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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910901/-clinical-research-on-immune-checkpoint-and-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#1
D Yu, X M Qi, X Zhao, Y Liu, K Xue, C S Jin, L J Wen
T cell immune checkpoint pathways contribute to tumor immune escape. Many studies have shown that immune checkpoint is demonstrably correlated with tumor grade or prognosis in several types of malignancies and immune checkpoint has become a new biological index for tumor detection and prognosis. Immune checkpoint inhibitors have shown promising tumor outcomes in clinical trials for some advanced solid tumors and it will become a new target for cancer immunotherapy. In this review we will explore the correlation between expressions of immune checkpoint-associated genes and proteins in immune microenviroment and prognosis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, and specifically will discuss how this pathway can be manipulated with immune therapeutic drugs...
September 7, 2017: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818640/the-influence-of-physical-activity-in-the-anti-tumor-immune-response-in-experimental-breast-tumor
#2
Thiago M Bianco, Douglas R Abdalla, Chamberttan S Desidério, Sofie Thys, Cindy Simoens, John-Paul Bogers, Eddie F C Murta, Márcia A Michelin
This study aimed to investigate the influence of physical activity in innate immunity to conduce to an effective antitumoral immune response analyzing the phenotype and activation status of infiltrating cells. We analysed the intracellular cytokines and the transcription factors of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILS) and spleen leukocytes. The Nos2 gene expression was evaluated in spleen cells and futhermore the ROS production was measured and spleen cells; another cell evaluated was dendritic cells (TIDCs), their cytokines expression and membrane molecules; finally to understood the results obtained, we analysed the dendritic cells obtained from bone marrow...
August 14, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798901/translational-dysregulation-in-cancer-molecular-insights-and-potential-clinical-applications-in-biomarker-development
#3
REVIEW
Christos Vaklavas, Scott W Blume, William E Grizzle
Although transcript levels have been traditionally used as a surrogate measure of gene expression, it is increasingly recognized that the latter is extensively and dynamically modulated at the level of translation (messenger RNA to protein). Over the recent years, significant progress has been made in dissecting the complex posttranscriptional mechanisms that regulate gene expression. This advancement in knowledge came hand in hand with the progress made in the methodologies to study translation both at gene-specific as well as global genomic level...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620146/mitochondrial-asncmtrna-1-and-asncmtrna-2-as-potent-targets-to-inhibit-tumor-growth-and-metastasis-in-the-renca-murine-renal-adenocarcinoma-model
#4
Vincenzo Borgna, Jaime Villegas, Verónica A Burzio, Sebastián Belmar, Mariela Araya, Emanuel Jeldes, Lorena Lobos-González, Verónica Silva, Claudio Villota, Luciana Oliveira-Cruz, Constanza Lopez, Teresa Socias, Octavio Castillo, Luis O Burzio
Knockdown of antisense noncoding mitochondrial RNAs (ASncmtRNAs) induces apoptosis in several human and mouse tumor cell lines, but not normal cells, suggesting this approach for a selective therapy against different types of cancer. Here we show that in vitro knockdown of murine ASncmtRNAs induces apoptotic death of mouse renal adenocarcinoma RenCa cells, but not normal murine kidney epithelial cells. In a syngeneic subcutaneous RenCa model, treatment delayed and even reversed tumor growth. Since the subcutaneous model does not reflect the natural microenviroment of renal cancer, we used an orthotopic model of RenCa cells inoculated under the renal capsule...
