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Nasal challenge

Domenico Scopelliti, Giulia Amodeo
The secondary nasal surgery represents a challenging surgical procedure. The difficulties in fact are several: the surgeon must make an effort to achieve the functional and aesthetic consequences of the previous surgical procedure, has to correct the aesthetic and functional imperfections, and has to work on a fibrotic and altered framework.The goal of the secondary nasal surgery is then to restore the normal nasal proportions correcting any functional inability unresolved by the previous surgery or determined by it...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
D Evenson, P F Gerber, C T Xiao, P G Halbur, C Wang, D Tian, Y Y Ni, X J Meng, T Opriessnig
Current porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccines sometimes fail to provide adequate immunity to protect pigs from PRRSV-induced disease. This may be due to antigenic differences among PRRSV strains. Rapid production of attenuated farm-specific homologous vaccines is a feasible alternative to commercial vaccines. In this study, attenuation and efficacy of a codon-pair de-optimized candidate vaccine generated by synthetic attenuated virus engineering approach (SAVE5) were tested in a conventional growing pig model...
October 11, 2016: Vaccine
Serban San-Marina, Ayushman Sharma, Stephen G Voss, Jeffrey R Janus, Grant S Hamilton
Importance: Nasal reconstruction in patients who are missing a significant amount of structural nasal support remains a difficult challenge. One challenge is the deficiency of cartilage left within the nose as a consequence of rhinectomy or a midline destructive disease. Historically, the standard donor source for large quantities of native cartilage has been costal cartilage. Objective: To enable the development of protocols for new mesenchymal stem cell technologies as alternative procedures with reduced donor site morbidity, risk of infection and extrusion...
October 13, 2016: JAMA Facial Plastic Surgery
Sylvia Natalie Kłodzińska, Petra Alexandra Priemel, Thomas Rades, Hanne Mørck Nielsen
Bacterial biofilm-associated chronic sinusitis in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections and the lack of available treatments for such infections constitute a critical aspect of CF disease management. Currently, inhalation therapies to combat P. aeruginosa infections in CF patients are focused mainly on the delivery of antimicrobials to the lower respiratory tract, disregarding the sinuses. However, the sinuses constitute a reservoir for P. aeruginosa growth, leading to re-infection of the lungs, even after clearing an initial lung infection...
October 9, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Barbara Zangerl, Andrew Whatham, Juno Kim, Agnes Choi, Nagi N Assaad, Michael P Hennessy, Michael Kalloniatis
BACKGROUND: Accurate diagnosis in patients presenting with lesions at various locations within the visual pathway is challenging. This study investigated functional and structural changes secondary to such lesions to identify patterns useful to guide early and effective management. METHODS: Over 10,000 records from patients referred for optic nerve head assessment were reviewed and 31 patients with a final diagnosis of likely neuropathic lesions posterior to the eye were included in the current study...
October 11, 2016: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
D K Dias, P D Fernando, R D Dissanayake
INTRODUCTION: Oro-facial clefts involving the palate is the commonest structural defect causing velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) and poor intelli gibility of speech. Proper repair of the soft palateis a surgical challenge. Posterior-based buccinator myomucosal flap (BMF) is used to lengthen the soft palate of patients who undergo primary palatoplasty at Teaching Hospital, Karapitiya (THK). BMF is a good choice for the repair of medium sized mucosal defects in the oral cavity since it has appropriate thickness, contains mucous membrane with mucous glands and has a rich blood supply...
2016: Ceylon Medical Journal
Jizong Li, Tianqi Yu, Feipeng Zhang, Xiaobo Wang, Jinzhu Zhou, Xing Gao, Song Gao, Xiufan Liu
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is subdivided into four genotypes: PCV2a, PCV2b, PCV2c and PCV2d. Here, for the first time, we compared the efficacy of two experimental inactivated chimeric PCV1-2 vaccines based on genotypes 2b and 2d. Seventeen 3-week-old pigs were divided randomly into four groups. Group 1 and 2 pigs were inoculated with genotype 2b- and 2d-based inactivated vaccines, respectively. At 28 days post-vaccination (DPV), pigs in groups 1-3 were challenged with the PCV2b 0233 strain. All experimental pigs were necropsied at 21 days post-challenge (DPC)...
