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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881842/the-investigation-of-the-origin-of-southern-tunisians-using-hla-genes
#1
Abdelhafidh Hajjej, Wassim Y Almawi, Lasmar Hattab, Amel El-Gaaied, Slama Hmida
The south of Tunisia is characterized by marked ethnic diversity, highlighted by the coexistence of native Berbers with Blacks, Jews and Arab-speaking populations. Despite this heterogeneity, genetic anthropology studies investigating the origin of current Southern Tunisians were rarely reported. We examined human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I (A, B) and class II (DRB1, DQB1) gene profiles of 250 unrelated Southern Tunisians, and compared them with those of Arab-speaking communities, along with Mediterranean and sub-Sahara African populations using genetic distances, neighbor-joining dendrograms, correspondence and haplotype analysis...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855100/increasing-the-uptake-of-long-acting-reversible-contraception-in-general-practice-the-australian-contraceptive-choice-project-accord-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial-protocol
#2
Danielle Mazza, Kirsten Black, Angela Taft, Jayne Lucke, Kevin McGeechan, Marion Haas, Heather McKay, Jeffery F Peipert
INTRODUCTION: The increased use of long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs), such as intrauterine devices and hormonal implants, has the potential to reduce unintended pregnancy and abortion rates. However, use of LARCs in Australia is very low, despite clinical practice guidance and statements by national and international peak bodies advocating their increased use. This protocol paper describes the Australian Contraceptive ChOice pRojet (ACCORd), a cluster randomised control trial that aims to test whether an educational intervention targeting general practitioners (GPs) and establishing a rapid referral service are a cost-effective means of increasing LARC uptake...
October 7, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853322/risk-factors-for-group-b-streptococcal-disease-in-neonates-of-mothers-with-negative-antenatal-testing
#3
V Parente, R H Clark, L Ku, C Fennell, M Johnson, E Morris, A Romaine, U Utin, D K Benjamin, J A Messina, P B Smith, R G Greenberg
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for early-onset group B Streptococcus (EOGBS) disease in neonates of mothers with negative antenatal screening. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a retrospective cohort study of neonates born to mothers with negative antenatal GBS screening between 2002 and 2012. Our primary outcome was EOGBS infection. We used multivariable logistic regression to assess factors associated with EOGBS. RESULTS: EOGBS was confirmed in 492 of the 179 818 neonates that met the study inclusion criteria...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832032/accuracy-and-efficiency-of-recording-pediatric-early-warning-scores-using-an-electronic-physiological-surveillance-system-compared-with-traditional-paper-based-documentation
#4
Gerri Sefton, Steven Lane, Roger Killen, Stuart Black, Max Lyon, Pearl Ampah, Cathryn Sproule, Dominic Loren-Gosling, Caitlin Richards, Jean Spinty, Colette Holloway, Coral Davies, April Wilson, Chung Shen Chean, Bernie Carter, E D Carrol
Pediatric Early Warning Scores are advocated to assist health professionals to identify early signs of serious illness or deterioration in hospitalized children. Scores are derived from the weighting applied to recorded vital signs and clinical observations reflecting deviation from a predetermined "norm." Higher aggregate scores trigger an escalation in care aimed at preventing critical deterioration. Process errors made while recording these data, including plotting or calculation errors, have the potential to impede the reliability of the score...
November 9, 2016: Computers, Informatics, Nursing: CIN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813665/the-impact-of-trap-type-and-design-features-on-survey-and-detection-of-bark-and-woodboring-beetles-and-their-associates-a-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
Jeremy D Allison, Richard A Redak
A large literature on the survey and detection of forest Coleoptera and their associates exists. Identification of patterns in the effect of trap types and design features among guilds and families of forest insects would facilitate the optimization and development of intercept traps for use in management programs.Wereviewed the literature on trapping bark and woodboring beetles and their associates and conducted meta-analyses to examine patterns in effects across guilds and families; we observed the following general patterns: (a) Panel traps were superior to multiple-funnel traps, (b) bark beetles and woodborers were captured in higher numbers in traps treated with a surface treatment to make them slippery than untreated traps, (c) panel and multiple-funnel traps equipped with wet cups outperformed traps with dry cups, (d) black traps were superior to white and clear traps, and (e) purple traps were as good as or superior to green traps for Agrilus spp...
