgery and physical therapy for femoroacetabular impingement syndrome. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. METHODS: Patients were recruited from a large military hospital after referral to the orthopaedic surgery clinic and were eligible for surgery...
February 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443448/an-intraneural-electrode-for-bioelectronic-medicines-for-treatment-of-hypertension
#14
Cristian Sevcencu, Thomas N Nielsen, Johannes J Struijk
OBJECTIVES: As the left vagus nerve (LVN) mediates a baroreflex blood pressure (BP) decrease, LVN stimulation (LVNS) could be a therapy for hypertension. Moreover, LVNS could elegantly be adjusted to the patient's actual BP and physical activity by using the neural information about BP and respiration extractable from LVN. However, unselective LVNS will trigger undesirable side-effects and therefore we here investigated the feasibility of using an intraneural electrode for extracting BP and respiration markers from the LVN and for selective LVNS...
February 14, 2018: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443331/copd-in-primary-care-key-considerations-for-optimized-management-dyspnea-and-hyperinflation-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-impact-on-physical-activity
#15
REVIEW
Nathaniel Marchetti, Alan Kaplan
Physical inactivity is often considered to be a major contributor to the progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and is linked to hospitalizations and increased all-cause mortality. There is, therefore, a need to recognize symptoms early and treat them accordingly.
February 2018: Journal of Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443103/paradigms-of-lower-extremity-electrical-stimulation-training-after-spinal-cord-injury
#16
Ashraf S Gorgey, Refka E Khalil, Robert M Lester, Gary A Dudley, David R Gater
Skeletal muscle atrophy, increased adiposity and reduced physical activity are key changes observed after spinal cord injury (SCI) and are associated with numerous cardiometabolic health consequences. These changes are likely to increase the risk of developing chronic secondary conditions and impact the quality of life in persons with SCI. Surface neuromuscular electrical stimulation evoked resistance training (NMES-RT) was developed as a strategy to attenuate the process of skeletal muscle atrophy, decrease ectopic adiposity, improve insulin sensitivity and enhance mitochondrial capacity...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442909/synthetic-polysaccharides-as-drug-carriers-synthesis-of-polyglucose-amphotericin-b-conjugates-and-in-vitro-evaluation-of-their-anti-fungal-and-anti-leishmanial-activities
#17
Vasanthan Ravichandran, Gayathri P Kothandaraman, Christian Bories, Philippe M Loiseau, A Jayakrishnan
While many naturally occurring polysaccharides have been widely used as drug carriers, there are two main drawbacks in their use: the first is their physical properties such as molecular weight, branching, type of glycosidic linkages and solubility depend on their source and the method of isolation and purification, the second is many of them are contaminated with proteins and protein removal is essential for preventing immune reactions. Synthetic polysaccharides on the other hand can be tailor made from their respective monomers with consistent physical properties and are, free from protein contamination, both being significant advantages in their use...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442834/enhanced-photocatalytic-properties-of-nanostructured-wo%C3%A2-semiconductor-photocatalyst-prepared-via-hydrothermal-method
#18
Vinesh Vasudevan, Sakthivel Thangavel, Gouthami Nallamuthu, Kiranpreethi Kirubakaran, Priya Arulselvi Ramasubramanian, Gunasekaran Venugopal
Ground and distilled water-mediated tungsten trioxide (WO3) nanostructures are prepared via hydrothermal approach. The physical and surface chemical properties of catalyst are analyzed using XRD, SEM-EDAX, HR-TEM, FT-IR, UV-DRS, Zeta potential and photoluminescence spectroscopy. It is confirmed that ground water has high impacts on the materials properties such as crystallinity and morphology. HR-TEM results proved the transformation of single crystalline to polycrystalline for sample W1 and W3 respectively...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442728/inhibition-of-p53-relieves-insulin-resistance-in-fetal-growth-restriction-mice-with-catch-up-growth-via-activating-igfbp3-igf-1-irs-1-akt-signaling-pathway
#19
Ping Peng, Chunling Ma, Shumei Wan, Wensheng Jin, Yan Gao, Tianqing Huang, Qi Cheng, Changlan Ye
To investigate insulin resistance of the fetal growth restriction (FGR) mice with catch-up growth (CUG) and the underlying mechanism, in this study, low protein diet was used during pregnancy to establish the FGR mice model, and high fat diet was applied to establish the CUG model of FGR mice. The insulin and Pifithrin-α stimulation was performed via intraperitoneal injection. The physical characters, biochemical parameters, expression of related molecules in each group were detected via ELISA, RT-PCR, WB, etc...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442698/surface-reconstruction-for-preparation-of-plasmonic-au-tio%C3%A2-nanoparticle-with-perfect-hetero-interface-and-improved-photocatalytic-capacity
#20
Guoqiu Yuan, Chen Ping, Qin Zhao, Min Cao, Yonglong Jin, Cunwang Ge
The photocatalytic activity of plasmonic Au/TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) is dependent on distances between Au and TiO2. The preparation of plasmonic NPs is still a challenge because of an inherent lattice mismatch on heterogeneous interfaces. The combination between Au and TiO2 NPs often exhibits physical adsorption, which affect block the electron transferring process by photo-induction from TiO2 to Au NPs and weaken the photocatalytic activity. In this work an approach for preparing plasmonic Au/TiO2 NPs with perfect hetero-interface was proposed based on reconstruction of anatase TiO2 with (101) surface and in-situ reduction of Au NPs...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
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