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Autism AND women

Indhu-Shree Rajan-Babu, Samuel S Chong
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common monogenic cause of intellectual disability and autism. Molecular diagnostic testing of FXS and related disorders (fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency (FXPOI) and fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS)) relies on a combination of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot (SB) for the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) CGG-repeat expansion and methylation analyses. Recent advancements in PCR-based technologies have enabled the characterization of the complete spectrum of CGG-repeat mutation, with or without methylation assessment, and, as a result, have reduced our reliance on the labor- and time-intensive SB, which is the gold standard FXS diagnostic test...
October 14, 2016: Genes
Cath Rogers, Laurence Lepherd, Rahul Ganguly, Sebastian Jacob-Rogers
PROBLEM: Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is an increasingly commonly diagnosed disability. People with ASD commonly report challenges in social interaction and a heightened sensory perception. These challenges may be particularly difficult for women during pregnancy, birthing and beyond. BACKGROUND: Very little is known about the experiences and needs of birthing women who have ASD. There is a large body of literature about women who have autistic children, but almost nothing about women who may have this disability themselves...
October 14, 2016: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
Robert M Nevels, Samuel T Gontkovsky, Bryman E Williams
Paroxetine, also known by the trade names Aropax, Paxil, Pexeva, Seroxat, Sereupin and Brisdelle, was first marketed in the U.S. in 1992. Effective for major depression and various anxiety disorders, it quickly gained a sizable share of the antidepressant prescription market. By the late 1990s, paroxetine frequently was being associated with serious drug interactions and medication side effects. Most significantly, in a major Canadian epidemiological study examining the relationship between antidepressants and diseases, paroxetine was associated with a 620 percent increase in the rate of breast cancer in women who had taken it over a four-year period...
March 1, 2016: Psychopharmacology Bulletin
Lauren E Bradstreet, Erin E Hecht, Tricia Z King, Jessica L Turner, Diana L Robins
Whereas a number of studies have examined relationships among brain activity, social cognitive skills, and autistic traits, fewer studies have evaluated whether structural connections among brain regions relate to these traits and skills. Uncinate fasciculus (UF) and inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) are white matter tracts that may underpin the behavioral expression of these skills because they connect regions within or provide sensory information to brain areas implicated in social cognition, and structural differences in these tracts have been associated with autistic traits...
October 3, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
L Brimberg, S Mader, V Jeganathan, R Berlin, T R Coleman, P K Gregersen, P T Huerta, B T Volpe, B Diamond
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) occurs in 1 in 68 births, preferentially affecting males. It encompasses a group of neurodevelopmental abnormalities characterized by impaired social interaction and communication, stereotypic behaviors and motor dysfunction. Although recent advances implicate maternal brain-reactive antibodies in a causative role in ASD, a definitive assessment of their pathogenic potential requires cloning of such antibodies. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of monoclonal brain-reactive antibodies from blood of women with brain-reactive serology and a child with ASD...
October 4, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
Naael H Ali, Shukrya K Khalaf, Jasim N Al-Asadi, Alaa H Abed
BACKGROUND: The etiology of autism is complex, and may involve the interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Recent studies suggested an association between maternal immune response and this disorder. METHODS: Forty-nine women with autistic children (cases) were studied in comparison with 73 women with normal children (controls). After interviewing for sociodemographic and clinical information, mothers' sera were tested for the presence of antineuronal antibodies...
September 26, 2016: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
Dustin Scheinost, Rajita Sinha, Sarah N Cross, Soo Hyun Kwon, Gordon Sze, R Todd Constable, Laura R Ment
Human neurodevelopment requires the organization of neural elements into complex structural and functional networks called the connectome. Emerging data suggest that prenatal exposure to maternal stress plays a role in the wiring, or miswiring, of the developing connectome. Stress-related symptoms are common in women during pregnancy and are risk factors for neurobehavioral disorders ranging from autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and addiction, to major depression and schizophrenia...
September 27, 2016: Pediatric Research
Harun Toy, Arzu Hergüner, Sevcan Şimşek, Sabri Hergüner
OBJECTIVES: Recent studies have shown that women with autism spectrum disorder have higher rates of menstrual problems, including irregular menstrual cycles, unusually painful periods (dysmenorrhea), and excessive menstrual bleeding. In this study, we investigated the autistic traits in female university students with primary dysmenorrhea (PD). METHODS: Seventy females with PD and 70 females without PD were enrolled in the study. The Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) was used to measure autistic traits and the Brief Symptom Inventory was used for evaluating anxiety and depression levels...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
A Desai, J M Sequeira, E V Quadros
Folate receptor alpha (FRα) autoantibodies have been associated with fetal abnormalities and cerebral folate deficiency-related developmental disorders. Over 70% of the children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are positive for these autoantibodies and high-dose folinic acid is beneficial in treating these children. Here we show that antibodies (Abs) to the rat FRα administered during gestation produce communication, learning and cognitive deficits in a rat model that can be prevented by folinic acid and dexamethasone...
September 20, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
Sean G Byars, Jacobus J Boomsma
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Effects of maternal and paternal age on offspring autism and schizophrenia risks have been studied for over three decades, but inconsistent risks have often been found, precluding well-informed speculation on why these age-related risks might exist. METHODOLOGY: To help clarify this situation we analysed a massive single population sample from Denmark including the full spectrum of autistic and schizophrenic disorders (eliminating between-study confounding), used up to 30 follow-up years, controlled for over 20 potentially confounding factors and interpret the ultimate causation of the observed risk patterns using generally accepted principles of parent-offspring conflict and life-history theory...
