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enteric fever

Yolanda Revilla, Daniel Pérez-Núñez, Juergen A Richt
African swine fever (ASF) is an acute and often fatal disease affecting domestic pigs and wild boar, with severe economic consequences for affected countries. ASF is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa and the island of Sardinia, Italy. Since 2007, the virus emerged in the republic of Georgia, and since then spread throughout the Caucasus region and Russia. Outbreaks have also been reported in Belarus, Ukraine, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Romania, Moldova, Czech Republic, and Poland, threatening neighboring West European countries...
2018: Advances in Virus Research
Fariha Hasan, Mohammad O Khan, Mukarram Ali
Introduction Pakistan is extremely susceptible to an influenza outbreak, as it shares borders with the most affected countries, namely China and India. The medical and dental students come into direct contact with the affected population and should be aware of the risk factors and signs and symptoms pertaining to swine influenza virus (SIV). Hence, this survey was conducted to assess the knowledge, perceptions and self-care practices of the medical and dental students with regards to this pandemic. Methods A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the swine flu-related knowledge, attitudes and practices of the medical and dental students at various institutions in Karachi, Pakistan...
January 9, 2018: Curēus
Nikolaus Ackermann, Durdica Marosevic, Stefan Hörmansdorfer, Ute Eberle, Gabriele Rieder, Bianca Treis, Anja Berger, Heribert Bischoff, Katja Bengs, Regina Konrad, Wolfgang Hautmann, Katharina Schönberger, Anne Belting, Gisela Schlenk, Gabriele Margos, Martin Hoch, Friedrich Pürner, Volker Fingerle, Bernhard Liebl, Andreas Sing
Background and aimAs a consequence of socioeconomic and political crises in many parts of the world, many European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) countries have faced an increasing number of migrants. In the German federal state of Bavaria, a mandatory health screening approach is implemented, where individuals applying for asylum have to undergo a medical examination that includes serological testing for HIV and hepatitis B, screening for tuberculosis, and until September 2015, stool examination for Salmonella spp...
March 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Zoë Pieters, Neil J Saad, Marina Antillón, Virginia E Pitzer, Joke Bilcke
Enteric fever is a febrile illness, occurring mostly in Asia and Africa, which can present as a severe and possibly fatal disease. Currently, a case fatality rate (CFR) of 1% is assumed when evaluating the global burden of enteric fever. Until now, no meta-analysis has been conducted to summarize mortality from enteric fever. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to aggregate all available evidence. We estimated an overall CFR of 2.49% (95% CI: 1.65%-3.75%, n=44), and a CFR in hospitalized patients of 4...
March 7, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Przemyslaw Kosinski, Urszula Sarzynska-Nowacka, Magdalena Fiolna, Miroslaw Wielgos
It is now well established that acetylsalicylic acid - one of the most widely prescribed drugs today - has brought a new era in maternal-fetal medicine. The History of medicine mentions several antecedents. Extracts made from willow contained in clay tablets are reported in both ancient Sumer and Egypt. In 400 BC, Hippocrates referred to the use of salicylic tea to reduce fevers. In the 1950s, acetylsalicylic acid entered the Guinness Book of Records as the highest selling painkiller. There is little doubt that acetylsalicylic acid - one of the first drugs to enter common usage - remains one of the most researched drugs in the world...
2018: Ginekologia Polska
Anna M Stewart-Ibarra, Sadie J Ryan, Aileen Kenneson, Christine A King, Mark Abbott, Arturo Barbachano-Guerrero, Efraín Beltrán-Ayala, Mercy J Borbor-Cordova, Washington B Cárdenas, Cinthya Cueva, Julia L Finkelstein, Christina D Lupone, Richard G Jarman, Irina Maljkovic Berry, Saurabh Mehta, Mark Polhemus, Mercy Silva, Timothy P Endy
Here, we report the findings from the first 2 years of an arbovirus surveillance study conducted in Machala, Ecuador, a dengue-endemic region (2014-2015). Patients with suspected dengue virus (DENV) infections (index cases, N = 324) were referred from five Ministry of Health clinical sites. A subset of DENV-positive index cases ( N = 44) were selected, and individuals from the index household and four neighboring homes within 200 m were recruited ( N = 400). Individuals who entered the study, other than the index cases, are referred to as associates...
March 5, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Vikas Shrivastava, Sohaib Ahmad, Garima Mittal, Vibha Gupta, Nadia Shirazi, Varun Kalra
Background: In this follow-up study, we aimed to establish the cut-off values of the volume, conductivity and scatter (VCS) parameters of leucocytes that significantly differ in dengue fever, malaria, scrub typhus and enteric fever, as described in our pilot study. Methods: A prospective observational case-control study was undertaken on patients with an established diagnosis of acute malaria (n=476), dengue fever (n=927), scrub typhus (n=425), bacterial sepsis (n=1598) or enteric fever (n=885) and the haematological and VCS data obtained by the Coulter LH 750 analyser were compared with controls...