November 2, 2016: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805623/dermal-absorption-of-benzo-a-pyrene-into-human-skin-from-soil-effect-of-artificial-weathering-concentration-and-exposure-duration
#6
Trevor K Peckham, Jeffry H Shirai, Annette L Bunge, Yvette W Lowney, Michael V Ruby, John C Kissel
In vitro assessments of (14)C-benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) absorption through human epidermis were conducted with the sub-63-μm fraction of four test soils containing different amounts of organic and black carbon. Soils were artificially weathered for eight weeks and applied to epidermis at nominal BaP concentrations of 3 and 10 mg/kg for 8 or 24 h. Experiments were also conducted at 24 h with unweathered soils and with BaP deposited onto skin from acetone at a comparable chemical load. For the weathered soils, absorption was independent of the amount of organic or black carbon, the mass in the receptor fluid was proportional to exposure duration but independent of concentration, and the mass recovered in the skin after washing was proportional to concentration and independent of exposure time...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780193/short-term-breast-cancer-survival-in-relation-to-ethnicity-stage-grade-and-receptor-status-national-cohort-study-in-england
#7
Henrik Møller, Katherine Henson, Margreet Lüchtenborg, John Broggio, Jackie Charman, Victoria H Coupland, Elizabeth Davies, Ruth H Jack, Richard Sullivan, Peter Vedsted, Kieran Horgan, Neil Pearce, Arnie Purushotham
BACKGROUND: In the re-organisation of cancer registration in England in 2012, a high priority was given to the recording of cancer stage and other prognostic clinical data items. METHODS: We extracted 86 852 breast cancer records for women resident in England and diagnosed during 2012-2013. Information on age, ethnicity, socio-economic status, comorbidity, tumour stage, grade, morphology and oestrogen, progesterone and HER2 receptor status was included. The two-year cumulative risk of death from any cause was estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method, and univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regressions were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI)...
November 22, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762576/-does-reading-a-single-passage-of-literary-fiction-really-improve-theory-of-mind-an-attempt-at-replication-correction-to-panero-et-al-2016
#8
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Does Reading a Single Passage of Literary Fiction Really Improve Theory of Mind? An Attempt at Replication" by Maria Eugenia Panero, Deena Skolnick Weisberg, Jessica Black, Thalia R. Goldstein, Jennifer L. Barnes, Hiram Brownell and Ellen Winner (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Advanced Online Publication, Sep 19, 2016, np). In the article, due to an error in stimulus construction, four items (three authors, one foil) were omitted from the ART presented to all participants tested by Research Group 1...
November 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720529/publication-rates-of-podium-versus-poster-presentations-at-the-arthroscopy-association-of-north-america-meetings-2008-2012
#9
Rachel M Frank, Gregory L Cvetanovich, Michael J Collins, Thomas A Arns, Austin Black, Nikhil N Verma, Brian J Cole, Brian Forsythe
PURPOSE: To analyze the publication rate of poster and podium presentations at Arthroscopy Association of North America (AANA) annual meetings from 2008 to 2012. METHODS: An online search using PubMed and Google Scholar for all published manuscripts associated with abstracts presented from 2008 to 2012 AANA annual meetings was performed. Abstracts were classified by presentation type (poster vs podium), and the journal and publication date were recorded for all published abstracts...
October 6, 2016: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719671/increasing-the-evidence-base-in-journalology-creating-an-international-best-practice-journal-research-network
#10
EDITORIAL
David Moher, Philippe Ravaud
Biomedical journals continue to be the single most important conduit for disseminating biomedical knowledge. Unlike clinical medicine, where evidence is considered fundamental to practice, journals still operate largely in a 'black box' mode without sufficient evidence to drive their practice. We believe there is an immediate need to substantially increase the amount and quality of research by journals to ensure their practice is as evidence based as possible. To achieve this goal, we are proposing the development of an international 'best practice journal research network'...