July 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553358/inhibition-of-lysyl-oxidases-impairs-migration-and-angiogenic-properties-of-tumor-associated-pericytes
#5
Aline Lopes Ribeiro, Carolini Kaid, Patrícia B G Silva, Beatriz A Cortez, Oswaldo Keith Okamoto
Pericytes are important cellular components of the tumor microenviroment with established roles in angiogenesis and metastasis. These two cancer hallmarks are modulated by enzymes of the LOX family, but thus far, information about LOX relevance in tumor-associated pericytes is lacking. Here, we performed a comparative characterization of normal and tumoral pericytes and report for the first time the modulatory effects of LOX enzymes on activated pericyte properties. Tumoral pericytes isolated from childhood ependymoma and neuroblastoma specimens displayed angiogenic properties in vitro and expressed typical markers, including CD146, NG2, and PDGFRβ...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548903/microenvironment-of-a-tumor-organoid-system-enhances-hepatocellular-carcinoma-malignancy-related-hallmarks
#6
Yang Wang, Kazuki Takeishi, Zhao Li, Eduardo Cervantes-Alvarez, Alexandra Collin de l'Hortet, Jorge Guzman-Lepe, Xiao Cui, Jiye Zhu
Organ-like microenviroment and 3-dimensional (3D) cell culture conformations have been suggested as promising approaches to mimic in a micro-scale a whole organ cellular functions and interactions present in vivo. We have used this approach to examine biologic features of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. In this study, we demonstrate that hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, fibroblasts, endothelial cells and extracellular matrix can generate organoid-like spheroids that enhanced numerous features of human HCC observed in vivo...
May 26, 2017: Organogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351891/squamous-cell-tumors-recruit-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-producing-either-il17-or-ifn%C3%AE-depending-on-the-tumor-stage
#7
Elena Lo Presti, Francesca Toia, Sebastiano Oieni, Simona Buccheri, Alice Turdo, Laura Rosa Mangiapane, Giuseppina Campisi, Valentina Caputo, Matilde Todaro, Giorgio Stassi, Adriana Cordova, Francesco Moschella, Gaetana Rinaldi, Serena Meraviglia, Francesco Dieli
The identification of reciprocal interactions between tumor-infiltrating immune cells and the microenviroment may help us understand mechanisms of tumor growth inhibition or progression. We have assessed the frequencies of tumor-infiltrating and circulating γδ T cells and regulatory T cells (Treg) from 47 patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), to determine if they correlated with progression or survival. Vδ1 T cells infiltrated SSC tissue to a greater extent than normal skin, but SCC patients and healthy subjects had similar amounts circulating...
May 2017: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193910/hif1-2%C3%AE-mediates-hypoxia-induced-ldha-expression-in-human-pancreatic-cancer-cells
#8
Xin-Gang Cui, Zhi-Tao Han, Shao-Hui He, Xing-da Wu, Tian-Rui Chen, Cheng-Hao Shao, Dan-Lei Chen, Ning Su, Yuan-Ming Chen, Ting Wang, Jing Wang, Dian-Wen Song, Wang-Jun Yan, Xing-Hai Yang, Tielong Liu, Hai-Feng Wei, Jianru Xiao
Glycolysis is a typical conduit for energy metabolism in pancreatic cancer (PC) due to the hypoxic microenviroment. Lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to lactate and is considered to be a key checkpoint of anaerobic glycolysis. The aim of the present study was to explore the mechanism of interactions between hypoxia, HIF-1/2α and LDHA, and the function of LDHA on PC cells by analyzing 244 PC and paratumor specimens. It was found that LDHA was over-expressed and related to tumor stages...
April 11, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162915/simple-in-vitro-generation-of-human-leukocyte-antigen-g-expressing-t-regulatory-cells-through-pharmacological-hypomethylation-for-adoptive-cellular-immunotherapy-against-graft-versus-host-disease
#9
Panagiota Stamou, Dimitra Marioli, Alexandra L Patmanidi, Argyro Sgourou, Angeliki Vittoraki, Efthymia Theofani, Chryso Pierides, Stavros Taraviras, Paul A Costeas, Alexandros Spyridonidis
BACKGROUND: Major barriers in using classical FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) in clinical practice are their low numbers in the circulation, the lack of specific cell surface markers for efficient purification and the loss of expression of Treg signature molecules and suppressive function after in vitro expansion or in a pro-inflammatory microenviroment. A surface molecule with potent immunosuppressive function is the human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G), which is normally expressed in placenta protecting the "semi-allogeneic" fetus from maternal immune attack...