March 2, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Xiang Wu, Chenbo Yu, Tao Li, Le Lin, Qiong Xu, QingGuo Zhu, Liefu Ye, Xiangxun Gao
To detect the best antibiotic protocol for prostate biopsy and to assess the potential risk factors postbiopsy in Chinese patients.A total of 1526 patients underwent biopsy were assessed retrospectively. The effect of 3 antibiotic protocols was compared, including fluoroquinolone (FQ) monotherapy, third-generation cephalosporin combined with FQ and targeted antibiotics according to the prebiopsy rectal swab culture result. Postbiopsy infection (PBI) was defined as fever and/or active urinary tract symptoms such as dysuria or frequency with pyuria and/or leucocytosis, sepsis is defined as the presence of clinically or microbiologically documented infection in conjunction with systemic inflammatory response syndrome...
January 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Manuel Barrera O, Rodrigo Barrera M, Matías de la Rivera V, Javier Vela U, Gustavo Mönckeberg F
Although gastrointestinal symptoms are not rare in Systemic lupus erythematosus, enteritis is an atypical manifestation of the disease. We report a 54 year-old woman who presented acute symptoms of diarrhea, fever and abdominal pain, receiving empiric antibiotic therapy for bacterial enteritis with no response. Computed tomography showed diffuse small intestine inflammation and serositis. Antinuclear antibodies, anti-Ro and anti-La were positive on blood tests. A lupic enteropathy was diagnosed and steroid treatment was initiated, with subsequent clinical improvement...
October 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
George Kuo, Wei-Chiao Sun, Yueh-An Lu, Chao-Yu Chen, Huang-Kai Kao, Yu Lin, Yung-Chang Chen, Cheng-Chieh Hung, Ya-Chung Tian, Hsiang-Hao Hsu
Purpose: Infectious spondylodiscitis is a serious disease that can lead to permanent neurological deficit. Because there were only a few case reports or series featuring infectious spondylodiscitis in chronic dialysis patients, we investigated the epidemiology and outcome in the chronic dialysis patients versus general population. Materials and methods: We retrospectively identified chronic dialysis patients admitted for infectious spondylodiscitis between January 2002 and December 2015...
2018: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
Shinji Fukui, Yusuke Iemura, Yoshiaki Matsumura, Yoriaki Kagebayashi, Yuki Hotta, Sayaka Yoshida, Shoji Samma
An 11-year-old boy was referred to our department with the chief complaint of acute urinary retention. He had had a history of viral enteritis a few days before the onset of dysuria. He presented with a slight fever, mild headache and weakness of the extremities. A cerebrospinal fluid examination showed the elevation of cell number (cell number : 158/3, polynuclear cells : 29/3, and mononuclear cells : 129/3). Although spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) did not show abnormal findings, fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) image of the brain MRI showed a high signal area on the cerebral cortex...
January 2018: Hinyokika Kiyo. Acta Urologica Japonica
Alois Jungbauer
New approaches for vaccination must be developed in order to meet the grand challenges for emerging infectious diseases. Exosomes now enter vaccine development and these are strategies are meeting these global challenges, as demonstrated by Anticoli et al, in this issue of Biotechnology Journal [1] Using exosome vaccines has been now been demonstrated in-vivo for several viruses such as Ebola Virus VP24, VP40 and NP, Influenza Virus NP, Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever NP, West Nile Virus NS3, and Hepatitis C Virus NS3...
