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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137627/prevalence-of-current-patterns-and-predictive-trends-of-multidrug-resistant-salmonella-typhi-in-sudan
#1
Ayman A Elshayeb, Abdelazim A Ahmed, Marmar A El Siddig, Adil A El Hussien
BACKGROUND: Enteric fever has persistence of great impact in Sudanese public health especially during rainy season when the causative agent Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi possesses pan endemic patterns in most regions of Sudan - Khartoum. OBJECTIVES: The present study aims to assess the recent state of antibiotics susceptibility of Salmonella Typhi with special concern to multidrug resistance strains and predict the emergence of new resistant patterns and outbreaks...
November 14, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128378/ebola-virus-disease-report-from-the-task-force-on-tropical-diseases-by-the-world-federation-of-societies-of-intensive-and-critical-care-medicine
#2
REVIEW
Guy A Richards, Tim Baker, Pravin Amin
Ebola virus is a filovirus that can cause fatal hemorrhagic fever (HF) and five distinct species exist that vary in terms of geographical distribution and virulence. Once the more virulent forms enter the human population, transmission occurs primarily through direct contact with infected body fluids and may result in significant outbreaks. The devastating has been the recent West African outbreak. Clinically, signs and symptoms are similar to those of the other VHFs [4]. The incubation period is 2-21days, followed by fever, headache, myalgia, diarrhoea, vomiting and dehydration; thereafter, there may be recovery or deterioration with collapse, neurological manifestations and bleeding, that can lead to a fatal outcome...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121461/nanomagnetic-system-for-rapid-diagnosis-of-acute-infection
#3
Ki Soo Park, Hoyoung Kim, Soojin Kim, Kyungheon Lee, Sohyeon Park, Jun Song, Changwook Min, Farhana Khanam, Rasheduzzaman Rashu, Taufiqur Rahman Bhuiyan, Edward T Ryan, Firdausi Qadri, Ralph Weissleder, Jinwoo Cheon, Richelle C Charles, Hakho Lee
Pathogen-activated antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) produce and secrete antigen-specific antibodies. ASCs are detectable in the peripheral blood as early as 3 days after antigen exposure, which makes ASCs a potential biomarker for early disease detection. Here, we present a magnetic capture and detection (MCD) assay for sensitive, on-site detection of ASCs. In this approach, ASCs are enriched through magnetic capture, and secreted antibodies are magnetically detected by a miniaturized nuclear magnetic resonance (μNMR) system...
November 14, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117102/mechanisms-of-entry-and-endosomal-pathway-of-african-swine-fever-virus
#4
REVIEW
Elena G. Sánchez, Daniel Pérez-Núñez, Yolanda Revilla
African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV) causes a serious swine disease that is endemic in Africa and Sardinia and presently spreading in Russia and neighboring countries, including Poland and recently, the Czech Republic. This uncontrolled dissemination is a world-wide threat, as no specific protection or vaccine is available. ASFV is a very complex icosahedral, enveloped virus about 200 nm in diameter, which infects several members of pigs. The virus enters host cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis that depends on energy, vacuolar pH and temperature...
November 8, 2017: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110638/application-of-the-2016-diagnostic-approach-for-autoimmune-encephalitis-from-lancet-neurology-to-chinese-patients
#5
Lin Li, Lin Sun, Rong Du, Yuanchu Zheng, Feifei Dai, Qiuying Ma, Jiawei Wang
BACKGROUND: A unified clinical approach to diagnose autoimmune encephalitis was published in Lancet Neurology in 2016. Purpose of our study is to examine the feasibility and reasonability of the 2016 "A clinical approach to diagnosis of autoimmune encephalitis" in China with a retrospective study. METHODS: We retrospectively collected 95 cases of autoimmune encephalitis and non autoimmune encephalitis cases with detailed clinical data from Beijing Tongren Hospital and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI)...