October 10, 2016: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701412/correction-combating-a-global-threat-to-a-clonal-crop-banana-black-sigatoka-pathogen-pseudocercospora-fijiensis-synonym-mycosphaerella-fijiensis-genomes-reveal-clues-for-disease-control
#11
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1005876.].
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698270/onchocerciasis-elimination-from-africa-one-step-in-northern-sudan
#12
James W Kazura
Onchocerciasis is one of the two filarial helminth "neglected tropical diseases" (the other being lymphatic filariasis) that has been targeted for geographically local elimination followed by global eradication. The last known areas of Onchocerca volvulus transmission in the Americas have recently been reported to be eliminated. In contrast, achieving metrics for interruption of O. volvulus transmission in Africa, thus removing the requirement for continued monitoring and mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin, has been more challenging...
October 3, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660048/colour-stabilities-of-three-types-of-orthodontic-clear-aligners-exposed-to-staining-agents
#13
Chen-Lu Liu, Wen-Tian Sun, Wen Liao, Wen-Xin Lu, Qi-Wen Li, Yunho Jeong, Jun Liu, Zhi-He Zhao
The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the colour stabilities of three types of orthodontic clear aligners exposed to staining agents in vitro. Sixty clear orthodontic aligners produced by three manufacturers (Invisalign, Angelalign, and Smartee) were immersed in three staining solutions (coffee, black tea, and red wine) and one control solution (distilled water). After 12-h and 7-day immersions, the aligners were washed in an ultrasonic cleaner and measured with a colourimeter. The colour changes (ΔE*) were calculated on the basis of the Commission Internationale de I'Eclairage L*a*b* colour system (CIE L*a*b*), and the results were then converted into National Bureau of Standards (NBS) units...
September 23, 2016: International Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650968/sorl1-variants-across-alzheimer-s-disease-european-american-cohorts
#14
Maria Victoria Fernández, Kathleen Black, David Carrell, Ben Saef, John Budde, Yuetiva Deming, Bill Howells, Jorge L Del-Aguila, Shengmei Ma, Catherine Bi, Joanne Norton, Rachel Chasse, John Morris, Alison Goate, Carlos Cruchaga
The accumulation of the toxic Aβ peptide in Alzheimer's disease (AD) largely relies upon an efficient recycling of amyloid precursor protein (APP). Recent genetic association studies have described rare variants in SORL1 with putative pathogenic consequences in the recycling of APP. In this work, we examine the presence of rare coding variants in SORL1 in three different European American cohorts: early-onset, late-onset AD (LOAD) and familial LOAD.
December 2016: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649843/fine-particulate-air-pollution-and-premature-atrial-contractions-the-reasons-for-geographic-and-racial-differences-in-stroke-study
#15
Wesley T O'Neal, Elsayed Z Soliman, Jimmy T Efird, Suzanne E Judd, Virginia J Howard, George Howard, Leslie A McClure
Several reports have suggested that particulate matter (PM) exposure increases the risk for atrial arrhythmias. However, data from large-scale epidemiologic studies supporting this hypothesis are lacking. We examined the association of PM <2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) concentration with premature atrial contractions (PACs) in 26,609 (mean age=65±9.4 years; 55% female; 41% black) participants from the REGARDS (REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke) study. Estimates of short- (2 weeks) and long-term (1 year) PM2...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624320/black-white-differences-in-sex-and-contraceptive-use-among-young-women
#16
Yasamin Kusunoki, Jennifer S Barber, Elizabeth J Ela, Amelia Bucek
This study examines black-white and other sociodemographic differences in young women's sexual and contraceptive behaviors, using new longitudinal data from a weekly journal-based study of 1,003 18- to 19-year-old women spanning 2.5 years. We investigate hypotheses about dynamic processes in these behaviors during early adulthood in order to shed light on persisting racial differences in rates of unintended pregnancies in the United States. We find that net of other sociodemographic characteristics and adolescent experiences with sex and pregnancy, black women spent less time in relationships and had sex less frequently in their relationships than white women, but did not differ in the number of relationships they formed or in their frequency or consistency of contraceptive use within relationships...
