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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550044/t-cells-lacking-hdac11-have-increased-effector-functions-and-mediate-enhanced-alloreactivity-in-a-murine-model
#1
David M Woods, Karrune V Woan, Fengdong Cheng, Andressa L Sodré, Dapeng Wang, Yongxia Wu, Zi Wang, Jie Chen, John Powers, Javier Pinilla-Ibarz, Yu Yu, Ya Zhang, Xuefeng Wu, Xiaoyan Zheng, Jeffrey Weber, Wayne Hancock, Edward Seto, Alejandro Villagra, Xue-Zhong Yu, Eduardo M Sotomayor
Histone acetylation and the families of enzymes responsible for controlling these epigenetic marks have been implicated in regulating T-cell maturation and phenotype. Here, we demonstrate a previously undefined role of histone deacetylase 11 (HDAC11) in regulating T-cell effector functions. Using EGFP-HDAC11 transgenic reporter mice, we found that HDAC11 expression was lower in effector relative to naïve and central memory T-cell populations, and activation of resting T-cells resulted in its decreased expression...
May 26, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550013/an-essential-regulatory-system-originating-from-polygenic-transcriptional-rewiring-of-phop-phoq-of-xanthomonas-campestris
#2
Bao-Yu Peng, Yue Pan, Ru-Jiao Li, Jin-Wei Wei, Fang Liang, Li Wang, Fang-Fang Wang, Wei Qian
How essential, regulatory genes originate and evolve is intriguing because mutations of these genes not only lead to lethality in organisms, but also have pleiotropic effects since they control the expression of multiple downstream genes. Therefore, the evolution of essential, regulatory genes is not only determined by genetic variations of their own sequences, but also by the biological function of downstream genes and molecular mechanisms of regulation. To understand the origin of essential, regulatory genes, experimental dissection of the complete regulatory cascade is needed...
May 26, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539822/induction-of-mitotic-delay-in-pharyngeal-and-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-cells-using-an-aqueous-extract-of-ajuga-bracteosa
#3
Yu-Tsai Lin, Chih-Che Lin, Hung-Chen Wang, Yi-Chiang Hsu
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a common cancer in Southeast Asia, for which radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy are the primary treatment methods. Many herbs are known to have potential uses in chemotherapy; however, the mechanisms underlying the observed antitumor activity of Ajuga bracteosa (AB) against NPC remain unclear. We explored the antitumor effects of AB, which was shown specifically to induce mitotic delay in pharyngeal (Detroit 562) and nasopharyngeal (Hone-1) cancer cells. Proliferation of cancer cells after exposure to aqueous extract of A...
2017: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475927/a-novel-typing-method-for-listeria-monocytogenes-using-high-resolution-melting-analysis-hrma-of-tandem-repeat-regions
#4
Chihiro Ohshima, Hajime Takahashi, Ai Iwakawa, Takashi Kuda, Bon Kimura
Listeria monocytogenes, which is responsible for causing food poisoning known as listeriosis, infects humans and animals. Widely distributed in the environment, this bacterium is known to contaminate food products after being transmitted to factories via raw materials. To minimize the contamination of products by food pathogens, it is critical to identify and eliminate factory entry routes and pathways for the causative bacteria. High resolution melting analysis (HRMA) is a method that takes advantage of differences in DNA sequences and PCR product lengths that are reflected by the disassociation temperature...
April 25, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472431/what-supervisors-and-universities-can-do-to-enhance-doctoral-student-experience-and-how-they-can-help-themselves
#5
Dawn C Duke, Pam M Denicolo
Over the past two decades, there has been a flurry of government papers and policy reports worldwide calling for increased number and diversity of doctoral researchers and a broadening of the curriculum to meet the developing needs of respective national 'knowledge-driven' economies. This has been followed by position papers and best practice examples of employability skills development in boundary-crossing doctoral programmes, especially in response to these initiatives. However, there is a disassociation between this ample literature expounding the new doctorate with its broader remit, inclusivity and production of 'industry-ready' graduates and the comparatively sparse literature on the doctoral candidates' experiences of their programmes and career readiness...
