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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790300/aspiration-pneumonia-induces-muscle-atrophy-in-the-respiratory-skeletal-and-swallowing-systems
#1
Riyo Komatsu, Tatsuma Okazaki, Satoru Ebihara, Makoto Kobayashi, Yoko Tsukita, Mayumi Nihei, Hisatoshi Sugiura, Kaijun Niu, Takae Ebihara, Masakazu Ichinose
BACKGROUND: Repetition of the onset of aspiration pneumonia in aged patients is common and causes chronic inflammation. The inflammation induces proinflammatory cytokine production and atrophy in the muscles. The proinflammatory cytokines induce muscle proteolysis by activating calpains and caspase-3, followed by further degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Autophagy is another pathway of muscle atrophy. However, little is known about the relationship between aspiration pneumonia and muscle...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785413/multivariate-analysis-of-inflammatory-endotypes-in-recurrent-nasal-polyposis-in-a-chinese-population
#2
B Wei, F Liu, J Zhang, Y Liu, J Du, S Liu, N Zhang, C Bachert, J Meng
BACKGROUND: Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) remains a challenging clinical problem due to its propensity for recurrence. However, data on the frequency of CRSwNP recurrence after surgery in China are rare. METHODS: 78 CRSwNP patients undergoing functional endoscopic sinus surgery were followed-up for 8 years and classified into recurrent and non-recurrent groups. A cluster analysis of the CRSwNP based on inflammatory endotypes was performed, and the endotypes were secondarily matched with clinical phenotypes...
May 22, 2018: Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784969/north-american-domestic-pigs-are-susceptible-to-experimental-infection-with-japanese-encephalitis-virus
#3
So Lee Park, Yan-Jang S Huang, Amy C Lyons, Victoria B Ayers, Susan M Hettenbach, D Scott McVey, Kenneth R Burton, Stephen Higgs, Dana L Vanlandingham
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that is capable of causing encephalitic diseases in children. While humans can succumb to severe disease, the transmission cycle is maintained by viremic birds and pigs in endemic regions. Although JEV is regarded as a significant threat to the United States (U.S.), the susceptibility of domestic swine to JEV infection has not been evaluated. In this study, domestic pigs from North America were intravenously challenged with JEV to characterize the pathological outcomes...
May 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782527/detection-of-influenza-a-virus-in-aerosols-of-vaccinated-and-non-vaccinated-pigs-in-a-warm-environment
#4
Victor Neira, Matt Allerson, Cesar Corzo, Marie Culhane, Aaron Rendahl, Montserrat Torremorell
The 2009 influenza pandemic, the variant H3N2v viruses in agricultural fairs and the zoonotic poultry H5N9 infections in China have highlighted the constant threat that influenza A viruses (IAV) present to people and animals. In this study we evaluated the effect of IAV vaccination on aerosol shedding in pigs housed in warm environmental conditions. Thirty-six, three-week old weaned pigs were obtained from an IAV negative herd and were randomly allocated to one of 4 groups: 1) a homologous vaccine group, 2) a heterologous multivalent vaccine group, 3) a heterologous monovalent group and, 4) a non-vaccinated group...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782304/role-of-in-vivo-reflectance-confocal-microscopy-in-the-analysis-of-melanocytic-lesions
#5
Elena-Daniela Serban, Francesca Farnetani, Giovanni Pellacani, Maria Magdalena Constantin
Worldwide melanoma incidence and mortality are increasing (1). Despite the ongoing research, advanced melanoma is still incurable; therefore, the most appropriate solution seems to be early detection combined with complete surgical excision (2). Since the diagnostic protocol of suspicious lesions includes a complete excision with safety margins (2), the problem of unnecessary scarring is significant. The real challenge in this case is to have a properly formulated diagnosis before acquiring a biopsy. Currently available non-invasive techniques are coherence tomography, digital dermoscopy, and reflectance confocal microscopy...
