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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805460/case-study-of-homeopathic-bowel-nosode-remedies-for-dysbiotic-japanese-patients
#1
Yoko Uchiyama-Tanaka
BACKGROUND: The composition of intestinal microbiota is very important in human health. Gastrointestinal disturbances are among the symptoms commonly reported by individuals diagnosed with chronic diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, autism, and chronic fatigue syndrome. The effects of probiotics and prebiotics for dysbiosis have been reported in many studies. Bowel nosodes are homeopathic remedies made from human gut microbiota. OBJECTIVE: Bowel nosodes made from the intestinal bacteria of European patients from the 1900s were administered to Japanese patients suffering from gastrointestinal disturbances, such as constipation and diarrhea, to determine their therapeutic efficacy...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795659/role-of-mycotoxins-in-the-pathobiology-of-autism-a-first-evidence
#2
Barbara De Santis, Carlo Brera, Alessandra Mezzelani, Sabina Soricelli, Francesca Ciceri, Giorgio Moretti, Francesca Debegnach, Maria Clara Bonaglia, Laura Villa, Massimo Molteni, Maria Elisabetta Raggi
OBJECTIVES: Gene-environment interaction is an emerging hypothesis to expound not only the autism pathogenesis but also the increased incidence of neurodevelopmental disorders (such as autistic spectrum disorder, attention-deficit, hyperactivity disorder). Among xenobiotics, mycotoxins are worldwide contaminants of food that provoke toxicological effects, crucially resembling several symptoms associated with autism such as oxidative stress, intestinal permeability, and inflammation. Here, we focused on a group of mycotoxins to test their role in the manifestation of autism, try to explain their mechanism of action, and discuss possible preventive and therapeutic interventions...
August 10, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795135/male-and-female-mice-lacking-neuroligin-3-modify-the-behavior-of-their-wild-type-littermates
#3
Shireene Kalbassi, Sven O Bachmann, Ellen Cross, Victoria H Roberton, Stéphane J Baudouin
In most mammals, including humans, the postnatal acquisition of normal social and nonsocial behavior critically depends on interactions with peers. Here we explore the possibility that mixed-group housing of mice carrying a deletion of Nlgn3, a gene associated with autism spectrum disorders, and their wild-type littermates induces changes in each other's behavior. We have found that, when raised together, male Nlgn3 knockout mice and their wild-type littermates displayed deficits in sociability. Moreover, social submission in adult male Nlgn3 knockout mice correlated with an increase in their anxiety...
July 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794973/increased-glutamate-gaba-ratio-in-a-shared-autistic-and-schizotypal-trait-phenotype-termed-social-disorganisation
#4
Talitha C Ford, Richard Nibbs, David P Crewther
Autism and schizophrenia are multi-dimensional spectrum disorders that have substantial phenotypic overlap. This overlap is readily identified in the non-clinical population, and has been conceptualised as Social Disorganisation (SD). This study investigates the balance of excitatory glutamate and inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentrations in a non-clinical sample with high and low trait SD, as glutamate and GABA abnormalities are reported across the autism and schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Participants were 18 low (10 females) and 19 high (9 females) SD scorers aged 18 to 40 years who underwent (1)H-MRS for glutamate and GABA+macromolecule (GABA+) concentrations in right and left hemisphere superior temporal (ST) voxels...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774571/activation-of-neonatal-microglia-can-be-influenced-by-other-neural-cells
#5
Alexandra Turano, Jennifer H Lawrence, Jaclyn M Schwarz
During development, microglial progenitor cells migrate into the brain from the periphery, a process critical to the maturation of the developing brain. Although they perform functions similar to mature, adult microglia, immature microglia are distinct from mature microglia. Activation of immature microglia, via an early-life immune challenge, can lead to persistent changes in microglial function, resulting in long-term neuronal and cognitive dysfunction. Early-life immune activation is associated with multiple neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism, ADHD, schizophrenia, and cerebral palsy - disorders with known or suspected immune etiologies, and strong sex biases for males...
