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pulsatile hormone secretion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035710/blunted-basal-corticosterone-pulsatility-predicts-post-exposure-susceptibility-to-ptsd-phenotype-in-rats
#1
Dor Danan, Michael A Matar, Zeev Kaplan, Joseph Zohar, Hagit Cohen
The basal activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is highly dynamic and is characterized by both circadian and ultradian (pulsatile) patterns of hormone secretion. Pulsatility of glucocorticoids has been determined to be critical for optimal transcriptional, neuroendocrine, and behavioral responses. We used an animal model of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to assess whether stress-induced impairment of behavioral responses is correlated with aberrant secretion of corticosterone. Serial blood samples were collected manually via the jugular vein cannula during the light-(inactive)-phase in conscious male rats at 20-min intervals for a period of 5h before and 6...
October 7, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973125/acute-psychosocial-stress-inhibits-lh-pulsatility-and-kiss1-neuronal-activation-in-female-mice
#2
Jennifer A Yang, Christopher I Song, Jessica Hughes, Michael J Kreisman, Ruby A Parra, Daniel J Haisenleder, Alexander S Kauffman, Kellie M Breen
Psychosocial stress, such as isolation and restraint, disrupts reproductive neuroendocrine activity. Here we investigate the impact of psychosocial stress on luteinizing hormone (LH) pulses and gene expression and neuronal activation within Rfrp and Kiss1 cells in female mice. Mice were ovariectomized and handled daily to habituate to the tail-tip blood collection procedure. Blood was collected every 5 min for 180 min for measurement of LH. After 90 min, stress animals were placed into restraint devices and isolated to new cages...
July 21, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967904/a-growth-hormone-receptor-snp-promotes-lung-cancer-by-impairment-of-socs2-mediated-degradation
#3
Y Chhabra, H Y Wong, L F Nikolajsen, H Steinocher, A Papadopulos, K A Tunny, F A Meunier, A G Smith, B B Kragelund, A J Brooks, M J Waters
Both humans and mice lacking functional growth hormone (GH) receptors are known to be resistant to cancer. Further, autocrine GH has been reported to act as a cancer promoter. Here we present the first example of a variant of the GH receptor (GHR) associated with cancer promotion, in this case lung cancer. We show that the GHRP495T variant located in the receptor intracellular domain is able to prolong the GH signal in vitro using stably expressing mouse pro-B-cell and human lung cell lines. This is relevant because GH secretion is pulsatile, and extending the signal duration makes it resemble autocrine GH action...
October 2, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957852/the-subtyping-of-primary-aldosteronism-by-adrenal-vein-sampling-sequential-blood-sampling-causes-factitious-lateralization
#4
Giacomo Rossitto, Michele Battistel, Giulio Barbiero, Valeria Bisogni, Giuseppe Maiolino, Miotto Diego, Teresa M Seccia, Gian Paolo Rossi
BACKGROUND: The pulsatile secretion of adrenocortical hormones and a stress reaction occurring when starting adrenal vein sampling (AVS) can affect the selectivity and also the assessment of lateralization when sequential blood sampling is used. We therefore tested the hypothesis that a simulated sequential blood sampling could decrease the diagnostic accuracy of lateralization index for identification of aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA), as compared with bilaterally simultaneous AVS...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938486/the-two-populations-of-kisspeptin-neurons-are-involved-in-the-ram-induced-lh-pulsatile-secretion-and-lh-surge-in-anestrous-ewes
#5
C Fabre-Nys, J Cognié, L Dufourny, M S Ghenim, S Martinet, O Lasserre, D Lomet, R P Millar, S Ohkura, Y Suetomi
Exposure to a ram during spring stimulates luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion and can induce ovulation in sexually quiescent ewes ("ram effect"). Kisspeptins (Kiss) present in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) and the preoptic area (POA) are potent stimulators of LH secretion. Our aim was to investigate if Kiss neurons mediate the increase in LH secretion during the "ram effect". With double immunofluorescent detection we identified Kiss neurons (Kiss IR) activated (Fos IR) by exposure to a ram for 2h (M2), 12h (M12) or to ewes for 2h (C)...