April 2018: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777294/impact-of-residual-frontal-recess-cells-on-frontal-sinusitis-after-endoscopic-sinus-surgery
#6
Tsuguhisa Nakayama, Daiya Asaka, Akihito Kuboki, Tetsushi Okushi, Hiromi Kojima
PURPOSE: Endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) is a well-established treatment for chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). However, ESS for frontal sinusitis remains complicated and challenging. The aim of this study was to identify the relationship between residual frontal recess cells and primary ESS failure in the frontal sinus. METHODS: We prospectively collected information on 214 sides of 129 patients with CRS who underwent standard ESS from June 2010 to May 2011. To identify risk factors, we retrospectively analyzed clinical data and computed tomography (CT) images before and 3 months after surgery...
May 18, 2018: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776611/nasal-delivery-of-chitosan-alginate-nanoparticle-encapsulated-bee-apis-mellifera-venom-promotes-antibody-production-and-viral-clearance-during-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-infection-by-modulating-t-cell-related-responses
#7
Jina Lee, Yun-Mi Kim, Ju-Heon Kim, Cheong-Weon Cho, Jong-Woon Jeon, Jin-Kyu Park, Sang-Ho Lee, Bock-Gie Jung, Bong-Joo Lee
In this study, we administered specially developed chitosan/alginate nanoparticle encapsulated BV (CH/AL-BV) which has slow-releasing properties and mucosal adhesiveness to pig via nasal route and evaluate whether it can facilitate systemic immune response and improve clearance of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The CH/AL-BV-administered group with PRRSV vaccination showed significantly enhanced Th1-related responses including a high population of CD4+ T lymphocyte and cytokine mRNA levels including interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin (IL)-12 and increased PRRSV-specific IgG levels...
June 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772289/nose-to-brain-drug-delivery-an-update-on-clinical-challenges-and-progress-towards-approval-of-anti-alzheimer-drugs
#8
REVIEW
Mukta Agrawal, Swarnlata Saraf, Shailendra Saraf, Sophia G Antimisiaris, Mahavir Chougule, Sunday A Shoyele, Amit Alexander
According to the Alzheimer Association Report (2017), Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the 6th primary cause of death in the USA, which affects nearly 5.5 million people. In the year 2017 itself, the cost of AD treatment in the USA has been reported to rise to $259 billion. This statistic shows the severity of the disease in the USA which is very much similar across the globe. On the other hand, the treatment remains limited to a few conventional oral medications (approved by FDA). These are mainly acting superficially from mild to the moderate AD...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772010/hypergravity-enhances-the-therapeutic-effect-of-dexamethasone-in-allergic-asthma-and-rhinitis-animal-model
#9
Tae Young Jang, Ah-Yeoun Jung, Soonjo Kwon, Young Hyo Kim
We investigated whether the therapeutic effects of dexamethasone for allergic asthma and rhinitis were enhanced in mice when exposed to hypergravity. Forty mice were divided into 5 groups (n = 8/group): Control group received saline intraperitoneally (i.p.) and intranasally (i.n.); Asthma group received i.p./i.n. ovalbumin (OVA) for inducing allergic asthma/rhinitis; Dexa group received i.n. dexamethasone (0.75 mg/kg) 30 minutes before each OVA challenge; Hypergravity group was subjected to allergic asthma/rhinitis as well as exposed to 5 G hypergravity for 30 days; Finally in Dexa/Hypergravity group, hypergravity and dexamethasone were used simultaneously during induction of allergic asthma/rhinitis...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770135/mucosal-immunity-and-protective-efficacy-of-intranasal-inactivated-influenza-vaccine-is-improved-by-chitosan-nanoparticle-delivery-in-pigs
#10
Santosh Dhakal, Sankar Renu, Shristi Ghimire, Yashavanth Shaan Lakshmanappa, Bradley T Hogshead, Ninoshkaly Feliciano-Ruiz, Fangjia Lu, Harm HogenEsch, Steven Krakowka, Chang Won Lee, Gourapura J Renukaradhya
