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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531376/immune-cell-signaling-in-autoimmune-diseases
#1
REVIEW
George C Tsokos, Noel R Rose
On September 20, 2016 the American Autoimmune Related Disease Association convened a selected group of 16 experts in Washington DC to discuss current issues and future directions of research in autoimmune diseases from the cell signaling perspective. The major topics considered included new findings on the follicular T cell cells in mice, their metabolic patterns and their control by the newly discovered T follicular regulatory cells. Current work on the metabolic pathways deemed important for the function of T cells was presented...
May 19, 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531251/ca2-dependent-phosphoregulation-of-the-plasma-membrane-ca2-atpase-aca8-modulates-stimulus-induced-calcium-signatures
#2
Alex Costa, Laura Luoni, Claudia Adriana Marrano, Kenji Hashimoto, Philipp Köster, Sonia Giacometti, Maria Ida De Michelis, Jörg Kudla, Maria Cristina Bonza
Ca2+ signals are transient, hence, upon a stimulus-induced increase in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, cells have to re-establish resting Ca2+ levels. Ca2+ extrusion is operated by a wealth of transporters, such as Ca2+ pumps and Ca2+/H+ antiporters, which often require a rise in Ca2+ concentration to be activated. Here, we report a regulatory fine-tuning mechanism of the Arabidopsis thaliana plasma membrane-localized Ca2+-ATPase isoform ACA8 that is mediated by calcineurin B-like protein (CBL) and CBL-interacting protein kinase (CIPK) complexes...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530170/k-modulates-genetic-competence-and-the-stress-regulon-of-streptococcus-mutans
#3
Gursonika Binepal, Iwona B Wenderska, Paula Crowley, Richard N Besingi, Dilani B Senadheera, L Jeannine Brady, Dennis G Cvitkovitch
Potassium (K+) is the most abundant cation in dental plaque fluid. Previously, we reported the link between K+ transport via Trk2 in Streptococcus mutans and its two critical virulence attributes: acid tolerance and surface adhesion. Herein, we build further on the intimate link between K+ levels and S. mutans biology. High (>25 mM) versus low (≤5 mM) K+ concentrations in the growth medium affected conformational epitopes of cell surface-localized adhesin P1. At low K+, the expression of stress response elements gcrR and codY, cell-adhesion-associated genes such as spaP and metabolism-associated genes such as bglP was induced at stationary phase (P<0...
May 22, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529928/the-probiotic-compound-vsl-3-modulates-mucosal-peripheral-and-systemic-immunity-following-murine-broad-spectrum-antibiotic-treatment
#4
Ira Ekmekciu, Eliane von Klitzing, Ulrike Fiebiger, Christian Neumann, Petra Bacher, Alexander Scheffold, Stefan Bereswill, Markus M Heimesaat
There is compelling evidence linking the commensal intestinal microbiota with host health and, in turn, antibiotic induced perturbations of microbiota composition with distinct pathologies. Despite the attractiveness of probiotic therapy as a tool to beneficially alter the intestinal microbiota, its immunological effects are still incompletely understood. The aim of the present study was to assess the efficacy of the probiotic formulation VSL#3 consisting of eight distinct bacterial species (including Streptococcus thermophilus, Bifidobacterium breve, B...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529840/adoptive-cell-therapy-with-tregs-to-improve-transplant-outcomes-the-promise-and-the-stumbling-blocks
#5
Mohamed B Ezzelarab, Angus W Thomson
The contribution of regulatory T cells (Treg) to the induction and maintenance of tolerance is well-recognized in rodents and may contribute to long-term human organ allograft survival. The therapeutic efficacy of adoptively-transferred Treg in promoting tolerance to organ allografts is well-recognized in mouse models. Early phase 1/2 clinical studies of Treg therapy have been conducted in patients with type-1 (autoimmune) diabetes and refractory Crohn's disease, and for inhibition of graft-versus-host disease following bone marrow transplantation with proven safety...