November 6, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109704/assessment-and-translation-of-the-antibody-in-lymphocyte-supernatant-als-assay-to-improve-the-diagnosis-of-enteric-fever-in-two-controlled-human-infection-models-and-an-endemic-area-of-nepal
#6
Thomas C Darton, Claire Jones, Sabina Dongol, Merryn Voysey, Christoph J Blohmke, Rajendra Shrestha, Abhilasha Karkey, Mila Shakya, Amit Arjyal, Claire S Waddington, Malick Gibani, Michael J Carter, Buddha Basnyat, Stephen Baker, Andrew J Pollard
New diagnostic tests for enteric fever are urgently needed to assist with timely antimicrobial treatment of patients and to measure the efficacy of prevention measures such as vaccination. In a novel translational approach, here we use two recently developed controlled human infection models (CHIM) of enteric fever to evaluate an antibody-in-lymphocyte supernatant (ALS) assay, which can detect recent IgA antibody production by circulating B cells in ex vivo mononuclear cell culture. We calculated the discriminative ability of the ALS assay to distinguish diagnosed cases in the two CHIM studies in Oxford, prior to evaluating blood culture-confirmed diagnoses of patients presenting with fever to hospital in an endemic areas of Kathmandu, Nepal...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104838/a-rare-coincidence-of-measles-with-typhoid-fever
#7
Omair Ul Haq Lodhi, Syed F Imam, Mahad Umer, Rizwan Zafar
Typhoid, otherwise known as enteric fever, and measles both have a high incidence worldwide. However, a coincidence of both has been only documented twice previously in 1866 and 1949. We present a case of a 24-year-old male who presented with high-grade fever and diffuse abdominal tenderness. He was diagnosed with typhoid initially, but during the course of his illness, he developed a maculopapular rash and pathognomonic Koplik's spots. Further investigations confirmed measles that was concurrent with typhoid...
August 30, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089020/transcriptomic-study-of-salmonella-enterica-subspecies-enterica-serovar-typhi-biofilm
#8
Khee Chian Jason Chin, Todd Duane Taylor, Maxime Hebrard, Kogaan Anbalagan, Marjan Ganjali Dashti, Kia Kien Phua
BACKGROUND: Typhoid fever is an acute systemic infection of humans caused by Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi). In chronic carriers, the bacteria survive the harsh environment of the gallbladder by producing biofilm. The phenotype of S. Typhi biofilm cells is significantly different from the free-swimming planktonic cells, and studies have shown that they are associated with antibiotic resistance, immune system evasion, and bacterial persistence. However, the mechanism of this transition and the events leading to biofilm formation are unknown...
October 31, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075261/induction-of-cell-cycle-and-nk-cell-responses-by-live-attenuated-oral-vaccines-against-typhoid-fever
#9
Christoph J Blohmke, Jennifer Hill, Thomas C Darton, Matheus Carvalho-Burger, Andrew Eustace, Claire Jones, Fernanda Schreiber, Martin R Goodier, Gordon Dougan, Helder I Nakaya, Andrew J Pollard
The mechanisms by which oral, live-attenuated vaccines protect against typhoid fever are poorly understood. Here, we analyze transcriptional responses after vaccination with Ty21a or vaccine candidate, M01ZH09. Alterations in response profiles were related to vaccine-induced immune responses and subsequent outcome after wild-type Salmonella Typhi challenge. Despite broad genetic similarity, we detected differences in transcriptional responses to each vaccine. Seven days after M01ZH09 vaccination, marked cell cycle activation was identified and associated with humoral immunogenicity...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073137/integration-of-enteric-fever-surveillance-into-the-who-coordinated-invasive-bacterial-vaccine-preventable-diseases-ib-vpd-platform-a-low-cost-approach-to-track-an-increasingly-important-disease
#10
Senjuti Saha, Maksuda Islam, Mohammad J Uddin, Shampa Saha, Rajib C Das, Abdullah H Baqui, Mathuram Santosham, Robert E Black, Stephen P Luby, Samir K Saha
BACKGROUND: Lack of surveillance systems and accurate data impede evidence-based decisions on treatment and prevention of enteric fever, caused by Salmonella Typhi/Paratyphi. The WHO coordinates a global Invasive Bacterial-Vaccine Preventable Diseases (IB-VPD) surveillance network but does not monitor enteric fever. We evaluated the feasibility and sustainability of integrating enteric fever surveillance into the ongoing IB-VPD platform. METHODOLOGIES: The IB-VPD surveillance system uses WHO definitions to enroll 2-59 month children hospitalized with possible pneumonia, sepsis or meningitis...