July 31, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759626/glutamate-gaba-ratio-is-associated-with-the-psychosocial-domain-of-autistic-and-schizotypal-traits
#6
Talitha C Ford, Richard Nibbs, David P Crewther
BACKGROUND: The autism and schizophrenia spectra overlap to a large degree in the social and interpersonal domains. Similarly, abnormal excitatory glutamate and inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmitter concentrations have been reported for both spectra, with the interplay of these neurotransmitters important for cortical excitation to inhibition regulation. This study investigates whether these neurotransmitter abnormalities are specific to the shared symptomatology, and whether the degree of abnormality increases with increasing symptom severity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749236/are-males-and-females-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-more-similar-than-we-thought
#7
Joanna L Mussey, Nicole C Ginn, Laura G Klinger
Differences in behavioral and cognitive profiles have been suggested to potentially impact the presentation of social and communication symptoms in females with autism spectrum disorder. This study examined gender differences in age of diagnosis, cognitive profiles, social communication symptomatology, and autism spectrum disorder symptom severity in a community-based sample of 566 males and 113 females with autism spectrum disorder ranging in age from 1 year, 9 months to 56 years, 4 months. Results suggest either very small or no gender differences in age at diagnosis, intelligence quotient, cognitive profiles, or autism spectrum disorder symptom severity...
August 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749232/behavioural-and-cognitive-sex-gender-differences-in-autism-spectrum-condition-and-typically-developing-males-and-females
#8
Laura Hull, William Mandy, K V Petrides
Studies assessing sex/gender differences in autism spectrum conditions often fail to include typically developing control groups. It is, therefore, unclear whether observed sex/gender differences reflect those found in the general population or are particular to autism spectrum conditions. A systematic search identified articles comparing behavioural and cognitive characteristics in males and females with and without an autism spectrum condition diagnosis. A total of 13 studies were included in meta-analyses of sex/gender differences in core autism spectrum condition symptoms (social/communication impairments and restricted/repetitive behaviours and interests) and intelligence quotient...
August 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743598/decrease-in-endogenous-brain-allopregnanolone-induces-autism-spectrum-disorder-asd-like-behavior-in-mice-a-novel-animal-model-of-asd
#9
Ken Ebihara, Hironori Fujiwara, Suresh Awale, Dya Fita Dibwe, Ryota Araki, Takeshi Yabe, Kinzo Matsumoto
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with core symptoms of social impairments and restrictive repetitive behaviors. Recent evidence has implicated a dysfunction in the GABAergic system in the pathophysiology of ASD. We investigated the role of endogenous allopregnanolone (ALLO), a neurosteroidal positive allosteric modulator of GABAA receptors, in the regulation of ASD-like behavior in male mice using SKF105111 (SKF), an inhibitor of type I and type II 5α-reductase, a rate-limiting enzyme of ALLO biosynthesis...
July 22, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736608/interrelationship-between-insistence-on-sameness-effortful-control-and-anxiety-in-adolescents-and-young-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-asd
#10
Mirko Uljarević, Amanda L Richdale, David W Evans, Ru Ying Cai, Susan R Leekam
BACKGROUND: Both self-regulation and insistence on sameness (IS) are related to anxiety, which is a common feature of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Here, we aimed to characterise the IS-self-regulation-anxiety interrelationship by investigating the potential contribution made by self-regulation, assessed via effortful control (EC), to the IS-anxiety relationship in a sample of adolescents and young adults with ASD. METHOD: Seventy-one older adolescents and younger adults with ASD (49 males, 22 females; Mage = 18...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735226/perinatal-fluoxetine-effects-on-social-play-the-hpa-system-and-hippocampal-plasticity-in-pre-adolescent-male-and-female-rats-interactions-with-pre-gestational-maternal-stress
#11
Mary Gemmel, Mariah Hazlett, Eszter Bögi, Sonsoles De Lacalle, Lesley A Hill, Nikolaos Kokras, Geoffrey L Hammond, Christina Dalla, Thierry D Charlier, Jodi L Pawluski
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications (SSRIs) are the first lines of treatment for maternal affective disorders, and are prescribed to up to 10% of pregnant women. Concern has been raised about how perinatal exposure to these medications affect offspring neurobehavioral outcomes, particularly those related to social interactions, as recent research has reported conflicting results related to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk in children prenatally exposed to SSRIs. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the effects of perinatal exposure to the SSRI fluoxetine on social play behaviors and the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal system, using a model of pre-gestational maternal stress...
