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Fei-Fei Li, Bo Zhang, Ji-Hong Cui, Fu-Lin Chen, Yin Ding, Xue Feng
Mechanical load application promotes bone formation, while reduced load leads to bone loss. However, the underlying mechanisms that regulate new bone formation are not fully understood. Wnt/β‑catenin signaling has an important role in bone formation, bone growth and remodeling. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether mechanical stimuli regulated bone formation through the Wnt/β‑catenin signaling pathway. Saos‑2 osteoblastic cells were subjected to mechanical strain using a Flexcell strain loading system...
June 7, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Running Niu, Du Lei, Fuqin Chen, Ying Chen, Xueling Suo, Lingjiang Li, Su Lui, Xiaoqi Huang, John A Sweeney, Qiyong Gong
Introduction: Disrupted topological organization of brain functional networks has been widely observed in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the topological organization of the brain grey matter (GM) network has not yet been investigated in pediatric PTSD who was more vulnerable to develop PTSD when exposed to stress. Materials and methods: Twenty two pediatric PTSD patients and 22 matched trauma-exposed controls who survived a massive earthquake (8...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Pengxiang Xu, Jiaping Lin, Liangshun Zhang
We conceptually design multicompartment gels with supramolecular characteristics by taking advantage of amphiphilic ABC graft copolymers. The ABC graft copolymers contain a solvophilic A backbone and solvophobic B and C grafts, where the C grafts interact with each other via hydrogen bonds. The mechanical properties of supramolecular multicompartment gels under uniaxial tension are studied by coupling dissipative particle dynamics simulations with the nonequilibrium deformation technique. The results show that the supramolecular multicompartment gels exhibit high toughness and recovery properties, while their stiffness is maintained...
May 31, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Francisca S Rodriguez, Tobias Luck, Steffi G Riedel-Heller
BACKGROUND: Enriched environment at work (EEW), in terms of high mental demands at work, may be of great relevance for preventative efforts against cognitive decline and dementia as previous studies have shown. Yet, there is the concern that high EEW mental demands may accelerate stress and cause burnout. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to investigate how EEW mental demands are related to stress and burnout. METHOD: A convenience sample of employees in the city area of Leipzig, Germany, was asked to fill out the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory and indicate for each EEW mental demand the level experienced, demandingness, and stressfulness...
May 22, 2018: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
Carolyn R Shurer, Marshall J Colville, Vivek K Gupta, Shelby E Head, FuiBoon Kai, Jonathon N Lakins, Matthew J Paszek
The glycocalyx is a coating of protein and sugar on the surface of all living cells. Dramatic perturbations to the composition and structure of the glycocalyx are frequently observed in aggressive cancers. However, tools to experimentally mimic and model the cancer-specific glycocalyx remain limited. Here, we develop a genetically encoded toolkit to engineer the chemical and physical structure of the cellular glycocalyx. By manipulating the glycocalyx structure, we are able to switch the adhesive state of cells from strongly adherent to fully detached...
February 12, 2018: ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering
Eleanor A Power
The scholarship on religion has long argued that collective worship helps foster social cohesion. Despite the pervasiveness of this contention, rigorous quantitative evaluations of it have been surprisingly limited. Here, I draw on network data representing the ties of social support among Hindu residents of a South Indian village to evaluate the association between collective religious ritual and social cohesion. I find that those who partake in collective religious rituals together have a higher probability of having a supportive relationship than those who do not...
May 30, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Ting-Ting Du, Ying-Chuan Chen, Yong-Quan Lu, Fan-Gang Meng, Hui Yang, Jian-Guo Zhang
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is an effective therapeutic strategy for alleviating disability in patients with moderate to severe Parkinson's disease (PD). Preclinical studies have shown that stimulation of the rat STN can protect against nigral dopaminergic neuron loss. However, the underlying mechanism is unclear. To investigate the molecular basis of the neuroprotective effects of STN stimulation, a rat model of PD was established by unilaterally injecting 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) into the striatum...