February 22, 2018: Biotechnology Journal
Vienna R Brown, Sarah N Bevins
African swine fever (ASF) is caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV), which can cause substantial morbidity and mortality events in swine. The virus can be transmitted via direct and indirect contacts with infected swine, their products, or competent vector species, especially Ornithodoros ticks. Africa and much of Eastern Europe are endemic for ASF; a viral introduction to countries that are currently ASF free could have severe economic consequences due to the loss of production from infected animals and the trade restrictions that would likely be imposed as a result of an outbreak...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Ivan Delgado-Enciso, Brenda Paz-Michel, Valery Melnikov, Jose Guzman-Esquivel, Francisco Espinoza-Gomez, Alejandro D Soriano-Hernandez, Iram P Rodriguez-Sanchez, Margarita L Martinez-Fierro, Gabriel Ceja-Espiritu, Bertha A Olmedo-Buenrostro, Hector R Galvan-Salazar, Osiris G Delgado-Enciso, Josuel Delgado-Enciso, Uriel A Lopez-Lemus, Daniel A Montes-Galindo
Arthralgia is a potentially incapacitating condition and a persistent symptom in chronic or acute episodes of Chikungunya fever caused by infection with the Chikungunya virus (CHIKV). To the best of our knowledge, there are no reports on risk factors associated with the intensity of arthralgias in typical acute episodes of the disease. Although a number of studies have reported on risk factors associated with the development of the chronic stage of the disease, smoking habits have not been analyzed. Smoking is an interesting factor to consider since it is the main environmental risk factor for the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a similar disease to CHIKV in many aspects...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Elizabeth J Klemm, Sadia Shakoor, Andrew J Page, Farah Naz Qamar, Kim Judge, Dania K Saeed, Vanessa K Wong, Timothy J Dallman, Satheesh Nair, Stephen Baker, Ghazala Shaheen, Shahida Qureshi, Mohammad Tahir Yousafzai, Muhammad Khalid Saleem, Zahra Hasan, Gordon Dougan, Rumina Hasan
Antibiotic resistance is a major problem in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, the causative agent of typhoid. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates are prevalent in parts of Asia and Africa and are often associated with the dominant H58 haplotype. Reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones is also widespread, and sporadic cases of resistance to third-generation cephalosporins or azithromycin have also been reported. Here, we report the first large-scale emergence and spread of a novel S  Typhi clone harboring resistance to three first-line drugs (chloramphenicol, ampicillin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole) as well as fluoroquinolones and third-generation cephalosporins in Sindh, Pakistan, which we classify as extensively drug resistant (XDR)...
February 20, 2018: MBio
Isao Tabei, Shigeru Tsuchida, Tetsuro Akashi, Katsuichiro Ookubo, Satoru Hosoda, Yoshiyuki Furukawa, Yoshiaki Tanabe, Yoshiko Tamura
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The initial complications associated with infusion of enteral nutrition (EN) for clinical and nutritional care are vomiting, aspiration pneumonia, and diarrhea. There are many recommendations to prevent these complications. A novel method involving a viscosity-regulating pectin solution has been demonstrated. In Japan, this method along with the other so-called "semi-solid EN" approaches has been widely used in practice. However, there has been no randomized clinical trial to prove the efficiency and safety of a viscosity-regulating pectin solution in EN management...
February 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
Alan C Gibbs, Ruth Steele, Gaohua Liu, Brett A Tounge, Gaetano T Montelione
Dengue virus poses a significant global health threat as the source of increasingly deleterious dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever, and dengue shock syndrome. As no specific antiviral treatment exists for dengue infection, considerable effort is being applied to discover therapies and drugs for maintenance and prevention of these afflictions. The virus is primarily transmitted by mosquitoes, and infection occurs following viral endocytosis by host cells. Upon entering the cell, viral RNA is translated into a large multisubunit polyprotein which is post-translationally cleaved into mature, structural and nonstructural (NS) proteins...
February 21, 2018: Biochemistry
Victoria Birlutiu, Rares Mircea Birlutiu
RATIONALE: Haemolytic-uremic syndrome is a rare but serious complication of bacterial and viral infections, which is characterized by the triad of: acute renal failure, microangiopathic haemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia, sometimes severe, requiring peritoneal dialysis. In Europe, hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) in paediatric pathology is primarily caused by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157, followed by O26. Beside these etiologies, there are other bacterial and viral infections, and also noninfectious ones that have been associated to lead to HUS as well: in the progression of neoplasia, medication-related, post-transplantation, during pregnancy or associated with the antiphospholipid syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus or family causes with autosomal dominant or recessive inheritance...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Madeeha Subhan, Waleed Sadiq
Infectious diseases are one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Typhoid has its own contribution to the disease burden, especially in Pakistan and other tropical countries. Herein, we present a case of enteric fever with a rare presentation. Our patient is a 20-year-old man who gradually developed high-grade fever lasting seven days associated with rigors and chills. No additional accompanying systemic signs helped to localize the infection. After extensive laboratory testing, his typhoid serology was positive along with leukocytopenia and thrombocytopenia...
December 6, 2017: Curēus
N Pusterla, R Vin, C M Leutenegger, L D Mittel, T J Divers
A new enteric virus of adult horses, equine coronavirus (ECoV), has recently been recognized. It is associated with fever, lethargy, anorexia, and less frequently, colic and diarrhea. This enteric virus is transmitted via the feco-oral route and horses become infected by ingesting fecally contaminated feed and water. Various outbreaks have been reported since 2010 from Japan, Europe and the USA. While the clinical signs are fairly non-specific, lymphopenia and neutropenia are often seen. Specific diagnosis is made by the detection of ECoV in feces by either quantitative real-time PCR, electron microscopy or antigen-capture ELISA...
January 2018: Veterinary Journal
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