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pulsatile hormone secretion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656043/pituitary-estrogen-receptor-alpha-is-involved-in-luteinizing-hormone-pulsatility-at-mid-gestation-in-the-south-american-plains-vizcacha-lagostomus-maximus-rodentia-caviomorpha
#1
Sofía Proietto, Lorena Yankelevich, Federico Martín Villarreal, Pablo Ignacio Felipe Inserra, Santiago Elías Charif, Alejandro Raúl Schmidt, Santiago Andrés Cortasa, María Clara Corso, Noelia Paula Di Giorgio, Victoria Lux-Lantos, Alfredo Daniel Vitullo, Julia Halperin, Verónica Berta Dorfman
The South American plains vizcacha, Lagostomus maximus, is a caviomorph rodent native from Argentina, Bolivia and Paraguay. It shows peculiar reproductive features like pre-ovulatory follicle recruitment during pregnancy with an ovulatory process at around mid-gestation. We have described the activation of the hypothalamic - pituitary - ovarian (HPO) axis during pregnancy. A progressive decrease of progesterone (P4) at mid-pregnancy elicits the delivery of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) with the consequent secretion of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and estradiol (E2 ) followed by luteinizing hormone (LH) release resulting in follicular luteinization and the P4 concentration recover...
April 12, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617644/a-transcriptional-circuit-filters-oscillating-circadian-hormonal-inputs-to-regulate-fat-cell-differentiation
#2
Zahra Bahrami-Nejad, Michael L Zhao, Stefan Tholen, Devon Hunerdosse, Karen E Tkach, Sabine van Schie, Mingyu Chung, Mary N Teruel
Glucocorticoid and other adipogenic hormones are secreted in mammals in circadian oscillations. Loss of this circadian oscillation pattern correlates with obesity in humans, raising the intriguing question of how hormone secretion dynamics affect adipocyte differentiation. Using live, single-cell imaging of the key adipogenic transcription factors CEBPB and PPARG, endogenously tagged with fluorescent proteins, we show that pulsatile circadian hormone stimuli are rejected by the adipocyte differentiation control system...
April 3, 2018: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479004/neurokinin-b-receptor-agonist-and-dynorphin-receptor-antagonist-stimulated-luteinizing-hormone-secretion-in-fasted-male-rodents
#3
Toshiya Matsuzaki, Altankhuu Tungalagsuvd, Munkhsaikhan Munkhzaya, Takeshi Iwasa, Kiyohito Yano, Yiliyasi Mayila, Takako Tokui, Rie Yanagihara, Sumika Matsui, Takeshi Kato, Akira Kuwahara, Minoru Irahara
Kisspeptin/neurokinin B (NKB)/dynorphin (Dyn) (KNDy) neuron in hypothalamic arcuate nucleus plays a key role in GnRH/LH pulsatile secretion. We aimed to determine whether stimulation of NKB/neurokinin 3 receptor (NK3R) signaling and inhibition of Dyn/kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) signaling recover LH secretion that is suppressed by acute fasting in male rats. Furthermore, we determined dose dependent effect of NKB/NK3R signaling on serum LH level under acute fasting condition in male mice. Mature male rats were injected saline (0...
February 23, 2018: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383334/effects-of-toremifene-a-selective-estrogen-receptor-modulator-on-spontaneous-and-stimulated-gh-secretion-igf-i-and-igf-binding-proteins-in-healthy-elderly-subjects
#4
Ferdinand Roelfsema, Rebecca J Yang, Paul Y Takahashi, Dana Erickson, Cyril Y Bowers, Johannes D Veldhuis
Context: Estrogens amplify spontaneous and stimulated growth hormone (GH) secretion, whereas they diminish GH-dependent insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I in a dose-dependent manner. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), including tamoxifen and toremifene, are widely adjunctively used in breast and prostate cancer. Although some endocrine effects of tamoxifen are known, few data are available for toremifene. Objective: To explore sex-dependent effects of toremifene on spontaneous 10-hour overnight GH secretion, followed by GH-releasing hormone-ghrelin stimulation...