May 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465558/enhanced-photoelectrochemical-activities-for-water-oxidation-and-phenol-degradation-on-wo3-nanoplates-by-transferring-electrons-and-trapping-holes
#6
Liqun Sun, Yuying Wang, Fazal Raziq, Yang Qu, Linlu Bai, Liqiang Jing
It is highly desired to improve the photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance of nanosized WO3 by artificially modulating the photogenerated electrons and holes simultaneously. Herein, WO3 nanoplates have been successfully prepared by a simple one-pot two-phase separated hydrolysis-solvothermal method, and then co-modified with RGO and phosphate acid successively by wet chemical processes. Subsequently, the as-prepared WO3-based nanoplates were immobilized on the conductive glasses to explore the PEC activities for both water oxidation to evolve O2 and phenol degradation...
May 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452987/variability-and-host-density-independence-in-inductions-based-estimates-of-environmental-lysogeny
#7
Ben Knowles, Barbara Bailey, Lance Boling, Mya Breitbart, Ana Cobián-Güemes, Javier Del Campo, Rob Edwards, Ben Felts, Juris Grasis, Andreas F Haas, Parag Katira, Linda Wegley Kelly, Antoni Luque, Jim Nulton, Lauren Paul, Gregory Peters, Nate Robinett, Stuart Sandin, Anca Segall, Cynthia Silveira, Merry Youle, Forest Rohwer
Temperate bacterial viruses (phages) may enter a symbiosis with their host cell, forming a unit called a lysogen. Infection and viral replication are disassociated in lysogens until an induction event such as DNA damage occurs, triggering viral-mediated lysis. The lysogen-lytic viral reproduction switch is central to viral ecology, with diverse ecosystem impacts. It has been argued that lysogeny is favoured in phages at low host densities. This paradigm is based on the fraction of chemically inducible cells (FCIC) lysogeny proxy determined using DNA-damaging mitomycin C inductions...
April 28, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438535/a-critical-view-on-in-vitro-analysis-of-p-glycoprotein-p-gp-transport-kinetics
#8
Lasse Saaby, Birger Brodin
Transport proteins expressed in the different barriers of the human body can have great implications on absorption, distribution and excretion of drug compounds. Inhibition or saturation of a transporter can potentially alter these ADME properties, and thereby also the pharmacokinetic profile and bioavailability of drug compounds. P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1), is an efflux transporter which is present in most of the barriers of the body, including the small intestine, the blood-brain barrier, the liver and the kidney...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412935/fitness-costs-of-symbiont-switching-using-entomopathogenic-nematodes-as-a-model
#9
John G McMullen, Brittany F Peterson, Steven Forst, Heidi Goodrich Blair, S Patricia Stock
BACKGROUND: Steinernematid nematodes form obligate symbioses with bacteria from the genus Xenorhabdus. Together Steinernema nematodes and their bacterial symbionts successfully infect, kill, utilize, and exit their insect hosts. During this process the nematodes and bacteria disassociate requiring them to re-associate before emerging from the host. This interaction can be complicated when two different nematodes co-infect an insect host. RESULTS: Non-cognate nematode-bacteria pairings result in reductions for multiple measures of success, including total progeny production and virulence...
April 17, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412929/testosterone-territorial-response-and-song-in-seasonally-breeding-tropical-and-temperate-stonechats
#10
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Beate Apfelbeck, Kim G Mortega, Heiner Flinks, Juan Carlos Illera, Barbara Helm
BACKGROUND: Testosterone facilitates physiological, morphological, and behavioral changes required for breeding in male vertebrates. However, testosterone concentrations and the link between its seasonal changes and those in reproductive behaviors vary greatly among species. To better understand the impact of tropical and temperate environments and life history factors on this variation, we have compared testosterone, territorial behavior and song performance across sequential stages of the breeding season in males of 16 closely related taxa of East African tropical and West European temperate stonechats (Saxicola spp), which all breed during a short breeding season, but differ in migratory behavior, seasonal territory-acquisition and pace of life...
