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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931025/the-clinical-and-microbiological-characteristics-of-enteric-fever-in-cambodia-2008-2015
#1
Laura M F Kuijpers, Thong Phe, Chhun H Veng, Kruy Lim, Sovann Ieng, Chun Kham, Nizar Fawal, Laetitia Fabre, Simon Le Hello, Erika Vlieghe, François-Xavier Weill, Jan Jacobs, Willy E Peetermans
BACKGROUND: Enteric fever remains a major public health problem in low resource settings and antibiotic resistance is increasing. In Asia, an increasing proportion of infections is caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A, which for a long time was assumed to cause a milder clinical syndrome compared to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. METHODOLOGY: A retrospective chart review study was conducted of 254 unique cases of blood culture confirmed enteric fever who presented at a referral adult hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia between 2008 and 2015...
September 20, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929534/emerging-arboviruses-in-rio-grande-do-sul-brazil-chikungunya-and-zika-outbreaks-2014-2016
#2
Tatiana Schäffer Gregianini, Tani Ranieri, Cátia Favreto, Zenaida Marion Alves Nunes, Gabriela Luchiari Tumioto Giannini, Nara Druck Sanberg, Marilda Tereza Mar da Rosa, Ana Beatriz Gorini da Veiga
QUESTIONS INVESTIGATED: The recent emergence of arboviruses such as Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) in Brazil has posed a threat to human health and to the country's economy. Outbreaks occur mainly in tropical areas; however, increasing number of cases have been observed in Rio Grande do Sul (RS), the Southernmost state; therefore, surveillance of these arboviruses is essential for public health measures. DESIGN: In this study, we analyzed 1276 samples from patients with clinically suspected arboviral diseases between 2014 and 2016...
September 20, 2017: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922657/methods-employed-in-cytofluorometric-assessment-of-eryptosis-the-suicidal-erythrocyte-death
#3
Mohamed Jemaà, Myriam Fezai, Rosi Bissinger, Florian Lang
Suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis contributes to or even accounts for anemia in a wide variety of clinical conditions, such as iron deficiency, dehydration, hyperphosphatemia, vitamin D excess, chronic kidney disease (CKD), hemolytic-uremic syndrome, diabetes, hepatic failure, malignancy, arteriitis, sepsis, fever, malaria, sickle-cell disease, beta-thalassemia, Hb-C and G6PD-deficiency, Wilsons disease, as well as advanced age. Moreover, eryptosis is triggered by a myriad of xenobiotics and endogenous substances including cytotoxic drugs and uremic toxins...
September 1, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922626/the-typhi-colonization-factor-tcf-is-encoded-by-multiple-non-typhoidal-salmonella-serovars-but-exhibits-a-varying-expression-profile-and-interchanging-contribution-to-intestinal-colonization
#4
Shalhevet Azriel, Alina Goren, Inna Shomer, Gili Aviv, Galia Rahav, Ohad Gal-Mor
Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A are human-restricted pathogens and the leading causative agents of enteric fever. The Typhi colonization factor (Tcf) is a chaperone-usher fimbria, thought to play a role in the host-specificity of typhoidal serovars. Here we show that the tcf cluster (tcfABCD tinR tioA) is present in at least 25 non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) serovars and demonstrate its native expression in clinically-important serovars including Schwarzengrund, 9,12:l,v:-, Choleraesuis, Bredeney, Heidelberg, Montevideo, Virchow and Infantis...
September 18, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883240/listeria-monocytogenes-septicemia-and-meningitis-caused-by-listeria-enteritis-complicating-ulcerative-colitis
#5
Takahiro Inoue, Toshinao Itani, Noriko Inomata, Kazuya Hara, Ikuhisa Takimoto, Shunya Iseki, Kensuke Hamada, Kanna Adachi, Shunsuke Okuyama, Yukari Shimada, Motohito Hayashi, Jun Mimura
An 80-year-old man, who had been diagnosed with ulcerative colitis, was admitted due to a fever and bloody diarrhea and was treated with a glucocorticoid and azathioprine. After 5 days, he developed an impaired consciousness, headache, and neck stiffness. A sample of the colonic mucosa, blood cultures, and cerebrospinal fluid revealed Listeria monocytogenes infection. Intravenous ampicillin improved the symptoms of fever, bloody diarrhea, and headache without any neurological sequelae. Physicians should consider that Listeria enteritis complicating ulcerative colitis can cause septicemia and meningitis in immunosuppressed patients...
