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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096286/diagnosis-of-primary-ciliary-dyskinesia-potential-options-for-resource-limited-countries
#1
REVIEW
Nisreen Rumman, Claire Jackson, Samuel Collins, Patricia Goggin, Janice Coles, Jane S Lucas
Primary ciliary dyskinesia is a genetic disease of ciliary function leading to chronic upper and lower respiratory tract symptoms. The diagnosis is frequently overlooked because the symptoms are nonspecific and the knowledge about the disease in the primary care setting is poor. Additionally, none of the available tests is accurate enough to be used in isolation. These tests are expensive, and need sophisticated equipment and expertise to analyse and interpret results; diagnosis is therefore only available at highly specialised centres...
January 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094875/neuroendocrinology-of-mast-cells-challenges-and-controversies
#2
REVIEW
Theoharis C Theoharides
Mast cells (MC) are hemopoietically-derived tissue immune cells that are ubiquitous in the body, including neuroendocrine organs such as the hypothalamus, pineal, pituitary, ovaries, pancreas and uterus where their action is not well understood. Mast cells have historically been associated with allergies because of their rich content of histamine and tryptase, but more recently with regulation of immunity and inflammation due their synthesis and release of numerous cytokines and chemokines. Mast cells are located perivascularly and express numerous receptors for diverse ligands such as allergens, pathogens, neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and hormones including acetylcholine, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), corticosteroids, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), β-endorphin, epinephrine, 17β-estradiol, gonadotrophins, hemokinin-A (HKA), leptin, melatonin, neurotensin (NT), parathyroid hormone (PTH), substance P (SP) and vasoactive instestinal peptide (VIP)...
January 17, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092970/surgery-of-anterior-skull-base-lesions-in-children
#3
Thomas Karl Hoffmann, Marc Oliver Scheithauer, Fabian Sommer, Jörg Lindemann, Ernst-Johannes Haberl, Ulrike Friebe-Hoffmann, Marie-Nicole Theodoraki
INTRODUCTION: Lesions affecting the anterior skull base represent a rare group of craniofacial pathologies. A tumor of the facial midline, meningitis, or rhinoliquorrhea may be indicative of malformations like dermoid cysts, gliomas, encephaloceles, or nasal fistulas. METHODS: We present a case series of 13 children (4 months to 12 years; 8 males, 5 females) with lesions involving the anterior skull base, which were treated surgically in an interdisciplinary setting...
January 1, 2017: Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089607/estimates-of-nasal-airflow-at-the-nasal-cycle-mid-point-improve-the-correlation-between-objective-and-subjective-measures-of-nasal-patency
#4
Courtney Gaberino, John S Rhee, Guilherme J M Garcia
INTRODUCTION: The nasal cycle represents a significant challenge when comparing pre- and post-surgery objective measures of nasal airflow. METHODS: Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of nasal airflow were conducted in 12 nasal airway obstruction patients showing significant nasal cycling between pre- and post-surgery computed tomography scans. To correct for the nasal cycle, mid-cycle models were created virtually. Subjective scores of nasal patency were obtained via the Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation (NOSE) and unilateral visual analog scale (VAS)...
January 9, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088526/subcutaneous-immunization-with-streptococcus-pneumoniae-gapdh-confers-effective-protection-in-mice-via-tlr2-and-tlr4
#5
Xiaoyu Sun, Jichao Wang, Jie Zhou, Hong Wang, Xiaofang Wang, Jingwen Wu, Yujuan He, Yibing Yin, Xuemei Zhang, Wenchun Xu
The surface localized Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) of Streptococcus pneumoniae is best known as housekeeping protein. Currently, GAPDH has been recognized as moonlighting protein and virulent factor. Therefore, we investigate whether GAPDH can act as a suitable vaccine candidate protein to prevent pneumococcal infection. In this study, mice received subcutaneous vaccination with recombinant GAPDH followed by challenge with D39 and 19F showing higher survival rate and lower bacterial loads in nasal washes and lung homogenates than control...
January 12, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080910/use-of-computed-tomography-for-investigation-of-rhinitis-and-sinusitis-in-a-greater-rhea-rhea-americana
#6
Anne M Meyer, Kristen Phair, Gary West
Sinusitis is a common finding in avian species; however, it presents unique treatment challenges in ratites. A 6-yr-old male greater rhea ( Rhea americana ) presented acutely with right infraorbital sinus swelling and chemosis. Oral antibiotics were prescribed based on bacterial culture results with incomplete resolution of clinical signs. A computed tomography scan of the skull demonstrated a mixed-density soft tissue mass with extensive destruction of the right nasal bone, hard palate, maxilla, and frontal bone...
December 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079699/a-new-technique-for-total-reconstruction-of-the-lower-lid
#7
Mehmet Mutaf, Metin Temel
BACKGROUND: Although several methods have been described for total lower eyelid reconstruction, it remains as a major challenge in reconstructive surgery. Here, we present a new technique, the Mutaf unequal Z-plasty procedure for reconstruction of defects of the lower eyelid. METHODS: In this technique, 2 skin flaps designed in an unequal Z-plasty manner are used to provide skin coverage. Except for 2 patients whose additional upper eyelid defects were closed with Fricke flap, all patients were reconstructed with Mutaf unequal Z-plasty procedure...