April 17, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404816/pick1-ca-2-sensor-modulates-nmda-receptor-dependent-microrna-mediated-translational-repression-in-neurons
#11
Dipen Rajgor, Maria Fiuza, Gabrielle T Parkinson, Jonathan G Hanley
miRNAs are important regulators of localized mRNA translation in neuronal dendrites. The presence of RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) proteins in these compartments and the dynamic miRNA expression changes that occur in response to neuronal stimulation highlights their importance in synaptic plasticity. Previously we demonstrated a novel interaction between the major RISC component Argounaute-2 (Ago2) and the BAR-domain protein PICK1. PICK1 recruits Ago2 to recycling endosomes in dendrites, where it inhibits miRNA-mediated translational repression...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401151/white-matter-integrity-in-genetic-high-risk-individuals-and-first-episode-schizophrenia-patients-similarities-and-disassociations
#12
Yifang Zhou, Jie Liu, Naomi Driesen, Fay Womer, Kaiyuan Chen, Ye Wang, Xiaowei Jiang, Qian Zhou, Chuan Bai, Dahai Wang, Yanqing Tang, Fei Wang
White matter (WM) neuroimaging studies have shown varied findings at different stages of schizophrenia (SZ). Understanding these variations may elucidate distinct markers of genetic vulnerability and conversion to psychosis. To examine the similarities and differences in WM connectivity between those at-risk for and in early stages of SZ, a cross-sectional diffusion tensor imaging study of 48 individuals diagnosed with first-episode SZ (FE-SZ), 37 nonpsychotic individuals at a high genetic risk of SZ (GHR-SZ), and 67 healthy controls (HC) was conducted...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386167/efficient-purification-protocol-for-bioengineering-allophycocyanin-trimer-with-n-terminus-histag
#13
Wenjun Li, Yang Pu, Na Gao, Zhihong Tang, Lufei Song, Song Qin
Allophycocyanin plays a key role for the photon energy transfer from the phycobilisome to reaction center chlorophylls with high efficiency in cyanobacteria. Previously, the high soluble self-assembled bioengineering allophycocyanin trimer with N-terminus polyhistidine from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 had been successfully recombined and expressed in Escherichia coli strain. The standard protocol with immobilized metal-ion affinity chromatography with chelating transition metal ion (Ni(2+)) was used to purify the recombinant protein...
March 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371616/salvianolic-acid-a-protects-retinal-pigment-epithelium-from-ox-ldl-induced-inflammation-in-an-age-related-macular-degeneration-model
#14
Ke Mao, Wanting Shu, Qinghua Qiu, Qing Gu, Xingwei Wu
BACKGROUND: Salvianolic acid A (Sal A), an active monomer of Salvia miltiorrhiza, is a phenolic carboxylic acid derivative. The present study was performed to investigate the underlying mechanism of the anti-inflammation effect of Sal A, especially focusing on mTOR-KEAP1-Nrf2 and P2X7R-PKR-NLRP3 signaling pathways. METHODS: SD mice were divided into four groups: PBS, oxidized-low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL, 3 mg/kg), and ox-LDL (3 mg/kg) + Sal A (5 mg/kg) and + Sal A (10 mg/ml) groups...