July 15, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735159/gender-comparisons-in-children-with-asd-entering-early-intervention
#12
Alexandra M Fulton, Jessica M Paynter, David Trembath
BACKGROUND: Males are diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) approximately four times as often as females. This has led to interest in recent years of potential under-diagnosis of females, as well as negative consequences for females with ASD due to under-identification. A number of potential explanations for gender bias in diagnosis are discussed including that females and males may present differently despite showing the same core symptoms. Previous research has shown inconsistent findings in comparisons between genders in young children with ASD for whom early intervention is vital...
July 20, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724750/disruption-of-a-structurally-important-extracellular-element-in-the-glycine-receptor-leads-to-decreased-synaptic-integration-and-signaling-resulting-in-severe-startle-disease
#13
Natascha Schaefer, Alexandra Berger, Johannes van Brederode, Fang Zheng, Yan Zhang, Sophie Leacock, Laura Littau, Sibylle Jablonka, Sony Malhotra, Maya Topf, Friederike Winter, Daria Davydova, Joseph W Lynch, Christopher J Paige, Christian Alzheimer, Robert J Harvey, Carmen Villmann
Functional impairments or trafficking defects of inhibitory glycine receptors (GlyRs) have been linked to human hyperekplexia/startle disease and autism spectrum disorder. We found that lack of synaptic integration of GlyRs, together with disrupted receptor function is responsible for a lethal startle phenotype in a novel spontaneous mouse mutant shaky, caused by a missense mutation Q177K located in the extracellular β8-β9 loop of the GlyR α1 subunit. Recently, structural data provided evidence that the flexibility of the β8-β9 loop is crucial for conformational transitions during opening and closing of the ion channel and represents a novel allosteric binding site in cys-loop receptors...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701997/early-intranasal-vasopressin-administration-impairs-partner-preference-in-adult-male-prairie-voles-microtus-ochrogaster
#14
Trenton C Simmons, Jessica F Balland, Janeet Dhauna, Sang Yun Yang, Jason L Traina, Jessica Vazquez, Karen L Bales
Research supports a modulatory role for arginine vasopressin (AVP) in the expression of socially motivated behaviors in mammals. The acute effects of AVP administration are demonstrably pro-social across species, providing the justification for an ever-increasing measure of clinical interest over the last decade. Combining these results with non-invasive intranasal delivery results in an attractive system for offering intranasal AVP (IN-AVP) as a therapeutic for the social impairments of children with autism spectrum disorder...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701294/self-directed-telehealth-parent-mediated-intervention-for-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-examination-of-the-potential-reach-and-utilization-in-community-settings
#15
Brooke Ingersoll, Katherine Shannon, Natalie Berger, Katherine Pickard, Bree Holtz
BACKGROUND: There is a significant need for strategies to increase access to evidence-based interventions for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). One novel approach is to train parents to use evidence-based interventions for their child with ASD via telehealth. Pilot work examining the efficacy of one such program, ImPACT Online, demonstrated a high rate of parent program engagement, low attrition, and associated gains in parent learning and child social communication. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to conduct an open trial of ImPACT Online to better understand its dissemination potential...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697590/prevalence-of-fragile-x-syndrome-among-children-receiving-special-education-and-carrier-states-in-first-degree-relatives
#16
B Chandrasekara, S Wijesundera, S S Chong, H N Perera
Introduction: Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a genetically determined developmental disorder. Underlying genotype is cytosine-guanine-guanine (CGG) repeat expansions with over 200 repeats in the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene. Children with FXS are most accessible in special education institutions in Sri Lanka, with a total of approximately 6000 registered attendees. Objectives: The aim of the current study was to estimate the prevalence of FXS among special school attendees and to screen first degree relatives of affected children...