May 21, 2018: Experimental Neurology
Xianling Gong, Zhihong Chen, Qinrui Han, Chunhui Chen, Linlin Jing, Yawei Liu, Liang Zhao, Xueqing Yao, Xuegang Sun
BACKGROUND: Previous studies showed sanguinarine induced apoptosis in CRC cells but did not define the underlying mechanisms. The purpose of this work was to determine the in vivo and in vitro effects of sanguinarine on CRC tumors and to elucidate the mechanism in regulating the intrinsic apoptosis. METHODS: Cell viability of CRC cell lines treated with sanguinarine was measured by MTT assay. Apoptotic cells stained with Annexin V and 7-AAD were detected by flow cytometry...
May 21, 2018: BMC Cancer
Tushar Murthy, Theresa Bluemn, Abhishek Gupta, Michael Reimer, Sridhar Rao, Manoj M Pillai, Alex C Minella
Splicing factor 3B1 (SF3B1) is a core splicing protein that stabilizes the interaction between the U2 snRNA and the branch point in the mRNA target during splicing. SF3B1 is heavily phosphorylated at its N terminus and a substrate of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). Although SF3B1 phosphorylation coincides with splicing catalysis, the functional significance of SF3B1 phosphorylation is largely undefined. Here, we show that SF3B1 phosphorylation follows a dynamic pattern during cell cycle progression that depends on CDK activity...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Nikita V Solodkov, Mamatha Nagaraj, J Cliff Jones
Tilted smectic liquid crystal phases such as the smectic-C phase seen in calamitic liquid crystals are usually treated using the assumption of biaxial orthorhombic symmetry. However, the smectic-C phase has monoclinic symmetry, thereby allowing disassociation of the principal optic and dielectric axes based on symmetry and invariance principles. This is demonstrated here by comparing optical and dielectric measurements for two materials with highly first-order direct transitions from nematic to smectic-C phases...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
Xiao Wei, Lingqiao Liu, Xing Guo, Yi Wang, Jingya Zhao, Shaobing Zhou
Cancer chemotherapy faces the problem of the multidrug resistance (MDR) of tumor cells, which is a puzzling issue that leads to treatment failure. To address it, an innovative approach is proposed to construct a light-activated reactive oxygen species (ROS)-responsive nanoplatform based on a protoporphyrin (PpIX)-conjugated and dual chemotherapeutics-loaded polymer micelle. This system combines chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy (PDT) to defeat the MDR of tumors. Such an intelligent nanocarrier can prolong the blood circulation due to the negatively charged polysaccharide component of chondroitin sulfate (CS) and subsequently being selectively internalized by DOX-resistant human breast cancer MCF-7 cells (MCF-7/ADR)...
May 8, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Courtney A Ackeifi, Ethan A Swartz, Peng Wang
Diabetes is the result of the insufficiency or dysfunction of pancreatic beta cells alone or in combination with insulin resistance. The replacement or regeneration of beta cells can effectively reverse diabetes in humans and rodents. Therefore, the identification of novel small molecules that promote pancreatic beta-cell proliferation is an attractive approach for diabetic therapy. While numerous hormones, small molecules, and growth factors are able to drive rodent beta cells to replicate, only a few small molecules have demonstrated the ability to stimulate human beta-cell proliferation...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Julie A Mustard, Valerie Alvarez, Sofy Barocio, Jamie Mathews, Alexander Stoker, Kashif Malik
Honey bees will learn to respond to an odor when their antennae are stimulated with sucrose, even if they are not fed during the conditioning phase. However, if they are not fed, the memory of this association is significantly reduced 24 h after conditioning. These results suggest that stimulation of proboscis with sucrose and/or the nutritional quality of the reward plays an important role in establishing a long lasting memory. Three sugars, xylose, sorbitol and mannitol, are used to investigate the relationship among learning, sensory perception and nutritional value...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
Wei-Wei Sun, Shi Jiao, Li Sun, Zhaocai Zhou, Xia Jin, Jian-Hua Wang
The postintegrational latency of HIV-1 is characterized by reversible silencing of long terminal repeat (LTR)-driven transcription of the HIV genome. It is known that the formation of repressive chromatin at the 5'-LTR of HIV-1 proviral DNA impedes viral transcription by blocking the recruitment of positive transcription factors. How the repressive chromatin is formed and modulated during HIV-1 infection remains elusive. Elucidation of which chromatin reassembly factor mediates the reorganization of chromatin is likely to facilitate the understanding of the host's modulation of HIV-1 transcription and latency...