December 2016: Current Transplantation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529614/irf4-mum1-expression-is-associated-with-poor-survival-outcomes-in-patients-with-peripheral-t-cell-lymphoma
#6
Mi Hwa Heo, Ha Young Park, Young Hyeh Ko, Won Seog Kim, Seok Jin Kim
Background: Interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4)/multiple myeloma oncogene-1 (MUM1) is a member of the interferon regulatory factor family of transcriptional factors. Although IRF4/MUM1 expression is associated with aggressiveness of B-cell lymphoma and multiple myeloma, the prognostic value of IRF4/MUM1 expression in peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) is unclear. Methods: We analyzed a tissue array from 69 patients diagnosed with PTCL. The expression levels of IRF4/MUM1 and associated proteins such as MYC and Ikaros were analyzed by immunohistochemistry...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527887/mst1-deficiency-promotes-b-cell-responses-by-cd4-t-cell-derived-il-4-resulting-in-hypergammaglobulinemia
#7
Eunchong Park, Myun Soo Kim, Ju Han Song, Kyung Min Cho, Kyung-Hye Roh, Rana Lee, Tae Sung Kim
MST1 deficiency causes T and B cell lymphopenia, resulting in combined immunodeficiency. However, MST1-deficient patients also exhibit autoimmune-like symptoms such as hypergammaglobulinemia and autoantibody production. Recent studies have shown that the autoimmune responses observed in MST1-deficient patients were most likely attributable to defective regulatory T (Treg) cells instead of intrinsic signals in MST1-lacking B cells. Nevertheless, it is not determined how MST1 deficiency in T cells breaks B cell tolerance and causes systemic autoimmune-like phenotypes...
May 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526240/endocrine-actions-of-vitamin-d-in-skin-relevance-for-photocarcinogenesis-of-non-melanoma-skin-cancer-and-beyond
#8
REVIEW
Jörg Reichrath, Roman Saternus, Thomas Vogt
The skin represents a pivotal organ for the human body's vitamin D endocrine system, being both the site of ultraviolet (UV)-B-induced vitamin D synthesis and a target tissue for the pluripotent effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 and other biologically active vitamin D metabolites. As many other steroid hormones, 1,25(OH)2D3 exerts its effects via two independent signal transduction pathways: the classical genomic and the non-genomic pathway. While non-genomic effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 are in part exerted via effects on intracellular calcium, genomic effects are mediated by the vitamin D receptor (VDR)...
May 16, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525946/ghrelin-attenuates-vascular-calcification-in-diabetic-patients-with-amputation
#9
Suining Xu, Fei Ye, Lihua Li, Jinchuan Yan, Zhengyang Bao, Zhen Sun, Liangjie Xu, Jie Zhu, Zhongqun Wang
Vascular calcification is established to be a critical factor in diabetes mellitus, which causes cardiovascular and amputation complication of diabetic patients. OPG/RANKL/RANK axis serves as a regulatory role in vascular calcification. Ghrelin, an endogenous ligand of growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), has been reported to exhibit potent cardiovascular protective effects. However, the role of ghrelin in the regulation of diabetic vascular calcification is still elusive. Here, we reported the role of ghrelin and its relationship with OPG/RANKL/RANK system in patients with diabetic foot amputation...
May 15, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524749/ubiquitin-enzymes-in-the-regulation-of-immune-responses
#10
Petra Ebner, Gijs A Versteeg, Fumiyo Ikeda
Ubiquitination plays a central role in the regulation of various biological functions including immune responses. Ubiquitination is induced by a cascade of enzymatic reactions by E1 ubiquitin activating enzyme, E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzyme, and E3 ubiquitin ligase, and reversed by deubiquitinases. Depending on the enzymes, specific linkage types of ubiquitin chains are generated or hydrolyzed. Because different linkage types of ubiquitin chains control the fate of the substrate, understanding the regulatory mechanisms of ubiquitin enzymes is central...