Annually, swine influenza A virus (SwIAV) causes severe economic loss to swine industry. Currently used inactivated SwIAV vaccines administered by intramuscular injection provide homologous protection, but limited heterologous protection against constantly evolving field viruses, attributable to the induction of inadequate levels of mucosal IgA and cellular immune responses in the respiratory tract. A novel vaccine delivery platform using mucoadhesive chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs) administered through intranasal (IN) route has the potential to elicit strong mucosal and systemic immune responses in pigs...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766474/masses-of-developmental-and-genetic-origin-affecting-the-paediatric-craniofacial-skeleton
#11
REVIEW
Salvatore Stefanelli, Pravin Mundada, Anne-Laure Rougemont, Vincent Lenoir, Paolo Scolozzi, Laura Merlini, Minerva Becker
Although rare, masses and mass-like lesions of developmental and genetic origin may affect the paediatric craniofacial skeleton. They represent a major challenge in clinical practice because they can lead to functional impairment, facial deformation and disfigurement. The most common lesions include fibrous dysplasia, dermoid cysts, vascular malformations and plexiform neurofibromas. Less common lesions include torus mandibularis and torus palatinus, cherubism, nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, meningoencephalocele and nasal sinus tract...
May 15, 2018: Insights Into Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762452/the-use-of-expanded-polytetrafluoroethylene-in-short-nose-elongation-fourteen-years-of-clinical-experience
#12
Jiao Wei, Tanja Herrler, Ning Deng, Hua Xu, Bowen Shi, Chuanchang Dai
BACKGROUND: Short nose elongation is a relatively common rhinoplasty procedure, especially in Asia. The selection of the adequate graft material is challenging. Previous reports have described the application of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) for dorsal augmentation rhinoplasty, but studies using ePTFE for nose elongation are lacking. We propose ePTFE as an alternative treatment for short noses, describe the technique, and discuss outcomes, patient selection, and complications based on our 14-year experience...
May 14, 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760580/sinonasal-adenoid-cystic-carcinoma-role-of-on-site-fnac-a-case-report
#13
Santosh Tummidi, Kanchan Kothari, Roshni Patil, Shruti S Singhal, Vyoma Shah
Background: Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC), a rare tumor of epithelial cell origin, commonly arises from the major salivary glands. Uncommonly it may be found outside the salivary glands and it's especially rare in the nasal cavity. Case presentation: A 71-year female had complaints of swelling at the base of nose, Fine needle aspiration (FNA) from the swelling revealed features of adenoid cystic carcinoma; cell block & IHC for CD-117 was positive. Conclusions: Sino-nasal ACC (SNACC) continues to pose diagnostic and therapeutic challenges to clinicians...
2018: BMC Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756649/measuring-peripheral-oxytocin-and-vasopressin-in-nonhuman-primates
#14
REVIEW
Toni E Ziegler
Studying the neural and hormonal changes that modulate behavior is critical to understanding social relationships. Of particular interest is measuring oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) peripherally, and preferably, non-invasively, in nonhuman primates. Due to these peptides' neural origin and their stimulation of brain areas that influence social behavior, there has been debate whether peripheral measures in blood, urine, and saliva reflect central levels in the brain. This review elucidates the challenges of OT measurement and the solutions that provide valuable data on OT's role in social behavior...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756610/the-hump-columellar-strut-a-reliable-technique-for-correction-of-nasal-tip-underprojection
#15
P G Giacomini, S Mocella, S DI Girolamo, R DE Berardinis, A Boccieri
Nasal tip under projection is often found in rhinoplasty cases both for congenital or post-traumatic deformity. Nasal trauma may result in alteration of the external and internal nasal structures with following aesthetic impairment and difficulties in breathing. Post-traumatic surgery is frequent, but restoration of pre-traumatic form and function remains a challenge. The present paper describes a new method to increase tip projection by a columellar strut harvested from the autologous nasal bone and cartilage of the resected hump...