September 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903914/long-term-treatment-with-the-ghrelin-receptor-antagonist-d-lys3-ghrp-6-does-not-improve-glucose-homeostasis-in-non-obese-diabetic-mkr-mice
#6
Rasha Mosa, Lili Huang, Hongzhuo Li, Michael Grist, Derek LeRoith, Chen Chen
Ghrelin secretion has been associated with increased caloric intake and adiposity. The expressions of ghrelin and its receptor (GHS-R1a) in pancreas have raised the interest about the role of ghrelin in glucose homeostasis. Most of the studies showed that ghrelin promoted hyperglycaemia and inhibited insulin secretion. This raised the interest in using GHS-R1a antagonists as therapeutic targets for type 2 diabetes. Available data of GHS-R antagonists are on a short-term basis. Moreover, the complexity of GHS-R1a signalling makes it difficult to understand the mechanism of action of GHS-R1a antagonists...
September 13, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859282/a-neurokinin-3-receptor-selective-agonist-accelerates-pulsatile-luteinizing-hormone-secretion-in-lactating-cattle
#7
Sho Nakamura, Yoshihiro Wakabayashi, Takashi Yamamura, Satoshi Ohkura, Shuichi Matsuyama
Pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion, which is indispensable for follicular development, is suppressed in lactating dairy and beef cattle. Neurokinin B (NKB) neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus are considered to play an essential role in generating the pulsatile mode of GnRH/luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion. The present study aimed to clarify the role of NKB-neurokinin 3 receptor (NK3R) signaling in the pulsatile pattern of GnRH/gonadotropin secretion in postpartum lactating cattle...
July 1, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808344/hypothalamic-effects-of-progesterone-on-regulation-of-the-pulsatile-and-surge-release-of-luteinising-hormone-in-female-rats
#8
Wen He, Xiaofeng Li, Daniel Adekunbi, Yali Liu, Hui Long, Li Wang, Qifeng Lyu, Yanping Kuang, Kevin T O'Byrne
Progesterone can block the oestradiol-induced GnRH/LH surge and inhibit LH pulse frequency. Recent studies reported that progesterone prevented premature LH surges during ovarian hyperstimulation in women. As the most potent stimulator of GnRH/LH release, kisspeptin is believed to mediate the positive and negative feedback effects of oestradiol in the hypothalamic anteroventral periventricular (AVPV) and arcuate (ARC) nuclei, while the region-specific role of progesterone receptors in these nuclei remains unknown...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804622/human-placental-growth-hormone-in-normal-and-abnormal-fetal-growth
#9
Alexandros Velegrakis, Maria Sfakiotaki, Stavros Sifakis
Human placental growth hormone (PGH), encoded by the growth hormone (GH) variant gene on chromosome 17, is expressed in the syncytiotrophoblast and extravillous cytotrophoblast layers of the human placenta. Its maternal serum levels increase throughout pregnancy, and gradually replaces the pulsatile secreted pituitary GH. PGH is also detectable in cord blood and in the amniotic fluid. This placental-origin hormone stimulates glyconeogenesis, lipolysis and anabolism in maternal organs, and influences fetal growth, placental development and maternal adaptation to pregnancy...
August 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802064/neurokinin-3-receptor-antagonism-decreases-gonadotropin-and-testosterone-secretion-in-healthy-men
#10
Karolina Skorupskaite, Jyothis T George, Johannes D Veldhuis, Robert P Millar, Richard A Anderson
OBJECTIVE: Patients with mutations of neurokinin B (NKB) and its receptor show hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, but there is little evidence for the importance of this pathway in reproductive function in normal men, or its functional hierarchy with kisspeptin. DESIGN: An open label study wherein men (n = 6) were administered the NK3R antagonist MLE4901 40 mg orally twice a day for 7 days. Kisspeptin-10 (0.3 μg/kg iv bolus) was given before and on day 7 of NK3R antagonist treatment...