October 2016: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609489/nanostructured-silicon-via-metal-assisted-catalyzed-etch-mace-chemistry-fundamentals-and-pattern-engineering
#17
Fatima Toor, Jeffrey B Miller, Lauren M Davidson, Logan Nichols, Wenqi Duan, Michael P Jura, Joanne Yim, Joanne Forziati, Marcie R Black
There are a range of different methods to generate a nanostructured surface on silicon (Si) but the most cost effective and optically interesting is the metal assisted wet chemical etching (MACE) (Koynov et al 2006 Appl. Phys. Lett. 88 203107). MACE of Si is a controllable, room-temperature wet-chemical technique that uses a thin layer of metal to etch the surface of Si, leaving behind various nano- and micro-scale surface features or 'black silicon'. MACE-fabricated nanowires (NWs) provide improved antireflection and light trapping functionality (Toor et al 2016 Nanoscale 8 15448-66) compared with the traditional 'iso-texturing' (Campbell and Green 1987 J...
October 14, 2016: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27608296/gestational-weight-gain-and-preterm-birth-disparities-in-adolescent-pregnancies
#18
C L Woolfolk, L M Harper, L Flick, K Mathews, J J Chang
OBJECTIVE: To examine racial differences in the association between gestational weight gain and preterm birth subtypes among adolescents. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 211 403 adolescents using 2012 United States natality data. The outcome was preterm birth and the primary exposure was gestational weight gain. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios, stratified by race and body mass index (BMI)...
December 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27599884/modeling-indoor-particulate-exposures-in-inner-city-school-classrooms
#19
Jonathan M Gaffin, Carter R Petty, Marissa Hauptman, Choong-Min Kang, Jack M Wolfson, Yara Abu Awad, Qian Di, Peggy S Lai, William J Sheehan, Sachin Baxi, Brent A Coull, Joel D Schwartz, Diane R Gold, Petros Koutrakis, Wanda Phipatanakul
Outdoor air pollution penetrates buildings and contributes to total indoor exposures. We investigated the relationship of indoor to outdoor particulate matter in inner-city school classrooms. The School Inner City Asthma Study investigates the effect of classroom-based environmental exposures on students with asthma in the northeast United States. Mixed effects linear models were used to determine the relationships between indoor PM2.5 (particulate matter) and black carbon (BC), and their corresponding outdoor concentrations, and to develop a model for predicting exposures to these pollutants...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27583404/a-randomised-trial-of-the-effect-and-cost-effectiveness-of-early-intensive-multifactorial-therapy-on-5-year-cardiovascular-outcomes-in-individuals-with-screen-detected-type-2-diabetes-the-anglo-danish-dutch-study-of-intensive-treatment-in-people-with-screen
#20
Rebecca K Simmons, Knut Borch-Johnsen, Torsten Lauritzen, Guy Ehm Rutten, Annelli Sandbæk, Maureen van den Donk, James A Black, Libo Tao, Edward Cf Wilson, Melanie J Davies, Kamlesh Khunti, Stephen J Sharp, Nicholas J Wareham, Simon J Griffin
BACKGROUND: Intensive treatment (IT) of cardiovascular risk factors can halve mortality among people with established type 2 diabetes but the effects of treatment earlier in the disease trajectory are uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To quantify the cost-effectiveness of intensive multifactorial treatment of screen-detected diabetes. DESIGN: Pragmatic, multicentre, cluster-randomised, parallel-group trial. SETTING: Three hundred and forty-three general practices in Denmark, the Netherlands, and Cambridge and Leicester, UK...
August 2016: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
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