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Mariana V Meireles, Ana Roberta P Pascom, Elisabeth C Duarte
OBJECTIVE: To identify clinical, sociodemographic and treatment-related factors associated with early virological response in HIV-infected adults starting antiretroviral treatment (ART) in Brazil in 2014-2015. METHODS: Data from four information systems from the Brazilian AIDS Program were combined to create a historical cohort. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to assess the likelihood of not achieving virological suppression (VLS), defined as having either a viral load count (VL) >200 copies/mL or an aids-related death recorded within 180±90 days after treatment initiation...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
A J Nguyen, C Lee, M Schojan, P Bolton
Background: Recent political changes in Myanmar provide opportunities to expand mental health (MH) services. Given Myanmar's unique situation, we felt a need to assemble and interpret available local information on MH in Myanmar to inform service design, rather than simply drawing lessons from other countries. We reviewed academic and gray literature on the experience of MH problems in Myanmar and the suitability, availability, and effectiveness of MH and psychosocial programming. Methods: We searched: (1) Google Scholar; (2) PubMed; (3) PsychInfo; (4) English-language Myanmar journals and databases; (5) the Mental Health and Psychosocial Support (MHPSS) Network resources website; (6) websites and (7) local contacts of organizations identified during 2010 and 2013 mapping exercise of MHPSS providers; (8) the Myanmar Information Management Unit (MIMU) website; (9) University libraries in Yangon and Mandalay; and (10) identified local MH professionals...
2018: Global Mental Health
Y J Zhang, D H Zhou, Z P Bai, F X Xue
Objective: To quantitatively analyze the current status and development trends regarding the land use regression (LUR) models on ambient air pollution studies. Methods: Relevant literature from the PubMed database before June 30, 2017 was analyzed, using the Bibliographic Items Co-occurrence Matrix Builder (BICOMB 2.0). Keywords co-occurrence networks, cluster mapping and timeline mapping were generated, using the CiteSpace 5.1.R5 software. Relevant literature identified in three Chinese databases was also reviewed...
February 10, 2018: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
Vinod K Sangwan, Mark C Hersam
Two-dimensional (2D) materials have captured the attention of the scientific community due to the wide range of unique properties at nanometer-scale thicknesses. While significant exploratory research in 2D materials has been achieved, the understanding of 2D electronic transport and carrier dynamics remains in a nascent stage. Furthermore, because prior review articles have provided general overviews of 2D materials or specifically focused on charge transport in graphene, here we instead highlight charge transport mechanisms in post-graphene 2D materials, with particular emphasis on transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus...
February 20, 2018: Annual Review of Physical Chemistry
Salina Ahmed, Liz Steed, Katherine Harris, Stephanie J C Taylor, Hilary Pinnock
South Asian and other minority communities suffer poorer asthma outcomes, have a higher rate of unscheduled care and benefit less from most existing self-management interventions when compared to the majority population. Possible reasons for these differences include failure to implement asthma self-management strategies, or that strategies implemented were inappropriate for their needs; alternatively, they may relate to the minority and/or lower socioeconomic status of these populations. We aimed to synthesise evidence from randomised controlled trials for asthma self-management in South Asian and Black populations from different sociocultural contexts, and identify barriers and facilitators to implementing self-management...
February 15, 2018: NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine
Susan D Shenkin, Christopher Fox, Mary Godfrey, Najma Siddiqi, Steve Goodacre, John Young, Atul Anand, Alasdair Gray, Joel Smith, Tracy Ryan, Janet Hanley, Allan MacRaild, Jill Steven, Polly L Black, Julia Boyd, Christopher J Weir, Alasdair Mj MacLullich
INTRODUCTION: Delirium is a severe neuropsychiatric syndrome of rapid onset, commonly precipitated by acute illness. It is common in older people in the emergency department (ED) and acute hospital, but greatly under-recognised in these and other settings. Delirium and other forms of cognitive impairment, particularly dementia, commonly coexist. There is a need for a rapid delirium screening tool that can be administered by a range of professional-level healthcare staff to patients with sensory or functional impairments in a busy clinical environment, which also incorporates general cognitive assessment...