May 19, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523126/transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-a-master-regulator-of-the-gut-microbiota-and-immune-cell-interactions
#11
REVIEW
David Bauché, Julien C Marie
The relationship between host organisms and their microbiota has co-evolved towards an inter-dependent network of mutualistic interactions. This interplay is particularly well studied in the gastrointestinal tract, where microbiota and host immune cells can modulate each other directly, as well as indirectly, through the production and release of chemical molecules and signals. In this review, we define the functional impact of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) on this complex interplay, especially through its modulation of the activity of local regulatory T cells (Tregs), type 17 helper (Th17) cells, innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) and B cells...
April 2017: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522817/lactobacillus-johnsonii-ameliorates-intestinal-extra-intestinal-and-systemic-pro-inflammatory-immune-responses-following-murine-campylobacter-jejuni-infection
#12
Stefan Bereswill, Ira Ekmekciu, Ulrike Escher, Ulrike Fiebiger, Kerstin Stingl, Markus M Heimesaat
Campylobacter jejuni infections are progressively increasing worldwide. Probiotic treatment might open novel therapeutic or even prophylactic approaches to combat campylobacteriosis. In the present study secondary abiotic mice were generated by broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment and perorally reassociated with a commensal murine Lactobacillus johnsonii strain either 14 days before (i.e. prophylactic regimen) or 7 days after (i.e. therapeutic regimen) peroral C. jejuni strain 81-176 infection. Following peroral reassociation both C...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522585/herpes-simplex-virus-glycoprotein-d-targets-a-specific-dendritic-cell-subset-and-improves-the-performance-of-vaccines-to-human-papillomavirus-associated-tumors
#13
Bruna F M M Porchia, Ana Carolina R Moreno, Rodrigo N Ramos, Mariana O Diniz, Laís Helena T M de Andrade, Daniela S Rosa, José Alexandre M Barbuto, Silvia B Boscardin, Luís Carlos S Ferreira
Cervical cancer is a major public health problem and one of the leading causes of cancer deaths in women. Virtually all cases of cervical cancer, as well as a growing share of anal and head/neck tumors, are associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Despite the effectiveness, the available prophylactic vaccines do not benefit women with cervical lesions or cancer. Therefore, the search of new immunotherapeutic approaches to treat HPV-induced tumors is still a priority. The present study characterizes a therapeutic antitumor vaccine based on the genetic fusion of the Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein D (gD) with the E7 oncoprotein from HPV-16 (gDE7)...
May 18, 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522206/functional-properties-of-the-mitochondrial-carrier-system
#14
REVIEW
Eric B Taylor
The mitochondrial carrier system (MCS) transports small molecules between mitochondria and the cytoplasm. It is integral to the core mitochondrial function to regulate cellular chemistry by metabolism. The mammalian MCS comprises the transporters of the 53-member canonical SLC25A family and a lesser number of identified noncanonical transporters. The recent discovery and investigations of the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) illustrate the diverse effects a single mitochondrial carrier may exert on cellular function...
May 15, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521429/b-cells-inhibit-the-antitumor-immunity-against-an-established-murine-fibrosarcoma
#15
Andrea Maglioco, Damián G Machuca, María Noel Badano, Paula Nannini, Gabriela V Camerano, Héctor Costa, Roberto Meiss, Raúl A Ruggiero, Mirta Giordano, Graciela I Dran
Despite the classic role of B cells in favoring the immune response, an inhibitory action of B lymphocytes in tumor immunity has emerged in certain studies. In methylcolanthrene-induced murine fibrosarcoma (MCC), the loss of immunogenicity and the establishment of tolerance are paralleled by systemic immune suppression and the appearance of B(+)IL-10(+) cells in tumor-draining lymph nodes. The present study aimed to assess the role of the B(+)IL-10(+) cell population in the immune evasion and tolerance induced by MCC through the depletion of B cells in mice at various times of tumor progression: Prior to or subsequent to tumor implantation...