April 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157137/extracellular-polyamines-induced-proliferation-and-migration-of-cancer-cells-by-odc-ssat-and-akt1-mediated-pathway
#10
Fujun Dai, Wubei Yu, Jia Song, Qian Li, Chaojie Wang, Songqiang Xie
High levels of polyamines were observed and were related to a poor prognosis in cancer patients. However, the mechanism is not obvious. The aim of this study is to mimic the extracellular polyamines in a tumor microenviroment and to explore the role of extracellular polyamines in the proliferation and migration of cancer cells. Three different concentrations of polyamines composed of putrescine, spermidine, and spermine were used. Colony formation assay, wound healing assay, and transwell migration assay were performed...
April 2017: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156441/strategy-of-using-herbal-extract-preparations-for-stage-iv-cancer-in-palliative-care-an-enhanced-and-maintenance-therapy
#11
Zhang Lingyan, Zhou Xiaoxia, Yin Weihua, Zhang Xiulian, Liu Hong, Duan Xiaopeng, Yu Cui, Luo Xiaolu, Zhong Qingfeng, Zhao Fen, Li Xianyong
89 Background: Palliative care is focused and seems as rationally anti-cancer way that have low systemic toxicity and acceptable effectiveness for stage IV cancer, especially herbal extracted medicines, which can regulate tumor microenviroment and body immune system. Our previous lab studies have indicated that TGF-beta, EGF, VEGF, IL-10 cytokines expression and mico-vessel density can be downgraded in tumor microenviroment by herbal extract preparation from Ginseng, Herba Agrimonia, Hairyvein and Arginine etc...
October 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884164/hyaluronan-synthase-2-expressed-by-cancer-associated-fibroblasts-promotes-oral-cancer-invasion
#12
Ziwen Zhang, Detao Tao, Ping Zhang, Xue Liu, Yuchao Zhang, Jie Cheng, Hua Yuan, Laikui Liu, Hongbing Jiang
BACKGROUND: Hyaluronan synthases (HAS) control the biosynthesis of hyaluronan (HA) and critically modulate the tumor microenviroment. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) affect the progression of a tumor by remolding the matrix. However, little is known about the role of HAS from CAFs in this process. This study aimed to determine the role of hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) from CAFs in the progression of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) invasion. METHODS: HAS isoforms 1, 2, and 3 in paired sets of CAFs and normal fibroblasts (NFs) were examined by real-time PCR, and the expression of HAS2 and α-SMA in OSCC tissue sections was further evaluated using immunohistochemical staining...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27562399/novel-strategies-to-discover-effective-drug-targets-in-metabolic-and-immune-therapy-for-glioblastoma
#13
Gang Wang, Xing-Li Fu, Jun-Jie Wang, Rui Guan, Xiang-Jun Tang
Glioblastoma multiforme is a common primary brain tumor, which exhibits an imbalance between glioma cell growth and glucose metabolism. Recent discoveries have found the multiple pathways and downstream genes are involved in the dysregulated metabolic pathway allows tumor to start and progress, which is critical to the patients with glioblastoma associated with significant systemic and immunosuppression. Moreover, immune microenvironment is considered a major obstacle to generating an effective antitumor immune response...
May 12, 2016: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27494868/a-lupus-anti-dna-autoantibody-mediates-autocatalytic-targeted-delivery-of-nanoparticles-to-tumors
#14
Zeming Chen, Jaymin M Patel, Philip W Noble, Cesar Garcia, Zhangyong Hong, James E Hansen, Jiangbing Zhou
Strategies to target nanoparticles to tumors that rely on surface modification with ligands that bind molecules overexpressed on cancer cells or the tumor neovasculature suffer from a major limitation: with delivery of toxic agents the amount of molecules available for targeting decreases with time; consequently, the efficiency of nanoparticle delivery is reduced. To overcome this limitation, here we propose an autocatalytic tumor-targeting mechanism based on targeting extracellular DNA (exDNA). exDNA is enriched in the tumor microenviroment and increases with treatment with cytotoxic agents, such as doxorubicin (DOX), due to release of DNA by dying tumor cells...