February 1, 2018: Journal of the Endocrine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380957/pilot-study-an-acute-bout-of-high-intensity-interval-exercise-increases-12-5-h-gh-secretion
#5
Sarah E Deemer, Todd J Castleberry, Chris Irvine, Daniel E Newmire, Michael Oldham, George A King, Vic Ben-Ezra, Brian A Irving, Kyle D Biggerstaff
The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that high-intensity interval exercise (HIE) significantly increases growth hormone (GH) secretion to a greater extent than moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MOD) in young women. Five young, sedentary women (mean ± SD; age: 22.6±1.3 years; BMI: 27.4±3.1 kg/m2 ) were tested during the early follicular phase of their menstrual cycle on three occasions. For each visit, participants reported to the laboratory at 1700 h, exercised from 1730-1800 h, and remained in the laboratory until 0700 h the following morning...
January 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380121/post-mortem-single-cell-labeling-with-dii-and-immunoelectron-microscopy-unveil-the-fine-structure-of-kisspeptin-neurons-in-humans
#6
Szabolcs Takács, Zsuzsanna Bardóczi, Katalin Skrapits, Balázs Göcz, Viktória Váczi, Zsófia Maglóczky, Iván Szűcs, Gergely Rácz, András Matolcsy, Waljit S Dhillo, Masahiko Watanabe, Andrea Kádár, Csaba Fekete, Imre Kalló, Erik Hrabovszky
Kisspeptin (KP) synthesizing neurons of the hypothalamic infundibular region are critically involved in the central regulation of fertility; these cells regulate pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion and mediate sex steroid feedback signals to GnRH neurons. Fine structural analysis of the human KP system is complicated by the use of post mortem tissues. To gain better insight into the neuroanatomy of the somato-dendritic cellular compartment, we introduced the diolistic labeling of immunohistochemically identified KP neurons using a gene gun loaded with the lipophilic dye, DiI...
January 29, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315384/induction-of-stress-signaling-in-vitro-and-suppression-of-gonadotropin-secretion-by-free-fatty-acids-in-female-mouse-gonadotropes
#7
Song Li, Ekaette F Mbong, Denise T John, Tomohiro Terasaka, Danmei Li, Mark A Lawson
An emerging body of evidence supports the concept that the pituitary is a site for integration of multiple physiological and metabolic signals that inform and modulate endocrine pathways. Multiple endocrine mediators of energy balance and adiposity are known to impinge on the neuroendocrine axis regulating reproduction. Observations in humans show that obesity is correlated with decreased gonadotropin secretion, and studies have also suggested that pituitary sensitivity to stimulation by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is decreased in obese individuals...
February 1, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314170/pulsatility-of-glucocorticoid-hormones-in-pregnancy-changes-with-gestation-and-obesity
#8
Laura I Stirrat, Jamie J Walker, Ksenia Stryjakowska, Natalie Jones, Natalie Z M Homer, Ruth Andrew, Jane E Norman, Stafford L Lightman, Rebecca M Reynolds
OBJECTIVE: Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) activity is decreased in obese pregnancy and associates with increased foetal size. Pulsatile release of glucocorticoid hormones regulates their action in target tissues. Glucocorticoids are essential for normal foetal growth, but little is known about glucocorticoid pulsatility in pregnancy. We aimed to investigate the ultradian rhythm of glucocorticoid secretion during obese and lean pregnancy and nonpregnancy. DESIGN: Serum cortisol, cortisone, corticosterone and 11-dehydrocorticosterone were measured by LC-MS/MS from samples obtained at 10-minute intervals between 08...
April 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289483/challenges-and-future-for-the-delivery-of-growth-hormone-therapy
#9
Andrés Caicedo, Ron Rosenfeld
Growth hormone (GH) has multiple roles in sustaining human development and homeostasis. Its pulsatile secretion stimulates growth and contributes to an equilibrium in a process tightly regulated and coordinated by many organs. GH deficiency is a medical condition affecting all ages, with not only significant consequences in the health of the patient but also impact on the quality of life. This review gathers the different strategies used today with a glance at future technologies to treat GH deficiency. We present key aspects for consideration when developing new methods to deliver GH, mimicking or replacing its pulsatile activity...