September 6, 2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876594/salmonella-typhimurium-infected-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-endovascular-repair-with-secondary-aortoenteric-fistula-formation
#6
M Dickfos, K Garnham, J Jenkins
Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) is a widely accepted and used technique for the treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). However, it comes with a unique set of complications, two of the rarer being infection and aorto-enteric fistula formation. Due to the infrequency of the situation, there are currently no guidelines for their management. A 75-year-old male presented with vague abdominal pain and fevers. He was diagnosed with an infected abdominal aortic EVAR stent graft on computer tomography imaging...
September 2017: South African Journal of Surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874543/structure-of-the-ebola-virus-envelope-protein-mper-tm-domain-and-its-interaction-with-the-fusion-loop-explains-their-fusion-activity
#7
Jinwoo Lee, David A Nyenhuis, Elizabeth A Nelson, David S Cafiso, Judith M White, Lukas K Tamm
Ebolavirus (EBOV), an enveloped filamentous RNA virus causing severe hemorrhagic fever, enters cells by macropinocytosis and membrane fusion in a late endosomal compartment. Fusion is mediated by the EBOV envelope glycoprotein GP, which consists of subunits GP1 and GP2. GP1 binds to cellular receptors, including Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) protein, and GP2 is responsible for low pH-induced membrane fusion. Proteolytic cleavage and NPC1 binding at endosomal pH lead to conformational rearrangements of GP2 that include exposing the hydrophobic fusion loop (FL) for insertion into the cellular target membrane and forming a six-helix bundle structure...
September 5, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860101/development-and-application-of-a-recombinant-m-protein-based-indirect-elisa-for-the-detection-of-porcine-deltacoronavirus-igg-antibodies
#8
Shang-Xing Luo, Jing-Hui Fan, Tanja Opriessnig, Jing-Mei Di, Bao-Jing Liu, Yu-Zhu Zuo
Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a recently identified coronavirus in the genus Deltacoronavirus that can cause enteric disease including diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration and mortality in neonatal piglets. Serological assays to detect anti-PDCoV antibodies are presently limited to certain laboratories and geographic regions. In this study, a recombinant M protein-based indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PDCoV-rM ELISA) was developed and utilized to determine the prevalence of anti-PDCoV IgG in Hebei province...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858232/biofilm-producing-salmonella-typhi-chronic-colonization-and-development-of-gallbladder-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Enea Gino Di Domenico, Ilaria Cavallo, Martina Pontone, Luigi Toma, Fabrizio Ensoli
Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhi is the aetiological agent of typhoid or enteric fever. In a subset of individuals, S. Typhi colonizes the gallbladder causing an asymptomatic chronic infection. Nonetheless, these asymptomatic carriers provide a reservoir for further spreading of the disease. Epidemiological studies performed in regions where S. Typhi is endemic, revealed that the majority of chronically infected carriers also harbour gallstones, which in turn, have been indicated as a primary predisposing factor for the onset of gallbladder cancer (GC)...
August 31, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840040/predictors-of-hypertension-in-a-population-of-undergraduate-students-in-sierra-leone
#10
Aiah Lebbie, Richard Wadsworth, Janette Saidu, Camilla Bangura
We report on the first survey of hypertension in undergraduates in Sierra Leone. Levels of hypertension (12%) and obesity (4%) appear low compared to the general population but given the rapid increase of both and the expectation that many graduates will enter the formal employment sector and a sedentary lifestyle, there is still cause for concern. We measured their BMI (body mass index) and used a questionnaire to investigate demographic and lifestyle choices. In agreement with most authorities, we found that BMI and age were statistically significant predictors of systolic and diastolic blood pressure but that the explanatory power was low (r = 0...