June 30, 2017: Ceylon Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690234/-pcdh19-gene-mutations-lead-to-epilepsy-with-mental-retardation-limited-to-females-in-2-cases-and-literature-review
#17
Li Yang, Ahmed Arafat, Jing Peng, Chen Chen, Yuping Ma, Fei Yin
Epilepsy with mental retardation limited to females (EFMR) is a syndrome characterized by early onset heat-sensitive epilepsy of infancy or early childhood and generally limited to females, which previously reported that the cadherin gene superfamily subtype protocadherin 19 (PCDH19) gene is its pathogenic gene. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data for 2 cases of EFMR patients with PCDH19 mutation diagnosed by Department of Pediatric Neurology of Xiangya Hospital, Central South University in 2015. Literature on PubMed, OMIM and HGMD relevant to this syndrome was reviewed, and the clinical characteristics were summarized accordingly...
June 28, 2017: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689816/a-novel-role-for-dopamine-signaling-in-the-pathogenesis-of-bone-loss-from-the-atypical-antipsychotic-drug-risperidone-in-female-mice
#18
Katherine J Motyl, Megan Beauchemin, Deborah Barlow, Phuong T Le, Kenichi Nagano, Annika Treyball, Anisha Contractor, Roland Baron, Clifford J Rosen, Karen L Houseknecht
Atypical antipsychotic (AA) drugs, including risperidone (RIS), are used to treat schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism, and are prescribed off-label for other mental health issues. AA drugs are associated with severe metabolic side effects of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Cross-sectional and longitudinal data also show that risperidone causes bone loss and increases fracture risk in both men and women. There are several potential mechanisms of bone loss from RIS. One is hypogonadism due to hyperprolactinemia from dopamine receptor antagonism...
July 6, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688078/differences-in-neural-correlates-of-speech-perception-in-3-month-olds-at-high-and-low-risk-for-autism-spectrum-disorder
#19
Laura A Edwards, Jennifer B Wagner, Helen Tager-Flusberg, Charles A Nelson
In this study, we investigated neural precursors of language acquisition as potential endophenotypes of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in 3-month-old infants at high and low familial ASD risk. Infants were imaged using functional near-infrared spectroscopy while they listened to auditory stimuli containing syllable repetitions; their neural responses were analyzed over left and right temporal regions. While female low risk infants showed initial neural activation that decreased over exposure to repetition-based stimuli, potentially indicating a habituation response to repetition in speech, female high risk infants showed no changes in neural activity over exposure...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685102/autism-like-behaviours-and-memory-deficits-result-from-a-western-diet-in-mice
#20
Ekaterina Veniaminova, Raymond Cespuglio, Chi Wai Cheung, Alexei Umriukhin, Nataliia Markova, Elena Shevtsova, Klaus-Peter Lesch, Daniel C Anthony, Tatyana Strekalova
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, induced by a Western diet (WD), evokes central and peripheral inflammation that is accompanied by altered emotionality. These changes can be associated with abnormalities in social behaviour, hippocampus-dependent cognitive functions, and metabolism. Female C57BL/6J mice were fed with a regular chow or with a WD containing 0.2% of cholesterol and 21% of saturated fat for three weeks. WD-treated mice exhibited increased social avoidance, crawl-over and digging behaviours, decreased body-body contacts, and hyperlocomotion...
2017: Neural Plasticity
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