October 8, 2016: Archives of Virology
Zhuanzhuan Liu, Litian Yin, Yaqing Li, Fei Yuan, Xiaofan Zhang, Jiazhi Ma, Hongmei Liu, Yanjuan Wang, Kuiyang Zheng, Jianping Cao
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunistic protozoan closely associated with AIDS and vertical transmission. T. gondii actin depolymerizing factor (TgADF) plays an important role in actin cytoskeleton remodeling, and it is required to invade host cells. TgADF was a promising vaccine candidate. To observe the immunological changes and protective efficacy of recombinant TgADF protein (rTgADF) against T. gondii infection, we optimized the intranasal immunization dose of rTgADF and analyzed the survival rate and tachyzoite loads in mouse tissues after oral challenge with T...
October 6, 2016: BMC Immunology
Joshua J Cardiel, Daisuke Takagi, Hsieh-Fu Tsai, Amy Q Shen
Understanding the formation and instability behavior of membranes is of fundamental interest and practical relevance to various biotechnological applications and self-assembly systems. Surfactant micellar membranes serve as a simple model system when surfactant molecules self-assemble into micellar structures under flow, but observing such process in real time is a major challenge due to limitations in spatiotemporal resolutions. We use a simple T-shaped microchannel to capture the formation and flow behavior of an ionic surfactant micro-micellar-membrane (μMM) when an aqueous stream of organic salt sodium salicylate (NaSal) meets a stream of cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)...
October 4, 2016: Soft Matter
Celeste Gary, Jonathan M Sykes
Intermediate and definitive cleft rhinoplasties are a challenging part of definitive cleft care. The anatomy of the cleft nose is severely affected by the structural deficits associated with congenital orofacial clefting. A comprehensive understanding of the related anatomy is crucial for understanding how to improve the appearance and function in patients with secondary cleft nasal deformities. Timing of intermediate and definitive rhinoplasty should be carefully considered. A thorough understanding of advanced rhinoplasty techniques is an important part of providing adequate care for patients with these deformities...
November 2016: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America
Katherine N Cahill, Tanya M Laidlaw
The acute clinical symptoms that develop following the oral ingestion of aspirin, or any other inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-1, are well established in aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease: nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, and bronchospasm. Less commonly, gastrointestinal distress, rash, angioedema, or urticaria also develops. However, the pathobiology that drives these clinical reactions is poorly understood. Use of an intranasal aspirin challenge protocol or administration of premedications inhibiting the leukotriene pathway decreases the severity of clinical reaction, which suggests the involvement of both local effector cells and cysteinyl leukotrienes in the pathogenesis of aspirin-induced reactions...
November 2016: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America
Adam N Williams
Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) is a distinct clinical condition characterized by chronic sinusitis with nasal polyps, asthma, and hypersensitivity reactions to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Distinguishing AERD from other forms of chronic sinusitis, asthma, and NSAID reactivity has important clinical implications for management. The clinical history is helpful, but not adequate for confirming the diagnosis of AERD, in most cases. Diagnostic provocation challenge remains the only way to confirm or exclude the diagnosis of AERD...
November 2016: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America
Ashley Sobel Leonard, Micah T McClain, Gavin J D Smith, David Wentworth, Rebecca A Halpin, Xudong Lin, Amy Ransier, Timothy B Stockwell, Suman Das, Anthony S Gilbert, Robert Lambkin-Williams, Geoffrey S Ginsburg, Christopher W Woods, Katia Koelle
: Knowledge of influenza evolution at the point of transmission and at the intra-host level remains limited, particularly for human hosts. Here, we analyze a unique viral dataset of next-generation sequencing (NGS) samples generated from a human influenza challenge study wherein 17 healthy subjects were inoculated with egg-passaged virus. Nasal wash samples collected from 7 of these subjects were successfully deep sequenced. From these, we characterized changes in the subjects' viral populations during infection and identified differences between the virus in these samples and the viral stock used to inoculate the subjects...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Virology
Motohiko Suzuki, Makoto Yokota, Yoshihisa Nakamura, Shinya Ozaki, Shingo Murakami
BACKGROUND: IL-35 was recently identified as an anti-inflammatory cytokine. We previously reported that recombinant fusion protein of murine IL-35 and human IgG1 Fc fragment (rIL-35) reduced Th2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-5) in vitro. However, it is unclear whether IL-35 can attenuate nasal allergic responses and symptoms of allergic rhinitis in vivo. METHODS: To investigate the in vivo effect of IL-35 on allergic rhinitis in mice, mice were sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA)...