October 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041907/detection-of-bacterial-dna-by-in-situ-hybridization-in-patients-with-decompensated-liver-cirrhosis
#11
Shingo Usui, Hirotoshi Ebinuma, Po-Sung Chu, Nobuhiro Nakamoto, Yoshiyuki Yamagishi, Hidetsugu Saito, Takanori Kanai
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is often difficult to diagnose because bacteria in ascites cannot be detected accurately by conventional culture. In situ hybridization (ISH) was previously developed for rapid detection of genes from bacteria phagocytized by neutrophils. SBP may develop after bacteria enter into the systemic circulation following bacterial translocation. Therefore, we performed ISH to identify bacteria in blood samples collected from patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis (LC)...
October 17, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033762/typhoid-fever-and-acute-appendicitis-a-rare-association-not-yet-fully-formed
#12
Daniel J Sartori, Katherine Sun, Mary Ann Hopkins, Mark F Sloane
Infections caused by foodborne enteric pathogens including typhoidal and non-typhoidal Salmonella species can mimic symptoms of acute appendicitis. The association between such bacterial pathogens and pathology-proven acute appendicitis has been described, but this link is poorly understood. Here we describe a case of a young man with typhoid fever presenting with histology-proven acute appendicitis requiring urgent appendectomy, and provide a brief review of relevant literature to prompt more widespread recognition of this rare cause of a common surgical emergency...
May 2017: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031693/a-brief-review-on-the-immunological-scenario-and-recent-developmental-status-of-vaccines-against-enteric-fever
#13
REVIEW
Debaki Ranjan Howlader, Hemanta Koley, Suhrid Maiti, Ushasi Bhaumik, Priyadarshini Mukherjee, Shanta Dutta
Enteric fever has been one of the leading causes of severe illness and deaths worldwide. S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A, B and C are important enteric fever-causing organisms globally. This infection causes about 21 million cases among which 222,000 typhoid related deaths occurred in 2015. These estimates do not reflect the ultimate and real status of the disease due to the lack of unified diagnostic and proper reporting system from typhoid endemic and other regions. Current control strategies have become increasingly ineffective due to the emergence of multi-drug resistance among the strains...
November 7, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018810/renaissance-of-conventional-first-line-antibiotics-in-salmonella-enterica-clinical-isolates-assessment-of-mics-for-therapeutic-antimicrobials-in-enteric-fever-cases-from-nepal
#14
Puspa Raj Khanal, Deepa Satyal, Anjeela Bhetwal, Anjila Maharjan, Shreena Shakya, Snehika Tandukar, Narayan Prasad Parajuli
Enteric fever caused by Salmonella enterica is a life-threatening systemic illness of gastrointestinal tract especially in tropical countries. Antimicrobial therapy is generally indicated but resistance towards commonly used antibiotics has limited their therapeutic usefulness. Therefore, we aimed to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern by minimum inhibitory concentration method of common therapeutic regimens against Salmonella enterica from enteric fever clinical cases. Salmonella enterica clinical isolates recovered from the patients with suspected enteric fever whose blood samples were submitted to microbiology laboratory of Manmohan Memorial Community Hospital, Kathmandu, from March 2016 to August 2016, were studied...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991839/fecal-microbial-transplant-in-children-with-ulcerative-colitis-a-randomized-double-blinded-placebo-controlled-pilot-study
#15
Sonia Michail
OBJECTIVE: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a condition characterized by chronic inflammation of the colon and is related to a genetically and environmentally-generated altered immune response to the enteric microbiome. Previous work in the PI laboratory suggests that children with UC harbor a unique gut microbial profile, which can predict therapeutic response. We hypothesized that children with ulcerative colitis will benefit from fecal transplant therapy (FMT). To this date there have been a number of reports describing the role of FMT in this disease albeit without uniform success and without controlled pediatric studies...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970767/outbreak-of-cerebrospinal-meningitis-in-kebbi-state-nigeria
#16
G J Gana, S Badung, A U Bunza, S Gidado, P Nguku
BACKGROUND: Cerebrospinal meningitis (CSM), is a major public health problem still affecting tropical countries particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Group A and occasionally group C account for large scale epidemics in many countries in the African meningitis belt. The study aimed to describe the pattern of cerebrospinal meningitis outbreak in Kebbi state in 2015. METHOD: Information on cases and deaths was collected throughout the duration of the meningitis outbreak in all affected local government areas of Kebbi state...