February 10, 2018: BMJ Open
J González Martín-Moro, F Prieto Garrido, F Gómez Sanz, I Fuentes Vega, M Castro Rebollo, P Moreno Martín
OBJECTIVE: In 2015 the picture of a dress went viral on social media. A significant proportion of the population saw it as golden and white (G&W), while another significant proportion saw it as blue and black (B&B). The aim of this article is to review the related literature. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Bibliographic search conducted in Pubmed and Google. The algorithm used was: (color OR colour) AND (dress OR #thedress). The search was limited to the years 2015-2017...
February 9, 2018: Archivos de la Sociedad Española de Oftalmología
Atefeh Aboutorabi, Mokhtar Arazpour, Monireh Ahmadi Bani, Abbas Ali Keshtkar
INTRODUCTION: Thoracic hyperkyphosis is one of the most common spinal disorders in older people, creating impairment, postural instability, gait disorders and a reduced quality of life. The use of spinal orthoses and/or postural taping may be feasible conservative interventions, but their efficacy is uncertain. The aim of this review is therefore to investigate the effectiveness of spinal orthoses and taping on the balance and gait of older people with hyperkyphosis. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will include randomised controlled trials and clinical trial studies which assess the efficacy of spinal orthoses and taping using the WHO International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) outcome measures in older people with hyperkyphosis of the thoracic spine...
January 31, 2018: BMJ Open
Olga De Castro, Maria Comparone, Antonietta Di Maio, Emanuele Del Guacchio, Bruno Menale, Jacopo Troisi, Francesco Aliberti, Marco Trifuoggi, Marco Guida
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0178262.].
2018: PloS One
Jinbin Park
The Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis in the Negro Male was an observational study on African-American males in Tuskegee, Alabama between 1932 and 1972. The U. S. Public Health Service ran this study on more than 300 people without notifying the participants about their disease nor treating them even after the introduction of penicillin. The study included recording the progress of disease and performing an autopsy on the deaths. This paper explores historical backgrounds enabled this infamous study, and discusses three driving forces behind the Tuskegee Study...
December 2017: Ŭi Sahak
Jeremiah J Ring, Karen J Avrit, Jeffrey L Black
Thirty years ago in this journal, Aylett Royall Cox reported on the development of Alphabetic Phonics, a revision of the existing Orton Gillingham treatment for children with dyslexia. This paper continues that discussion and reports on the evolution of that curriculum as it is represented in a comprehensive dyslexia treatment program informed by intervention research. The paper describes the curriculum and reports data from a hospital-based learning disabilities clinic that provides qualified support for treatment efficacy and the value of added comprehension instruction...
October 2017: Annals of Dyslexia
Felix J Paprottka, Nicco Krezdorn, Mustafa Narwan, Marvee Turk, Heiko Sorg, Ernst Magnus Noah, Detlev Hebebrand
BACKGROUND: The literature reports many cases of cutaneous malignancy in the setting of skin tattoos. In this study, we review the reported incidence of and risk factors for tattoo-associated skin cancer. METHODS: A PubMed literature review was performed for all cases of tattoo-associated skin cancer, including squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, malignant melanoma, keratoacanthoma, and other rare skin malignancies (source: PubMed/until June 2017). RESULTS: The authors identified 51 publications and 63 total cases of tattoo-associated skin cancer...
November 9, 2017: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
M T Hudda, C M Nightingale, A S Donin, C G Owen, A R Rudnicka, J C K Wells, H Rutter, D G Cook, P H Whincup
BACKGROUND: The National Child Measurement Programme (NCMP) records weight and height and assesses overweight-obesity patterns in English children using body mass index (BMI), which tends to underestimate body fatness in South Asian children and overestimate body fatness in Black children of presumed African ethnicity. Using BMI adjustments to ensure that adjusted BMI was similarly related to body fatness in South Asian, Black and White children, we reassessed population overweight and obesity patterns in these ethnic groups in NCMP...