2016: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
Lin Zhang, Meihong Ren, Guining Song, Xuexia Liu, Jing Zhang, Jianliu Wang
OBJECTIVE: To conduct genetic testing and prenatal diagnosis for a pregnant women with growth retardation, severe mental retardation, and a history of adverse pregnancies. METHODS: G-banded chromosome analysis, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and whole genome DNA microarray were used to analyze the patient and her fetus. RESULTS: The women was found to be a chimera containing two cell lines with 47 and 46 chromosomes, respectively...
October 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Yixue Yichuanxue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics
L N Porokhovnik, S V Kostyuk, E S Ershova, S M Stukalov, N N Veiko, N Yu Korovina, N L Gorbachevskaya, A B Sorokin, N A Lyapunova
Infantile autism is a common disorder of mental development, which is characterized by impairments in the communicative, cognitive and speech spheres and obsessional stereotyped behaviour. Although in most cases, pathogenic factors remain unclear, infantile autism has a significant hereditary component, however, its etiology is also under the influence of environmental factors, including the condition of the mother's body during pregnancy ("maternal effect"). Oxidative stress is assumed to play a key role in the pathogenesis of infantile autism...
May 2016: Biomedit︠s︡inskai︠a︡ Khimii︠a︡
Carolyn E Cesta, Mattias Månsson, Camilla Palm, Paul Lichtenstein, Anastasia N Iliadou, Mikael Landén
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder affecting 5-15% of reproductive-aged women and characterized by high levels of circulating androgens. Given that androgens have been implicated in the aetiology of several psychiatric disorders, it was hypothesized that women with PCOS have high risk for psychiatric comorbidity. We aimed to investigate this risk amongst women with PCOS, as well as in their siblings, to elucidate if familial factors underlie any potential associations. Using the Swedish national registers, we identified all women diagnosed with PCOS between 1990 and 2013 (n=24,385), their full-siblings (n=25,921), plus matched individuals (1:10/100) from the general population and their full-siblings...
November 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Tohru Kobayashi, Tasuku Matsuyama, Masanobu Takeuchi, Shinya Ito
To obtain the risk estimates of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the offspring exposed to serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) in utero, we performed systematic review and meta-analysis of relevant studies. Five case-control and three cohort studies were eligible for the analysis. The SSRI group had significantly higher risk of ASD than the SSRI non-exposed group (pooled OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.15-1.82). In the subgroup analyses, however, the risk of ASD was similar between the SSRI group and other antidepressants group (pooled OR 1...
October 2016: Reproductive Toxicology
Sarah Bargiela, Robyn Steward, William Mandy
We used Framework Analysis to investigate the female autism phenotype and its impact upon the under-recognition of autism spectrum conditions (ASC) in girls and women. Fourteen women with ASC (aged 22-30 years) diagnosed in late adolescence or adulthood gave in-depth accounts of: 'pretending to be normal'; of how their gender led various professionals to miss their ASC; and of conflicts between ASC and a traditional feminine identity. Experiences of sexual abuse were widespread in this sample, partially reflecting specific vulnerabilities from being a female with undiagnosed ASC...
October 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Marya G Zlatnik
This review discusses the evidence linking industrial chemicals to a variety of health and reproductive outcomes. Industrial chemical production has increased over the past 30 to 40 years. Basic science, animal models, and epidemiologic data suggest that certain chemicals may act as endocrine disruptors (substances that interfere with normal hormonal action) and may play an etiologic role in a number of conditions whose incidence has also increased during this same period. These include low birth weight, gestational diabetes, obesity, certain cancers, certain birth defects, and neurodevelopmental disorders such as attention deficit disorder and autism...
July 2016: Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health
Traolach S Brugha, Nicola Spiers, John Bankart, Sally-Ann Cooper, Sally McManus, Fiona J Scott, Jane Smith, Freya Tyrer
BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of autism in adults has relied on untested projections using childhood research. AIMS: To derive representative estimates of the prevalence of autism and key associations in adults of all ages and ability levels. METHOD: Comparable clinical diagnostic assessments of 7274 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey participants combined with a population case-register survey of 290 adults with intellectual disability. RESULTS: The combined prevalence of autism in adults of all ages in England was 11/1000 (95% CI 3-19/1000)...
July 7, 2016: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
A Schneider, C Johnston, F Tassone, S Sansone, R J Hagerman, E Ferrer, S M Rivera, D Hessl
OBJECTIVE: Clinical observations and a limited number of research studies provide evidence that the fragile X premutation may confer risk for autism, executive dysfunction, and psychopathology. The link to autism spectrum symptoms and social cognition deficits with the premutation remains uncertain, and thus was the focus of the present investigation. METHOD: Our sample included 131 individuals, 42 men/22 women with the FMR1 premutation (mean age = 31.83 ± 8.59 years) with a normal neurological exam, and 48 men/19 women healthy age-matched controls (mean age = 29...
August 2016: Clinical Neuropsychologist
Lidia V Gabis, Noah Gruber, Michal Berkenstadt, Shahar Shefer, Odelia Leon Attia, Dana Mula, Yoram Cohen, Shai E Elizur
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most prevalent known genetically inherited cause for autism and intellectual disability. Premutation state can cause several clinical disorders as well. We aimed to perform a nesting approach to acquire data with regard to first degree relatives of index fragile X cases at the largest child development center in Israel in order to map characteristics of Israeli FXS permutation women carriers. Seventy-nine women were referred due to a related fragile X syndrome patient, mainly an offspring or sibling...
October 2016: Cerebellum
Agustín Conde-Agudelo, Anyeli Rosas-Bermudez, Maureen H Norton
CONTEXT: Both short and long interpregnancy intervals (IPIs) have recently been associated with increased risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, this association has not been systematically evaluated. OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between birth spacing and the risk of ASD and other neurodevelopmental disabilities. DATA SOURCES: Electronic databases from their inception to December 2015, bibliographies, and conference proceedings...
May 2016: Pediatrics
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