June 2017: Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969659/co-trimoxazole-versus-azithromycin-for-the-treatment-of-undifferentiated-febrile-illness-in-nepal-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Sunil Pokharel, Buddha Basnyat, Amit Arjyal, Saruna Pathak Mahat, Raj Kumar Kc, Abhusani Bhuju, Buddhi Poudyal, Evelyne Kestelyn, Ritu Shrestha, Dung Nguyen Thi Phuong, Rajkumar Thapa, Manan Karki, Sabina Dongol, Abhilasha Karkey, Marcel Wolbers, Stephen Baker, Guy Thwaites
BACKGROUND: Undifferentiated febrile illness (UFI) includes typhoid and typhus fevers and generally designates fever without any localizing signs. UFI is a great therapeutic challenge in countries like Nepal because of the lack of available point-of-care, rapid diagnostic tests. Often patients are empirically treated as presumed enteric fever. Due to the development of high-level resistance to traditionally used fluoroquinolones against enteric fever, azithromycin is now commonly used to treat enteric fever/UFI...
October 2, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961918/high-rates-of-enteric-fever-diagnosis-and-lower-burden-of-culture-confirmed-disease-in-peri-urban-and-rural-nepal
#18
Jason R Andrews, Krista Vaidya, Caryn Bern, Dipesh Tamrakar, Shawn Wen, Surendra Madhup, Rajeev Shrestha, Biraj Karmacharya, Bibush Amatya, Rajendra Koju, Shiva Raj Adhikari, Elizabeth Hohmann, Edward T Ryan, Isaac I Bogoch
Background: In South Asia, data on enteric fever are sparse outside of urban areas. We characterized enteric fever diagnosis patterns and the burden of culture-confirmed cases in peri-urban and rural Nepal. Methods: We used national reports to estimate enteric fever diagnosis rates over 20 years (1994-2014) and conducted a prospective study of patients presenting with a >72-hour history of fever to 4 peri-urban and rural healthcare facilities (during August 2013-June 2016)...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948961/pefloxacin-as-a-surrogate-marker-for-quinolone-susceptibility-in-salmonella-enterica-serovars-typhi-paratyphi-a-in-india
#19
Priyanka Sharma, Sushila Dahiya, Bhavana Kumari, Veeraraghavan Balaji, Seema Sood, Bimal Kumar Das, Arti Kapil
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: The emergence of resistance to fluoroquinolones in enteric fever despite the pathogen being susceptible by in vitro laboratory results, led to repeated changes in Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) guidelines for this class of antibiotics to have specific and sensitive interpretative criteria. In 2015, CLSI added pefloxacin disk diffusion criteria as a surrogate marker for fluoroquinolone susceptibility. This study was carried out to evaluate the use of pefloxacin as a surrogate marker for ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin and levofloxacin susceptibility in clinical isolates of Salmonella Typhi and S...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931025/the-clinical-and-microbiological-characteristics-of-enteric-fever-in-cambodia-2008-2015
#20
Laura M F Kuijpers, Thong Phe, Chhun H Veng, Kruy Lim, Sovann Ieng, Chun Kham, Nizar Fawal, Laetitia Fabre, Simon Le Hello, Erika Vlieghe, François-Xavier Weill, Jan Jacobs, Willy E Peetermans
BACKGROUND: Enteric fever remains a major public health problem in low resource settings and antibiotic resistance is increasing. In Asia, an increasing proportion of infections is caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A, which for a long time was assumed to cause a milder clinical syndrome compared to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. METHODOLOGY: A retrospective chart review study was conducted of 254 unique cases of blood culture confirmed enteric fever who presented at a referral adult hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia between 2008 and 2015...
September 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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