August 12, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800500/sb223412-a-neurokinin-3-receptor-selective-antagonist-suppresses-testosterone-secretion-in-male-guinea-pigs
#11
Sho Nakamura, Yoshiko Ito, Koki Yamamoto, Chudai Takahashi, Mingdao Dai, Miyu Tanahashi, Yoshihisa Uenoyama, Hiroko Tsukamura, Shinya Oishi, Kei-Ichiro Maeda, Fuko Matsuda
Guinea pigs are important zoo animals and have been recommended for animal-assisted activities or therapy, however there are problems concerning testosterone inducing aggressive or sexual behaviors in male guinea pigs. Testicular testosterone secretion is regulated by pulsatile gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)/luteinizing hormone (LH) release in mammals. The mechanism generating GnRH/LH pulses is thought to be governed by kisspeptin neurons, which coexpress neurokinin B (NKB) and dynorphin A (Dyn), in the arcuate nucleus (ARC)...
July 31, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800490/oxytocin-secretion-is-pulsatile-in-men-and-is-related-to-social-emotional-functioning
#12
Charumathi Baskaran, Franziska Plessow, Lisseth Silva, Elisa Asanza, Dean Marengi, Kamryn T Eddy, Patrick M Sluss, Michael L Johnson, Madhusmita Misra, Elizabeth A Lawson
The hypothalamic hormone oxytocin (OXT) plays an important role in a range of physiological processes and social-emotional functioning in both sexes. In women, physiological stimuli, such as suckling and parturition, result in pulsatile release of OXT into the peripheral circulation via the posterior pituitary gland. However, data regarding OXT secretory patterns in men during a state of rest are limited. Further, the relationship between secretory dynamics of OXT and emotional measures has never been evaluated...
November 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790978/progress-and-challenges-in-the-search-for-the-mechanisms-of-pulsatile-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-secretion
#13
REVIEW
Stephanie Constantin
Fertility relies on the proper functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. The hormonal cascade begins with hypothalamic neurons secreting gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) into the hypophyseal portal system. In turn, the GnRH-activated gonadotrophs in the anterior pituitary release gonadotropins, which then act on the gonads to regulate gametogenesis and sex steroidogenesis. Finally, sex steroids close this axis by feeding back to the hypothalamus. Despite this seeming straightforwardness, the axis is orchestrated by a complex neuronal network in the central nervous system...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760599/gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-signaling-an-information-theoretic-approach
#14
REVIEW
Margaritis Voliotis, Kathryn L Garner, Hussah Alobaid, Krasimira Tsaneva-Atanasova, Craig A McArdle
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a peptide hormone that mediates central control of reproduction, acting via G-protein coupled receptors that are primarily Gq coupled and mediate GnRH effects on the synthesis and secretion of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone. A great deal is known about the GnRH receptor signaling network but GnRH is secreted in short pulses and much less is known about how gonadotropes decode this pulsatile signal. Similarly, single cell measures reveal considerable cell-cell heterogeneity in responses to GnRH but the impact of this variability on signaling is largely unknown...
July 29, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497294/a-two-step-deconvolution-analysis-informed-population-pharmacodynamic-modeling-approach-for-drugs-targeting-pulsatile-endogenous-compounds
#15
Michiel J van Esdonk, Jacobus Burggraaf, Piet H van der Graaf, Jasper Stevens
Pharmacodynamic modeling of pulsatile endogenous compounds (e.g. growth hormone [GH]) is currently limited to the identification of a low number of pulses. Commonly used pharmacodynamic models are not able to capture the complexity of pulsatile secretion and therefore non-compartmental analyses are performed to extract summary statistics (mean, AUC, Cmax). The aim of this study was to develop a new quantification method that deals with highly variable pulsatile data by using a deconvolution-analysis-informed population pharmacodynamic modeling approach...