May 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520840/assessment-of-nivolumab-benefit-risk-profile-of-a-240-mg-flat-dose-relative-to-a-3-mg-kg-dosing-regimen-in-patients-with-advanced-tumors
#16
X Zhao, S Suryawanshi, M Hruska, Y Feng, X Wang, J Shen, H E Vezina, M B McHenry, I M Waxman, A Achanta, A Bello, A Roy, S Agrawal
Background: : Nivolumab 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks (Q2W) has shown benefit versus the standard of care in melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, flat dosing is expected to shorten preparation time and improve ease of administration. With knowledge of nivolumab safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics across a wide dose range in BW dosing, assessment of the benefit-risk profile of a 240-mg flat dose relative to the approved 3-mg/kg dose was approached by quantitative clinical pharmacology...
May 17, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520732/differential-gene-expression-along-the-animal-vegetal-axis-in-the-ascidian-embryo-is-maintained-by-a-dual-functional-protein-foxd
#17
Shin-Ichi Tokuhiro, Miki Tokuoka, Kenji Kobayashi, Atsushi Kubo, Izumi Oda-Ishii, Yutaka Satou
In many animal embryos, a specific gene expression pattern is established along the animal-vegetal axis soon after zygotic transcription begins. In the embryo of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis, soon after the division that separates animal and vegetal hemispheres into distinct blastomeres, maternal Gata.a and β-catenin activate specific genes in the animal and vegetal blastomeres, respectively. On the basis of these initial distinct gene expression patterns, gene regulatory networks promote animal cells to become ectodermal tissues and vegetal cells to become endomesodermal tissues and a part of the nerve cord...
May 17, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518408/s-adenosylmethionine-mediated-apoptosis-is-potentiated-by-autophagy-inhibition-induced-by-chloroquine-in-human-breast-cancer-cells
#18
Donatella Delle Cave, Vincenzo Desiderio, Laura Mosca, Concetta Paola Ilisso, Luigi Mele, Michele Caraglia, Giovanna Cacciapuoti, Marina Porcelli
The naturally-occurring sulfonium compound S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet) is an ubiquitous sulfur-nucleoside that represents the main methyl donor in numerous methylation reactions. In recent years, it has been shown that AdoMet possesses antiproliferative properties in various cancer cells, but the molecular mechanisms at the basis of the effect induced by AdoMet have been only in part investigated. In the present study, we found that AdoMet strongly inhibited the proliferation of breast cancer cells MCF-7 by inducing both autophagy and apoptosis...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516085/analysis-of-septin-reorganization-at-cytokinesis-using-polarized-fluorescence-microscopy
#19
Molly McQuilken, Maximilian S Jentzsch, Amitabh Verma, Shalin B Mehta, Rudolf Oldenbourg, Amy S Gladfelter
Septins are conserved filament-forming proteins that act in diverse cellular processes. They closely associate with membranes and, in some systems, components of the cytoskeleton. It is not well understood how filaments assemble into higher-order structures in vivo or how they are remodeled throughout the cell cycle. In the budding yeast S. cerevisiae, septins are found through most of the cell cycle in an hourglass organization at the mother-bud neck until cytokinesis when the collar splits into two rings that disassemble prior to the next cell cycle...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515232/the-nuclear-export-factor-crm1-controls-juxta-nuclear-microtubule-dependent-virus-transport
#20
I-Hsuan Wang, Christoph J Burckhardt, Artur Yakimovich, Matthias K Morf, Urs F Greber
Transport of large cargo through the cytoplasm requires motor proteins and polarized filaments. Viruses that replicate in the nucleus of post-mitotic cells use microtubules and the dynein/dynactin motor to traffic to the nuclear membrane, and deliver their genome through nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) into the nucleus. How virus particles (virions) or cellular cargo are transferred from microtubules to the NPC is unknown. Here, we analyzed trafficking of incoming cytoplasmic adenoviruses by single particle tracking and super-resolution microscopy...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
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