February 2018: Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755420/characterization-of-two-novel-bacteriophages-infecting-multidrug-resistant-mdr-acinetobacter-baumannii-and-evaluation-of-their-therapeutic-efficacy-in-vivo
#16
Kyoungeun Cha, Hynu K Oh, Jae Y Jang, Yunyeol Jo, Won K Kim, Geon U Ha, Kwan S Ko, Heejoon Myung
Acinetobacter baumannii is emerging as a challenging nosocomial pathogen due to its rapid evolution of antibiotic resistance. We report characterization of two novel bacteriophages, PBAB08 and PBAB25, infecting clinically isolated, multidrug-resistant (MDR) A. baumannii strains. Both phages belonged to Myoviridae of Caudovirales as their morphology observed under an electron microscope. Their genomes were double stranded linear DNAs of 42,312 base pairs and 40,260 base pairs, respectively. The two phages were distinct from known Acinetobacter phages when whole genome sequences were compared...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746270/evidence-regarding-the-use-of-bubble-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-in-the-extremely-low-birth-weight-infant-benefits-challenges-and-implications-for-nursing-practice
#17
Samantha Alessi
BACKGROUND: Gentle ventilation with optimal oxygenation is integral to prevention of chronic lung disease in the extremely low birth-weight (ELBW) infant. Various types of noninvasive ventilation are used in neonatal intensive care units worldwide. Bubble continuous positive airway pressure (BCPAP) has been in use in newborn intensive care since 1975. PURPOSE: To synthesize the current evidence on the use of BCPAP in the ELBW infant and its relationship to outcomes, particularly morbidity and mortality...
May 9, 2018: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723943/-aspirin-exacerbated-respiratory-disease-case-based-review
#18
Karen Estefanía Hernández-Moreno, Ricardo Cardona
Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease comprises a series of signs and symptoms mainly involving the upper and lower posterior airway after the consumption of cyclooxygenase enzyme inhibitors. Adverse reactions that occur are not considered to be an allergy and are common to all non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and cross-reactivity between these agents is therefore common. The description of 3 clinical cases serves to review key aspects of this condition, such as epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and management...
January 2018: Revista Alergia Mexico: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Mexicana de Alergia e Inmunología, A.C
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707449/cleft-palate-fistula-closure-utilizing-acellular-dermal-matrix
#19
Omri Emodi, Jiriys George Ginini, John A van Aalst, Dekel Shilo, Raja Naddaf, Dror Aizenbud, Adi Rachmiel
Fistulas represent failure of cleft palate repair. Secondary and tertiary fistula repair is challenging, with high recurrence rates. In the present retrospective study, we review the efficacy of using acellular dermal matrix as an interposition layer for cleft palate fistula closure in 20 consecutive patients between 2013 and 2016. Complete fistula closure was obtained in 16 patients; 1 patient had asymptomatic recurrent fistula; 2 patients had partial closure with reduction of fistula size and minimal nasal regurgitation; 1 patient developed a recurrent fistula without changes in symptoms (success rate of 85%)...
March 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705655/spatially-confined-induction-of-endochondral-ossification-by-functionalized-hydrogels-for-ectopic-engineering-of-osteochondral-tissues
#20
Chiara Stüdle, Queralt Vallmajó Martín, Alexander Haumer, Julien Guerrero, Matteo Centola, Arne Mehrkens, Dirk J Schaefer, Martin Ehrbar, Andrea Barbero, Ivan Martin
Despite the various reported approaches to generate osteochondral composites by combination of different cell types and materials, engineering of templates with the capacity to autonomously and orderly develop into cartilage-bone bi-layered structures remains an open challenge. Here, we hypothesized that the embedding of cells inducible to endochondral ossification (i.e. bone marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells, BMSCs) and of cells capable of robust and stable chondrogenesis (i.e. nasal chondrocytes, NCs) adjacent to each other in bi-layered hydrogels would develop directly in vivo into osteochondral tissues...
April 21, 2018: Biomaterials
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