August 2017: Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475285/evidence-of-involvement-of-neurone-glia-neurone-neurone-communications-via-gap-junctions-in-synchronised-activity-of-kndy-neurones
#16
K Ikegami, S Minabe, N Ieda, T Goto, A Sugimoto, S Nakamura, N Inoue, S Oishi, A D Maturana, M Sanbo, M Hirabayashi, K-I Maeda, H Tsukamura, Y Uenoyama
Pulsatile secretion of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH)/luteinising hormone is indispensable for the onset of puberty and reproductive activities at adulthood in mammalian species. A cohort of neurones expressing three neuropeptides, namely kisspeptin, encoded by the Kiss1 gene, neurokinin B (NKB) and dynorphin A, localised in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), so-called KNDy neurones, comprises a putative intrinsic source of the GnRH pulse generator. Synchronous activity among KNDy neurones is considered to be required for pulsatile GnRH secretion...
June 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447478/pulsatile-kisspeptin-effectively-stimulates-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-gnrh-producing-neurons
#17
Haruhiko Kanasaki, Mijiddorj Tselmeg, Aki Oride, Unurjargal Sukhbaatar, Tomomi Hara, Satoru Kyo
Hypothalamic kisspeptin is integral to the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis by stimulating gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release. GnRH is released from the hypothalamus in a pulsatile manner and determines the output of the gonadotropins. However, the effect of kisspeptin on GnRH-secreting cells remains unknown. In an experiment using static cultures of GT1-7 cells, kisspeptin did not significantly increase GnRH mRNA expression. However, when kisspeptin was administered to the cells in a pulsatile manner, GnRH mRNA expression was significantly increased...
September 2017: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404685/rising-maternal-circulating-gh-during-murine-pregnancy-suggests-placental-regulation
#18
Kathryn L Gatford, Beverly S Muhlhausler, Lili Huang, Pamela Su-Lin Sim, Claire T Roberts, Johannes D Velhuis, Chen Chen
Placenta-derived hormones including growth hormone (GH) in humans contribute to maternal adaptation to pregnancy, and intermittent maternal GH administration increases foetal growth in several species. Both patterns and abundance of circulating GH are important for its activity, but their changes during pregnancy have only been reported in humans and rats. The aim of the present study was to characterise circulating profiles and secretory characteristics of GH in non-pregnant female mice and throughout murine pregnancy...
May 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377404/effect-of-androgen-on-kiss1-expression-and-luteinizing-hormone-release-in-female-rats
#19
Kinuyo Iwata, Yuyu Kunimura, Keisuke Matsumoto, Hitoshi Ozawa
Hyperandrogenic women have various grades of ovulatory dysfunction, which lead to infertility. The purpose of this study was to determine whether chronic exposure to androgen affects the expression of kisspeptin (ovulation and follicle development regulator) or release of luteinizing hormone (LH) in female rats. Weaned females were subcutaneously implanted with 90-day continuous-release pellets of 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and studied after 10 weeks of age. Number of Kiss1-expressing cells in both the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) and arcuate nucleus (ARC) was significantly decreased in ovary-intact DHT rats...
June 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368521/regulation-of-pulsatile-and-entropic-acth-secretion-under-fixed-exogenous-secretagogue-clamps
#20
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Ferdinand Roelfsema, Paul Aoun, Paul Y Takahashi, Dana Erickson, Rebecca Yang, Johannes D Veldhuis
Background: Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secretion is controlled by unobservable hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) pulses. Clamping exogenous CRH or AVP input could allow indirect quantification of the impact of the endogenous heterotypic hormone. Methods: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study in 28 healthy adults (16 men). Volunteers underwent a sex-steroid clamp and a cortisol clamp...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
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