February 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077698/detection-of-antigenic-variants-of-swine-subtype-h3-influenza-a-viruses-from-clinical-samples
#8
Brigitte E Martin, Andrew S Bowman, Lei Li, Jacqueline M Nolting, David R Smith, Larry A Hanson, Xiu-Feng Wan
A large population of genetically and antigenically diverse influenza A viruses (IAVs) are circulating among the swine population, playing an important role in influenza ecology. Swine IAVs not only cause outbreaks among swine, but they can also be transmitted to humans, causing sporadic infections and even pandemic outbreaks. Antigenic characterization of swine IAVs are key to understanding the natural history of these viruses in swine and to selecting strains for effective vaccines. However, influenza outbreaks generally spread rapidly among swine, and the conventional methods for antigenic characterization require virus propagation, a time-consuming process that can significantly reduce the effectiveness of vaccination programs...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077093/evaluation-of-the-point-of-care-becton-dickinson-veritor%C3%A2-rapid-influenza-diagnostic-test-in-kenya-2013-2014
#9
Linus K Ndegwa, Gideon Emukule, Timothy M Uyeki, Eunice Mailu, Sandra S Chaves, Marc-Alain Widdowson, Bandika V Lewa, Francis K Muiruri, Peter Omoth, Barry Fields, Joshua A Mott
BACKGROUND: We evaluated the performance of the Becton Dickinson Veritor™ System Flu A + B rapid influenza diagnostic test (RIDT) to detect influenza viruses in respiratory specimens from patients enrolled at five surveillance sites in Kenya, a tropical country where influenza seasonality is variable. METHODS: Nasal swab (NS) and nasopharyngeal (NP)/oropharyngeal (OP) swabs were collected from patients with influenza like illness and/or severe acute respiratory infection...
January 11, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073613/effect-of-nasal-allergen-challenge-in-allergic-rhinitis-on-mitochondrial-function-of-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells
#10
Shanshan Qi, Cindy Barnig, Anne-Laure Charles, Anh Poirot, Alain Meyer, Raphaël Clere-Jehl, Fréderic de Blay, Bernard Geny
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 7, 2017: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062967/septal-cartilage-ethmoid-bone-composite-graft-a-new-and-improved-method-for-the-correction-underdeveloped-nasal-septum-in-patients-with-short-noses
#11
Soo Hyang Lee, Mun Geun Koo, Eun Taek Kang
BACKGROUND: Septal extension grafts are an effective means of extending nasal length in patients with a short nose. However, such grafts can be challenging in patients who only have small quantities of weak septal cartilage, such as some East Asian patients. We developed a rhinoplasty technique using ethmoid bone to create a cartilage-bone complex to overcome this issue, allowing adequate nasal lengthening. METHODS: Sixty-four women with short noses and inadequate septal cartilage determined by preoperative computed tomography underwent septal extension grafting with a cartilage-bone complex between January 2009 and December 2014...
January 7, 2017: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046055/role-of-interleukin-17a-on-the-chemotactic-responses-to-ccl7-in-a-murine-allergic-rhinitis-model
#12
Yu-Lian Zhang, Doo Hee Han, Dong-Young Kim, Chul Hee Lee, Chae-Seo Rhee
BACKGROUND: The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-17A is associated with eosinophil infiltration into the nasal mucosa in a mouse model of ovalbumin-induced allergic rhinitis. Chemotaxis of eosinophils is mediated primarily through C-C chemokine receptor type 3 (CCR3). However, the mechanism underlying the IL-17A-mediated enhancement of eosinophil recruitment via chemoattractants/chemokines remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we assessed the contribution of IL-17A to eosinophil-related inflammation via the CCL7/CCR3 pathway in experimental allergic rhinitis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045821/treatment-of-congenital-choanal-atresia-via-transnasal-endoscopic-method
#13
Secaattin Gulşen, Elif Baysal, Fatih Celenk, Ismail Aytaç, Cengiz Durucu, Muzaffer Kanlikama, Semih Mumbuç
OBJECTIVES: Congenital choanal atresia (CCA) is a very rare abnormality of the nose, but in the case of bilateral presence, it becomes a life-threatening malformation. Various surgical treatment options, such as transpalatal, transseptal, and open rhinoplasty techniques, as well as the transnasal approach, have been defined for the repair of CCA. In this study, the authors intended to evaluate the outcomes of transnasal endoscopic surgery for CCA, and stent implementation's impact on surgical success...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042527/pediatric-rhinosinusitis
#14
Dana T Badr, Jonathan M Gaffin, Wanda Phipatanakul
Rhinosinusitis, is defined as an inflammation of the paranasal and nasal sinus mucosae. Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS)is a common problem in the pediatric age group and the diagnosis and treatment are challenging due to the chronicity and similarity of symptoms with allergic rhinitis and adenoid hypertrophy. Although it is less common than acute rhinosinusitis, CRS is becoming more frequent and significantly affects the quality of life in children and can substantially impair daily function. CRS is characterized by sinus symptoms lasting more than 3 months despite medical therapy...