February 2017: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369529/human-apo-srp72-and-srp68-72-complex-structures-reveal-the-molecular-basis-of-protein-translocation
#15
Yina Gao, Qi Zhang, Yue Lang, Yang Liu, Xiaofei Dong, Zhenhang Chen, Wenli Tian, Jun Tang, Wei Wu, Yufeng Tong, Zhongzhou Chen
The co-translational targeting or insertion of secretory and membrane proteins into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a key biological process mediated by the signal recognition particle (SRP). In eukaryotes, the SRP68-SRP72 (SRP68/72) heterodimer plays an essential role in protein translocation. However, structural information on the two largest SRP proteins, SRP68 and SRP72, is limited, especially regarding their interaction. Herein, we report the first crystal structures of human apo-SRP72 and the SRP68/72 complex at 2...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365517/host-guest-kinetic-interactions-between-hp-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-and-drugs-for-prediction-of-bitter-taste-masking
#16
Zhen Guo, Fei Wu, Vikramjeet Singh, Tao Guo, Xiaohong Ren, Xianzhen Yin, Qun Shao, Peter York, Laurence H Patterson, Jiwen Zhang
Cyclodextrins (CD) are widely used bitter taste masking agents, for which the binding equilibrium constant (K) for the drug-CD complex is a conventional parameter for quantitating the taste masking effects. However, some exceptions have been reported to the expected relationship between K and bitterness reduction and the relationship between kinetic parameters of a drug-CD interaction, including association rate constant (Ka) and disassociation rate constant (Kd), and taste masking remains unexplored. In this study, based upon a database of kinetic parameters of drugs-HP-β-CD generated by Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging for 485 drugs, the host-guest kinetic interactions between drugs and HP-β-CD for prediction of taste masking effects have been investigated...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350644/disassociating-lung-mechanics-and-oxygenation-in-pediatric-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#17
Nadir Yehya, Neal J Thomas
OBJECTIVES: Both oxygenation and peak inspiratory pressure are associated with mortality in pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome. Since oxygenation and respiratory mechanics are linked, it is difficult to identify which variables, pressure or oxygenation, are independently associated with outcome. We aimed to determine whether respiratory mechanics (peak inspiratory pressure, positive end-expiratory pressure, ΔP [PIP minus PEEP], tidal volume, dynamic compliance [Cdyn]) or oxygenation (PaO2/FIO2) was associated with mortality...
March 27, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321202/emotionality-of-colors-an-implicit-link-between-red-and-dominance
#18
Stijn V Mentzel, Linda Schücker, Norbert Hagemann, Bernd Strauss
The color red has been shown to alter emotions, physiology, psychology, and behavior. Research has suggested that these alterations could possibly be due to a link between red and perceived dominance. In this study we examined if the color red is implicitly associated to the concept of dominance. In addition, we similarly hypothesized that blue is implicitly linked to rest. A modified Stroop word evaluation task was used in which 30 participants (23.07 ± 4.42 years) were asked to classify words shown in either red, blue, or gray (control condition), as being either dominant- or rest-related...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301469/global-analysis-of-translation-termination-in-e-coli
#19
Natalie E Baggett, Yan Zhang, Carol A Gross
Terminating protein translation accurately and efficiently is critical for both protein fidelity and ribosome recycling for continued translation. The three bacterial release factors (RFs) play key roles: RF1 and 2 recognize stop codons and terminate translation; and RF3 promotes disassociation of bound release factors. Probing release factors mutations with reporter constructs containing programmed frameshifting sequences or premature stop codons had revealed a propensity for readthrough or frameshifting at these specific sites, but their effects on translation genome-wide have not been examined...
March 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288978/mff-dependent-mitochondrial-fission-contributes-to-the-pathogenesis-of-cardiac-microvasculature-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-via-induction-of-mros-mediated-cardiolipin-oxidation-and-hk2-vdac1-disassociation-involved-mptp-opening
#20
Hao Zhou, Shunying Hu, Qinhua Jin, Chen Shi, Ying Zhang, Pingjun Zhu, Qiang Ma, Feng Tian, Yundai Chen
BACKGROUND: The cardiac microvascular system ischemia/reperfusion injury following percutaneous coronary intervention is a clinical thorny problem. This study explores the mechanisms by which ischemia/reperfusion injury induces cardiac microcirculation collapse. METHODS AND RESULTS: In wild-type mice, mitochondrial fission factor (Mff) expression increased in response to acute microvascular ischemia/reperfusion injury. Compared with wild-type mice, homozygous Mff-deficient (Mff(gt)) mice exhibited a smaller infarcted area, restored cardiac function, improved blood flow, and reduced microcirculation perfusion defects...
March 13, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
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