October 2, 2016: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
Dan Yaniv, Tuvia Hadar, Roe Hod, Roee Lansberg, Ilan Koren, Eitan Yaniv
BACKGROUND: Repair of caudal septal deviation using currently described methods is challenging technically. The aim of this work is to describe a novel and simple technique for the treatment of caudal septal deviations that protects the nasal tip, by fixating of cartilage to the columella. METHODS: All patients with caudal septal deviation operated on between June 2008 to November 2013 in 2 major medical centers were operated using the "fishing line technique." Patient satisfaction was recorded by a standard questionnaire (16-item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test [SNOT-16]), before and after surgery...
October 5, 2016: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
David Morrison, Erick D Bothun, Gui-Shuang Ying, Ebenezer Daniel, Agnieshka Baumritter, Graham Quinn
BACKGROUND: Telemedicine for the detection of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is becoming increasingly common; however, obtaining the required multiple retinal images from an infant can be challenging. This secondary analysis from the Telemedicine Approaches to Evaluating Acute-Phase Retinopathy of Prematurity (e-ROP) study evaluated the detection of referral-warranted ROP (RW-ROP) by trained readers when a full set of 5 retinal images could not be obtained. METHODS: A total of 7,905 image sets from 1,257 infants in the study were evaluated...
October 1, 2016: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
Benjamin Nicholson, Harinder Dhindsa, Louis Seay
BACKGROUND: Blunt injuries to the cervical trachea remain rare but present unique and challenging clinical scenarios for prehospital providers. These injuries depend on prehospital providers either definitively securing the injured airway or bridging the patient to a treatment facility that can mobilize the necessary resources. CASE SUMMARY: The case presented here involves a clothesline injury to a pediatric patient that resulted in complete tracheal transection and partial esophageal transection...
October 4, 2016: Prehospital Emergency Care
Chih-Shin Lin, Yung-Song Lin, Bor-Shyh Lin, Ching-Feng Lien, Ching-Feng Liu
Arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a structural vascular abnormality in which the arterial vasculature connects with the venous vasculature without capillary connections. AVM confined to the nasal cavity is considerably rare. Blurred vision can be one of the associated symptoms. A combined approach of complete surgical resection with prior superselective embolization is the treatment of choice. Following resection, the reconstruction of facial defects, particularly in the nasal area, is challenging. The present study reports the rare case of a patient with an AVM in the nasal cavity, in which embolization, resection and flap reconstruction were performed...
October 2016: Oncology Letters
Zheng Zhu, Yanqing Xie, Weijie Guan, Yi Gao, Shu Xia, Rongquan Huang, Nanshan Zhong, Jinping Zheng
Background Both histamine and leukotrienes are implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis (AR), although the pattern and severity of the nasal response to these two potent inflammatory mediators may differ, which has not been adequately studied in patients with persistent AR. Objective We sought to compare the differential effects of nasal challenge with leukotriene D4 (LTD4 ) and histamine on the airway response and inflammation in patients with AR. Methods An open-label, crossover study was performed in 25 persistent AR patients (AR group) and 16 healthy subjects (control group)...
October 3, 2016: Clinical Respiratory Journal
Ron O Abrons, Ryan A Vansickle, Jean-Pierre P Ouanes
Nasotracheal intubation can be both challenging and traumatic, especially in cases of atypical anatomy. We present a series of 3 such cases in which an endotracheal tube introducer (bougie) was used to facilitate successful, atraumatic, nasotracheal intubation via Seldinger technique. The technique described can guide a nasotracheal tube through narrow nasal passages, small pharyngeal spaces, and past acute laryngeal approach angles, all without transoral manipulation of the tube. The technique is easy to perform, uses a routine skill set, and can be advantageous in numerous clinical scenarios...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
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