February 2018: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287490/bayesian-analysis-improves-pulse-secretion-characterization-in-reproductive-hormones
#10
Huayu Liu, Alex J Polotsky, Gary K Grunwald, Nichole E Carlson
Pulsatile secretion of hormones in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is critical for normal functioning of the reproductive system. Thus, appropriate characterization of pulsatile secretion is important for identifying the (patho)physiology of reproductive conditions. Existing analysis methods often fail to adequately characterize pulsatility, especially when the signal-to-noise ratio is low. Newer Bayesian analysis methods for pulsatile hormones may offer improved secretion quantification in noisier data...
February 2018: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208686/effects-of-growth-hormone-administration-on-luteinizing-hormone-secretion-in-healthy-older-men-and-women
#11
Ranganath Muniyappa, Shannon D Sullivan, Sri Harsha Tella, Brent S Abel, S Mitchell Harman, Marc R Blackman
The known interactions between the somatotropic and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes have not been well delineated in older individuals. Aging-associated decline in insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels has been proposed to play a role in reproductive senescence in animals. However, the effects of GH on LH secretion are unknown in older individuals. Our objective was to determine whether GH modulates LH secretion or levels of sex steroids (SS) in healthy older (ages 65-88 years) men ( n  = 24) and women ( n  = 24) with low-normal plasma IGF-1 levels...
December 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203206/expression-of-hypothalamic-kisspeptin-neurokinin-b-and-dynorphin-a-neurons-attenuates-in-female-zucker-fatty-rats
#12
Kimihiko Nakao, Kinuyo Iwata, Toshiyuki Takeshita, Hitoshi Ozawa
Zucker fatty (ZF) rats are considered to be an obese model due to leptin receptor abnormality and such rats show infertility. Pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone/luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion, which is important for follicular development in females, is considered to be controlled by KNDy neurons coexpressing kisspeptin, neurokinin B (NKB), and dynorphin A (DynA), encoded by Kiss1, Tac3, and Pdyn, respectively, in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC). The purpose of this study is to examine the expression of KNDy neurons in female ZF rats by histochemical approach because pulsatile LH secretion is suppressed...
February 5, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203140/coordination-or-coincidence-the-relationship-between-prolactin-and-gonadotropin-secretion
#13
David R Grattan
A recent paper demonstrates that kisspeptin can stimulate the secretion of both prolactin and luteinizing hormone (LH). This provides novel insight into mechanisms that could account for previous observations of concordant patterns of secretion of the two hormones, such as pulsatile secretion with simultaneous pulses, as well as the preovulatory surges of both prolactin and LH.
January 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171353/the-neuro-control-of-the-ovarain-cycle-a-hypothesis
#14
Bruno Lunenfeld, Klaus Bühler
Since more than 100 years, it is known that pituitary function depends upon the function of higher centers in the brain. It was already assumed at this time that pituitary extracts could influence the gonads and postulated that their use could have practical applications. In 1926, the 'gonadal principle' was discovered revealing the regulation of ovarian function by the pituitary. The two pituitary hormones were called 'Prolan A' and 'Prolan B' which are responsible for ovarian function especially secretion of the hormones: 'lutein' and 'foliculin'...