September 2016: Current Treatment Options in Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039007/pedicle-orientation-in-free-flap-microvascular-maxillofacial-reconstruction
#15
Daniel M Cummins, Beomjune Kim, Arshad Kaleem, Waleed Zaid
Oncologic and traumatic defects of the maxilla can pose a challenge to patients, reconstructive surgeons, and maxillofacial prosthodontists in an attempt to provide satisfactory treatment. Oral-nasal and oral-antral fistulas are frequently treated with soft tissue flaps, osteocutaneous flaps, or a maxillofacial obturator. Often, surgical reconstruction is preferred for patient quality of life and definitive restoration. Surgical reconstruction also avoids the difficulties encountered with fabricating an obturator in an irradiated field with the often-resultant microstomia...
December 10, 2016: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033634/how-to-harmonize-the-ethnic-nose
#16
Artur Grinfeld, Rodrigo Betelli, Guilherme Arruda, Washington Almeida
The demand for cosmetic surgery has significantly increased in the past few years mainly due to economic rise witnessed in Brazil. The state of Bahia has predominately Afro-descendant population with the same countrywide scenario, where the surgeon must be able to face challenges such as the specifics demands of rhinoplasty in an ethnic nose. It represents not only a different nasal variety from the Caucasoid, but also a complex anatomical feature, with its own peculiarities, as thicker and oilier skin, with bulky fibrous fatty tissue with numerous sebaceous glands...
December 2016: Facial Plastic Surgery: FPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028827/novel-application-for-electrochemotherapy-immersion-of-nasal-cavity-in-dog
#17
Daniela O H Suzuki, José A Berkenbrock, Krishna D de Oliveira, Jennifer O Freytag, Marcelo M M Rangel
Electrochemotherapy is a new modality of local cancer treatment that increases the delivery of chemotherapy drugs into tumor cells by applying intense electric fields. This novel electrochemotherapy application was applied as an adjuvant to surgery and eliminated intranasal tumors in dog. The treatment challenges are the surgery limitations due to anatomy and residual tumor in the bone cavity. Most of the tumoral mass on nasal cavity was surgically removed. The internal nasal cavity was immersed in liquid and bleomycin before applying electric field...
December 27, 2016: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005959/an-intranasal-proteosome-adjuvanted-trivalent-influenza-vaccine-is-safe-immunogenic-efficacious-in-the-human-viral-influenza-challenge-model-serum-igg-mucosal-iga-are-important-correlates-of-protection-against-illness-associated-with-infection
#18
Rob Lambkin-Williams, Colin Gelder, Richard Broughton, Corey P Mallett, Anthony S Gilbert, Alex Mann, David He, John S Oxford, David Burt
INTRODUCTION: A Proteosome-adjuvanted trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (P-TIV) administered intra-nasally was shown to be safe, well tolerated and immunogenic in both systemic and mucosal compartments, and effective at preventing illness associated with evidence of influenza infection. METHODS: In two separate studies using the human viral challenge model, subjects were selected to be immunologically naive to A/Panama/2007/1999 (H3N2) virus and then dosed via nasal spray with one of three regimens of P-TIV or placebo...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003691/all-india-difficult-airway-association-2016-guidelines-for-the-management-of-unanticipated-difficult-tracheal-intubation-in-obstetrics
#19
Venkateswaran Ramkumar, Ekambaram Dinesh, Sumalatha Radhakrishna Shetty, Amit Shah, Pankaj Kundra, Sabyasachi Das, Sheila Nainan Myatra, Syed Moied Ahmed, Jigeeshu Vasishtha Divatia, Apeksh Patwa, Rakesh Garg, Ubaradka S Raveendra, Jeson Rajan Doctor, Dilip K Pawar, Singaravelu Ramesh
The various physiological changes in pregnancy make the parturient vulnerable for early and rapid desaturation. Severe hypoxaemia during intubation can potentially compromise two lives (mother and foetus). Thus tracheal intubation in the pregnant patient poses unique challenges, and necessitates meticulous planning, ready availability of equipment and expertise to ensure maternal and foetal safety. The All India Difficult Airway Association (AIDAA) proposes a stepwise plan for the safe management of the airway in obstetric patients...
December 2016: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003555/redesign-of-an-open-system-oxygen-face-mask-with-mainstream-capnometer-for-children
#20
Natalie Napolitano, Akira Nishisaki, Hayley S Buffman, Jessica Leffelman, Matthew R Maltese, Vinay M Nadkarni
BACKGROUND: Partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide (PETCO2 ) monitoring in children is important to detect apnea or hypopnea early to intervene before hypoxemia develops. Monitoring PETCO2 in children without a tracheal tube is challenging. To improve PETCO2 measurement accuracy in a commercially available mask with a mainstream CO2 detector, we implemented design changes with deform-and-hold shaping technology and anterior-posterior adjustment of the expiratory gas flow cup. METHODS: Two sizes of redesigned face masks (small for 7-20 kg, medium for 10-40 kg) were evaluated...
January 2017: Respiratory Care
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