May 1, 2018: MBio
Linda S May-Zhang, Valery Yermalitsky, Jiansheng Huang, Tiffany Pleasent, Mark S Borja, Michael N Oda, W Gray Jerome, Patricia G Yancey, MacRae F Linton, Sean S Davies
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk depends on HDL function, not HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C). Isolevuglandins (IsoLGs) are lipid dicarbonyls that react with lysine residues of proteins and phosphatidylethanolamine. IsoLG adducts are elevated in atherosclerosis. The consequences of IsoLG modification of HDL have not been studied. We hypothesized that IsoLG modification of apoA-I deleteriously alters HDL function. We determined the effect of IsoLG on HDL structure-function, and whether pentylpyridoxamine (PPM), a dicarbonyl scavenger, can preserve HDL function...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Yu-Kun Jian, Xiao-Xia Le, Yu-Chong Zhang, Wei Lu, Li Wang, Jing Zheng, Jia-Wei Zhang, You-Ju Huang, Tao Chen
Realization of shape memory process in polymeric hydrogels at ambient condition is a significant development to shape memory materials. The sound understanding of the dynamic shape memory process is fundamentally important but limited. Here, a novel shape memory hydrogel with simultaneously switchable fluorescence behavior is developed. The hydrogel is prepared by incorporating a pH-responsive fluorescent molecule, perylene tetracarboxylic acid, into chitosan-based hydrogel, and the assembly and disassembly of chitosan chains into microcrystals upon the trigger of pH are applied as reversible crosslinks to achieve shape memory effect...
April 26, 2018: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Lihan Wang, John Q Gan, Li Zhang, Haixian Wang
Previous neuroimaging research investigating dissociation between single-digit addition and multiplication has suggested that the former placed more reliance on the visuo-spatial processing whereas the latter on the verbal processing. However, there has been little exploration into the disassociation in spatio-temporal dynamics of the oscillatory brain activity in specific frequency bands during the two arithmetic operations. To address this issue, the electroencephalogram (EEG) data were recorded from 19 participants engaged in a delayed verification arithmetic task...
June 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Andrea Pelletier-Baldelli, Jessica R Andrews-Hanna, Vijay A Mittal
Clarifying dynamic fluctuations in resting-state connectivity in individuals at risk for psychosis (termed clinical high risk [CHR]) may inform understanding of psychotic disorders, such as schizophrenia, which have been associated with dysconnectivity and aberrant salience processing. Dynamic functional connectivity (DFC) investigations provide insight into how neural networks exchange information over time. Currently, there are no published DFC studies involving CHR individuals. This is notable, because understanding how networks may come together and disassociate over time could lend insight into the neural communication that underlies psychosis development and symptomatology...
April 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Quanyin Hu, Qian Chen, Zhen Gu
These years, transformable drug delivery systems (DDSs), which hold the capability of changing formulation morphology and subsequent functionality at the desired disease site, have shown great promise in control of spatio-temporal drug delivery/release manner and enhanced treatment efficacy. Equipped with controllability and design flexibility, the transformable DDSs are being increasingly pursued for the development of precision drug delivery platforms for biomedical applications. In this review, we describe the recently developed intracelluarly and extracellularly transformable DDSs, especially associated with assembly or disassociation of the original formulation units, for achieving various functionalities, including prolonged retention time, inhibited endocytosis and enhanced cytotoxicity...
April 5, 2018: Biomaterials
Peng Wang, Yatao Wu, Jie Liu, Ping Song, Shan Li, Xinxin Zhou, Guoping Zhu
Monomeric isocitrate dehydrogenases (IDHs) have a single polypeptide sizing around 85 kDa. The IDH2 from the opportunistic bacterium Acinetobacter baumannii (AbIDH2) with a mass of 83 kDa was formerly recognized as a typical monomeric IDH. However, both size exclusion chromatography and analytical ultracentrifugation analysis indicated that AbIDH2 exists as a homodimer in solution. The crystallographic study of the substrate/coenzyme-free AbIDH2 gave a dimeric structure and each subunit contained a domain I and a domain II...
April 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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