November 24, 2017: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163358/reactive-oxygen-species-link-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-receptor-signaling-cascades-in-the-gonadotrope
#15
Tomohiro Terasaka, Mary E Adakama, Song Li, Taeshin Kim, Eri Terasaka, Danmei Li, Mark A Lawson
Biological rhythms lie at the center of regulatory schemes that control many aspects of living systems. At the cellular level, meaningful responses to external stimuli depend on propagation and quenching of a signal to maintain vigilance for subsequent stimulation or changes that serve to shape and modulate the response. The hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad endocrine axis that controls reproductive development and function relies on control through rhythmic stimulation. Central to this axis is the pulsatile stimulation of the gonadotropes by hypothalamic neurons through episodic release of the neuropeptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136398/molecular-cloning-and-epigenetic-change-detection-of-kiss1-during-seasonal-reproduction-in-chinese-indigenous-sheep
#16
Xiaoyun He, Qiuyue Liu, Xiaoyu Li, Xiaofei Guo, Xiangyu Wang, Wenping Hu, Ran Di, Mingxing Chu
Like most seasonal domesticated species, sheep are short-day breeders, which means that the reproduction axis is activated by short days. The annual photoperiodic cycle affects the amount of daylength information that is transmitted to the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis by regulating pulsatile secretion of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone from the hypothalamus. Kisspeptin, which is encoded by Kiss1, plays a major role in reproductive seasonality. Based on results from our previous Solexa sequencing data obtained from Tan (T) and Small Tail Han (STH) sheep during anoestrus and the breeding season, full-length mRNA information for ovine Kiss1 was obtained; 894bp in T sheep and 1145bp in STH sheep...
November 15, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126131/continuous-kisspeptin-restores-luteinizing-hormone-pulsatility-following-cessation-by-a-neurokinin-b-antagonist-in-female-sheep
#17
Iain J Clarke, Qun Li, Belinda A Henry, Robert P Millar
Pulsatile secretion of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) drives pulsatile secretion of the luteinizing hormone (LH), with evidence that this depends on kisspeptin (Kiss) input to GnRH neurons. Kiss administration causes acute GnRH/LH secretion, and electrophysiological data suggest that Kiss neurons may act in a phasic manner to drive GnRH secretion, but there is not definitive evidence for this. The product of the Kiss-1 gene is proteolytically cleaved to smaller products, and the 10 amino acid C-terminal product (Kiss-10) displays full bioactivity...
February 1, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109258/definition-of-the-hypothalamic-gnrh-pulse-generator-in-mice
#18
Jenny Clarkson, Su Young Han, Richard Piet, Timothy McLennan, Grace M Kane, Jamie Ng, Robert W Porteous, Joon S Kim, William H Colledge, Karl J Iremonger, Allan E Herbison
The pulsatile release of luteinizing hormone (LH) is critical for mammalian fertility. However, despite several decades of investigation, the identity of the neuronal network generating pulsatile reproductive hormone secretion remains unproven. We use here a variety of optogenetic approaches in freely behaving mice to evaluate the role of the arcuate nucleus kisspeptin (ARNKISS ) neurons in LH pulse generation. Using GCaMP6 fiber photometry, we find that the ARNKISS neuron population exhibits brief (∼1 min) synchronized episodes of calcium activity occurring as frequently as every 9 min in gonadectomized mice...
November 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102564/gonadotropin-regulation-by-pulsatile-gnrh-signaling-and-gene-expression
#19
REVIEW
George A Stamatiades, Ursula B Kaiser
The precise orchestration of hormonal regulation at all levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is essential for normal reproductive function and fertility. The pulsatile secretion of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulates the synthesis and release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) by pituitary gonadotropes. GnRH acts by binding to its high affinity seven-transmembrane receptor (GnRHR) on the cell surface of anterior pituitary gonadotropes. Different signaling cascades and transcriptional mechanisms are activated, depending on the variation in GnRH pulse frequency, to stimulate the synthesis and release of FSH and LH...
March 5, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092409/dissipative-structures-and-biological-rhythms
#20
Albert Goldbeter
Sustained oscillations abound in biological systems. They occur at all levels of biological organization over a wide range of periods, from a fraction of a second to years, and with a variety of underlying mechanisms. They control major physiological functions, and their dysfunction is associated with a variety of physiological disorders. The goal of this review is (i) to give an overview of the main rhythms observed at the cellular and supracellular levels, (ii) to briefly describe how the study of biological rhythms unfolded in the course of time, in parallel with studies on chemical oscillations, (iii) to present the major roles of biological rhythms in the control of physiological functions, and (iv) the pathologies associated with the alteration, disappearance, or spurious occurrence of biological rhythms...
October 2017: Chaos
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