2017: International Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827431/tubo-ovarian-abscess-infected-by-salmonella-typhi
#11
Paban Sharma, Abhusani Bhuju, Ruhee Tuladhar, Christopher M Parry, Buddha Basnyat
We report a case of a tubo-ovarian abscess infected with Salmonella enterica serotype typhi A 19-year-old Nepalese woman presented to a hospital in Kathmandu with lower abdominal pain, constipation, fever and a non-healing, suppurative surgical wound from an emergency caesarian section performed 2 months previously at 37 weeks of pregnancy. She also had an exploratory laparotomy for an appendix perforation with peritonitis at 25 weeks of gestation. Her wound infection did not respond to cloxacillin and she had an exploratory laparotomy, and a tubo-ovarian abscess was found from which S...
August 20, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826826/the-relevance-of-kalikrein-kinin-system-via-activation-of-b2-receptor-in-lps-induced-fever-in-rats
#12
Denis de Melo Soares, Danielle R Santos, Christoph Rummel, Daniela Ott, Míriam C C Melo, Joachim Roth, João B Calixto, Glória E P Souza
PURPOSE: This study evaluated the involvement of endogenous kallikrein-kinin system and the bradykinin (BK) B1 and B2 receptors on LPS- induced fever and the POA cells involved in this response. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Male Wistar rats received either i.v. (1 mg/kg), i.c.v. (20 nmol) or i.h. (2 nmol) injections of icatibant (B2 receptor antagonist) 30 or 60 min, respectively, before the stimuli. DALBK (B1 receptor antagonist) was given either 15min before BK (i...
August 19, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802757/the-typhoid-vaccine-acceleration-consortium-tyvac-vaccine-effectiveness-study-designs-accelerating-the-introduction-of-typhoid-conjugate-vaccines-and-reducing-the-global-burden-of-enteric-fever-report-from-a-meeting-held-on-26-27-october-2016-oxford-uk
#13
James E Meiring, Malick Gibani
Typhoid fever is estimated to cause between 11.9-26.9 million infections globally each year with 129,000-216,510 deaths. Access to improved water sources have reduced disease incidence in parts of the world but the use of efficacious vaccines is seen as an important public health tool for countries with a high disease burden. A new generation of Vi typhoid conjugate vaccines (TCVs), licensed for use in young children and expected to provide longer lasting protection than previous vaccines, are now available...
September 12, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796789/multiple-introductions-of-the-dengue-vector-aedes-aegypti-into-california
#14
Evlyn Pless, Andrea Gloria-Soria, Benjamin R Evans, Vicki Kramer, Bethany G Bolling, Walter J Tabachnick, Jeffrey R Powell
The yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti inhabits much of the tropical and subtropical world and is a primary vector of dengue, Zika, and chikungunya viruses. Breeding populations of A. aegypti were first reported in California (CA) in 2013. Initial genetic analyses using 12 microsatellites on collections from Northern CA in 2013 indicated the South Central US region as the likely source of the introduction. We expanded genetic analyses of CA A. aegypti by: (a) examining additional Northern CA samples and including samples from Southern CA, (b) including more southern US populations for comparison, and (c) genotyping a subset of samples at 15,698 SNPs...
August 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796771/is-a-rheumatic-fever-register-the-best-surveillance-tool-to-evaluate-rheumatic-fever-control-in-the-auckland-region
#15
Te Aro Moxon, Peter Reed, Timothy Jelleyman, Philippa Anderson, Alison Leversha, Catherine Jackson, Diana Lennon
AIM: To determine the most accurate data source for acute rheumatic fever (ARF) epidemiology in the Auckland region. METHOD: To assess coverage of the Auckland Regional Rheumatic Fever Register (ARRFR), (1998-2010) for children <15 years and resident in Auckland at the time of illness, register, hospitalisation and notification data were compared. A consistent definition was applied to determine definite and probable cases of ARF using clinical records. (www...