September 13, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27461496/-rankl-biology-beyond-the-bone-biology
#15
Tomoki Nakashima
Receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand(RANKL),a transmembrane protein of the tumor necrosis factor(TNF) superfamily cytokine, currently provides a paradigm that enables the molecular understanding of the linkage among bone metabolism, organization of lymphoid tissues, establishment of the thymic microenviroment, thermoregulation, metabolic regulation, mammary gland development and tumorigenesis. Here we summarize the recent progress in the understanding of RANKL biology by focusing on the investigation of RANKL expressing cells/organs, signaling and related diseases in the context of the newly established interdisciplinary field of osteonetwork...
August 2016: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27349291/angiogenesis-correlates-with-macrophage-and-mast-cell-infiltration-in-lung-tissue-of-animals-exposed-to-fluoro-edenite-fibers
#16
Giuseppe Musumeci, Carla Loreto, Salvatore Giunta, Venerando Rapisarda, Marta Anna Szychlinska, Rosa Imbesi, Alessandro Castorina, Tiziana Annese, Sergio Castorina, Paola Castrogiovanni, Domenico Ribatti
Angiogenesis plays a crucial role in progression of pleural malignant mesothelioma. A significantly increased incidence of pleural mesothelioma has been attributed to exposure to fluoro-edenite, a fibrous amphibole extracted from a local stone quarry. In this study, we have investigated the expression of CD68-positive macrophages, tryptase-positive mast cells and CD31 positive areas, as expression of microvascular density, in lung tissue of sheeps exposed to fluoro-edenite fibers vs controls, by immunohistochemical, morphometric and Western blot analysis...
August 1, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27123388/pathology-of-perineural-spread
#17
REVIEW
Ian S Brown
The perineural space is a compartment located between the nerve axons, supporting cells and tissues, and the epineural fibrous sheath. Tumor cells invade this space in response to a complex interplay of trophic factors in the local microenviroment. This attraction of tumor cells to nerves is referred to as neurotropism. The perineural space provides a conduit for tumor spread beyond the primary site of tumor occurrence. Perineural tumor growth is of two types: perineural invasion, affecting small unnamed nerves; and perineural spread, affecting larger, named nerves and presenting with clinical symptoms related to the involved nerve...
April 2016: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part B, Skull Base
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27045236/-classification-and-clinicopathological-characteristics-of-gastroenteropancreatic-neuroendocrine-neoplasms
#18
REVIEW
Zengshan Li
Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms are a rare, heterogeneous group of neoplasms. The incidence has increased greatly during the past 40 years, partially due to the advanced endoscopic and imaging techniques. As a type of neoplasm with the specific morphology and immunophenotype, its nomenclature and classification have also been changed considerably over the past 40 years, from the past "carcinoid" to the current "neuroendocrine neoplasm". WHO currently recommends two-tiered classification, neuroendocrine tumors and neuroendocrine cancer, according to the differentiation, morphology and proliferation index...
January 2016: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27042127/tremelimumab-research-and-clinical-development
#19
REVIEW
Begoña Comin-Anduix, Helena Escuin-Ordinas, Francisco Javier Ibarrondo
The immune checkpoint therapy is a relatively recent strategy that aims to tweak the immune system to effectively attack cancer cells. The understanding of the immune responses and their regulation at the intracellular level and the development of fully humanized monoclonal antibodies are the pillars of an approach that could elicit durable clinical responses and even remission in some patients with cancer. Most of the immune checkpoints that regulate the T-cell responses (activation and inhibition) operate through proteins present on the cytoplasmic membrane of the immune cells...
2016: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26943306/-galectins-in-hematological-malignancies-role-functions-and-potential-therapeutic-targets
#20
REVIEW
Kamil Wdowiak, Wojciech Spychałowicz, Marcin Fajkis, Jerzy Wojnar
Galectins are a family of lectins characterized by an affinity for β-galactosides through the carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD). The extracellular and intracellular presence of Galectins has been described. Their activity and functions are mainly attributed to cell type. The tumor microenviroment is a complex milieu connected with immunosupression, angiogenesis and hypoxic compartments. The studies of interactions between Glycans-Lectins are highly advanced and promising. We are not able to explain the pathogenesis of many diseases only by protein-protein interactions, that is why in these studies is a chance to find a new therapeutic targets...
February 14, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
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