November 2, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
A Prawira, S F Oosting, T W Chen, K A Delos Santos, R Saluja, L Wang, L L Siu, K K W Chan, A R Hansen
BACKGROUND: The majority of published studies in recurrent or metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (RM-NPC) are single-arm trials. Reliable modelling of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) outcomes, therefore, is difficult. This study aim to analyse existent literature to estimate the relative efficacy of available systemic regimens in RM-NPC, as well as provide estimates of aggregate OS and PFS. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library to March 2015...
December 5, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
Chia Hsi Tang, Eric Garshick, Stephanie Grady, Brent Coull, Joel Schwartz, Petros Koutrakis
The effects of indoor air pollution on human health have drawn increasing attention among the scientific community as individuals spend most of their time indoors. However, indoor air sampling is labor-intensive and costly, which limits the ability to study the adverse health effects related to indoor air pollutants. To overcome this challenge, many researchers have attempted to predict indoor exposures based on outdoor pollutant concentrations, home characteristics, and weather parameters. Typically, these models require knowledge of the infiltration factor, which indicates the fraction of ambient particles that penetrates indoors...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Patrick R Grzanka, Carlos E Santos, Bonnie Moradi
This article introduces the special section on intersectionality research in counseling psychology. Across the 4 manuscripts that constitute this special section, a clear theme emerges: a need to return to the roots and politics of intersectionality. Importantly, the 2 empirical articles in this special section (Jerald, Cole, Ward, & Avery, 2017; Lewis, Williams, Peppers, & Gadson, 2017) are studies of Black women's experiences: a return, so to speak, to the subject positions and social locations from which intersectionality emanates...
October 2017: Journal of Counseling Psychology
Elizabeth Shenkman, Myra Hurt, William Hogan, Olveen Carrasquillo, Steven Smith, Andrew Brickman, David Nelson
PROBLEM: Developing a national pragmatic clinical trial infrastructure is central to understanding the effectiveness of interventions applied under usual conditions and where people receive health care. To address this challenge, three Florida universities- the University of Florida Clinical and Translational Science Institute, Florida State University (with its community-based distributive medical education model), and the University of Miami-created (2010-2013) a statewide consortium, the OneFlorida Clinical Research Consortium, to support the conduct of pragmatic clinical trials and provide mentored research experiences for medical and graduate students in real-world practice settings...
October 17, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Nathalie Moise, Alain G Bertoni
Diabetes confers a higher risk of cardiovascular disease in women than men. The reasons for these sex differences, such as poorer cardiovascular risk factor profiles, have received considerable attention. However, a recent report on sex-diabetes interactions on cardiovascular disease identified that few if any prior studies have confirmed these sex-differences in blacks, despite known diabetes-related disparities. In the current issue of the Journal, George et al. (2017) find marginally significant multiplicative sex by diabetes interactions in blacks but not whites after adjustments for traditional and behavioral risk factors, competing risk and change in diabetes status over time...
October 4, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
Stefan M Neuenschwander, Rohit Ghai, Jakob Pernthaler, Michaela M Salcher
Actinobacteria of the acI lineage are the most abundant microbes in freshwater systems, but there are so far no pure living cultures of these organisms, possibly because of metabolic dependencies on other microbes. This, in turn, has hampered an in-depth assessment of the genomic basis for their success in the environment. Here we present genomes from 16 axenic cultures of acI Actinobacteria. The isolates were not only of minute cell size, but also among the most streamlined free-living microbes, with extremely small genome sizes (1...
October 13, 2017: ISME Journal
M Laxy, C Teuner, R Holle, C Kurz
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a major public health problem. Detailed knowledge about the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and health-related quality of life (HRQL) is important for deriving effective and cost-effective prevention and weight management strategies. This study aims to describe the sex-, age- and ethnicity-specific association between BMI and HRQL in the US adult population. METHODS: Analyses are based on pooled cross-sectional data from 41 459 participants of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) Household Component (HC) for the years 2000-2003...
October 10, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
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