August 11, 2017: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746227/diagnostic-yield-of-stool-culture-and-predictive-factors-for-positive-culture-in-patients-with-diarrheal-illness
#16
Jae Young Lee, Sun Young Cho, Hannah Sun Hae Hwang, Ja Young Ryu, Jongjin Lee, In Do Song, Beom Jin Kim, Jeong Wook Kim, Sae Kyung Chang, Chang Hwan Choi
We aimed to investigate the diagnostic yield of stool cultures and identify predictive factors for positive cultures in patients with diarrheal illness.A total of 13,327 patients who underwent stool cultures due to diarrheal illness were reviewed. Stool cultures were performed for enteric pathogens, including Salmonella, Shigella, Vibrio, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Yersinia. The culture-positive group was compared with the culture-negative group who were randomly selected from culture negative patients.A total of 196 patients (1...
July 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739115/a-recombinant-protein-of-salmonella-typhi-induces-humoral-and-cell-mediated-immune-responses-including-memory-responses
#17
Sayan Das, Rimi Chowdhury, Shubhamoy Ghosh, Santasabuj Das
Gram negative enteric bacteria, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), the etiological agent of typhoid fever is a major public health problem in developing countries. While a permanent solution to the problem would require improved sanitation, food and water hygiene, controlling the infection by vaccination is urgently required due to the emergence of multidrug resistant strains in multiple countries. The currently licensed vaccines are moderately efficacious with limited applicability, and no recommended vaccines exist for younger children...
July 21, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730976/salmonella-intracellular-lifestyles-and-their-impact-on-host-to-host-transmission
#18
M Graciela Pucciarelli, Francisco García-Del Portillo
More than a century ago, infections by Salmonella were already associated with foodborne enteric diseases with high morbidity in humans and cattle. Intestinal inflammation and diarrhea are hallmarks of infections caused by nontyphoidal Salmonella serovars, and these pathologies facilitate pathogen transmission to the environment. In those early times, physicians and microbiologists also realized that typhoid and paratyphoid fever caused by some Salmonella serovars could be transmitted by "carriers," individuals outwardly healthy or at most suffering from some minor chronic complaint...
July 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727726/a-cross-sectional-seroepidemiological-survey-of-typhoid-fever-in-fiji
#19
Conall H Watson, Stephen Baker, Colleen L Lau, Kitione Rawalai, Mere Taufa, Jerimaia Coriakula, Nga Tran Vu Thieu, Tan Trinh Van, Dung Tran Thi Ngoc, Niel Hens, John H Lowry, Ruklanthi de Alwis, Jorge Cano, Kylie Jenkins, E Kim Mulholland, Eric J Nilles, Mike Kama, W John Edmunds
Fiji, an upper-middle income state in the Pacific Ocean, has experienced an increase in confirmed case notifications of enteric fever caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi). To characterize the epidemiology of typhoid exposure, we conducted a cross-sectional sero-epidemiological survey measuring IgG against the Vi antigen of S. Typhi to estimate the effect of age, ethnicity, and other variables on seroprevalence. Epidemiologically relevant cut-off titres were established using a mixed model analysis of data from recovering culture-confirmed typhoid cases...
July 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720886/spatio-temporal-variations-of-typhoid-and-paratyphoid-fevers-in-zhejiang-province-china-from-2005-to-2015
#20
Hua Gu, Wenjie Fan, Kui Liu, Shuwen Qin, Xiuyang Li, Jianmin Jiang, Enfu Chen, Yibiao Zhou, Qingwu Jiang
Typhoid and paratyphoid are two common enteric infectious diseases with serious gastrointestinal symptoms. Data was collected of the registered cases in Zhejiang Province from 2005 to 2015. The epidemiological characteristics were investigated and high-risk regions were detected with descriptive epidemiological methods and in-depth spatio-temporal statistics. A sharp decline in the incidences of both diseases was observed. The seasonal patterns were identified with typhoid and paratyphoid, one in summer from May to September was observed from 2005 to 2010 and the other lesser one in spring from January to March only observed from 2005 to 2007...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
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