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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340407/transmission-of-persistent-ionizing-radiation-induced-foci-through-cell-division-in-human-primary-cells
#1
Aurelie Vaurijoux, Pascale Voisin, Amelie Freneau, Joan Francesc Barquinero, Gaetan Gruel
Unrepaired DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) induced by ionizing radiation are associated with lethal effects and genomic instability. After the initial breaks and chromatin destabilization, a set of post-translational modifications of histones occurs, including phosphorylation of serine 139 of histone H2AX (γH2AX), which leads to the formation of ionizing radiation-induced foci (IRIF). DSB repair results in the disappearance of most IRIF within hours after exposure, although some remain 24h after irradiation...
March 10, 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339907/o-linked-%C3%AE-n-acetylglucosamine-modification-of-proteins-is-essential-for-foot-process-maturation-and-survival-in-podocytes
#2
Shinya Ono, Shinji Kume, Mako Yasuda-Yamahara, Kosuke Yamahara, Naoko Takeda, Masami Chin-Kanasaki, Hisazumi Araki, Osamu Sekine, Hideki Yokoi, Masashi Mukoyama, Takashi Uzu, Shin-Ichi Araki, Hiroshi Maegawa
Background.: O-linked β- N -acetylglucosamine modification O-GlcNAcylation) is a post-translational modification of intracellular proteins, serving as a nutrient sensor. Growing evidence has demonstrated its physiological and pathological importance in various mammalian tissues. This study examined the physiological role of O-GlcNAcylation in podocyte function and development. Methods.: O-GlcNAc transferase (Ogt) is a critical enzyme for O-GlcNAcylation and resides on the X chromosome...
February 27, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335430/a-review-on-ubiquitination-of-neurotrophin-receptors-facts-and-perspectives
#3
REVIEW
Julia Sánchez-Sánchez, Juan Carlos Arévalo
Ubiquitination is a reversible post-translational modification involved in a plethora of different physiological functions. Among the substrates that are ubiquitinated, neurotrophin receptors (TrkA, TrkB, TrkC, and p75(NTR)) have been studied recently. TrkA is the most studied receptor in terms of its ubiquitination, and different E3 ubiquitin ligases and deubiquitinases have been implicated in its ubiquitination, whereas not much is known about the other neurotrophin receptors aside from their ubiquitination...
March 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334823/h3-y-discriminates-between-hira-and-daxx-chaperone-complexes-and-reveals-unexpected-insights-into-human-daxx-h3-3-h4-binding-and-deposition-requirements
#4
Lisa-Maria Zink, Erwan Delbarre, H Christian Eberl, Eva C Keilhauer, Clemens Bönisch, Sebastian Pünzeler, Marek Bartkuhn, Philippe Collas, Matthias Mann, Sandra B Hake
Histone chaperones prevent promiscuous histone interactions before chromatin assembly. They guarantee faithful deposition of canonical histones and functionally specialized histone variants into chromatin in a spatial- and temporally-restricted manner. Here, we identify the binding partners of the primate-specific and H3.3-related histone variant H3.Y using several quantitative mass spectrometry approaches, and biochemical and cell biological assays. We find the HIRA, but not the DAXX/ATRX, complex to recognize H3...
February 21, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334491/mutant-exon1-huntingtin-aggregation-is-regulated-by-t3-phosphorylation-induced-structural-changes-and-crosstalk-between-t3-phosphorylation-and-acetylation-at-k6
#5
Anass Chiki, Sean M DeGuire, Francesco S Ruggeri, Domenico Sanfelice, Annalisa Ansaloni, Zhe-Ming Wang, Urszula Cendrowska, Ritwik Burai, Sophie Vieweg, Annalisa Pastore, Giovanni Dietler, Hilal A Lashuel
Herein, we used protein semisynthesis to investigate, for the first time, the effect of lysine acetylation and phosphorylation, as well as the crosstalk between these modifications on the structure and aggregation of mutant huntingtin exon1 (Httex1). Our results demonstrate that phosphorylation at T3 stabilizes the α-helical conformation of the N-terminal 17 amino acids (Nt17) and significantly inhibits the aggregation of mutant Httex1. Acetylation of single lysine residues, K6, K9 or K15, had no effect on Httex1 aggregation...
March 23, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334215/systematic-inference-of-functional-phosphorylation-events-in-yeast-metabolism
#6
Yu Chen, Yonghong Wang, Jens Nielsen
Motivation: Protein phosphorylation is a post-translational modification that affects proteins by changing their structure and conformation in a rapid and reversible way, and it is an important mechanism for metabolic regulation in cells. Phosphoproteomics enables high-throughput identification of phosphorylation events on metabolic enzymes, but identifying functional phosphorylation events still requires more detailed biochemical characterization. Therefore, development of computational methods for investigating unknown functions of a large number of phosphorylation events identified by phosphoproteomics has received increased attention...
March 2, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332701/the-epigenetic-landscape-related-to-reactive-oxygen-species-formation-in-the-cardiovascular-system
#7
REVIEW
Thomas Kietzmann, Andreas Petry, Antonina Shvetsova, Joachim M Gerhold, Agnes Görlach
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can act as damaging molecules but also represent central hubs in cellular signalling networks. Increasing evidence indicates that ROS play an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases, although the underlying mechanisms and consequences of pathophysiological elevated ROS in the cardiovascular system are still not completely resolved. More recently, alterations of the epigenetic landscape which can affect DNA methylation, post-translational histone modifications, ATP-dependent alterations to chromatin and non-coding RNA transcripts, have been considered to be of increasing importance in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases...
March 23, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330764/lipid-sugar-carriers-at-the-extremes-the-phosphodolichols-archaea-use-in-n-glycosylation
#8
REVIEW
Jerry Eichler, Ziqiang Guan
N-glycosylation, a post-translational modification whereby glycans are covalently linked to select Asn residues of target proteins, occurs in all three domains of life. Across evolution, the N-linked glycans are initially assembled on phosphorylated cytoplasmically-oriented polyisoprenoids, with polyprenol (mainly C55 undecaprenol) fulfilling this role in Bacteria and dolichol assuming this function in Eukarya and Archaea. The eukaryal and archaeal versions of dolichol can, however, be distinguished on the basis of their length, degree of saturation and by other traits...
March 18, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330758/regulation-of-type-i-interferon-signaling-in-immunity-and-inflammation-a-comprehensive-review
#9
REVIEW
Kun Chen, Juan Liu, Xuetao Cao
Type I interferons (IFNs) play essential roles in establishing and modulating host defense against microbial infection via induction of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) through Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling pathway. However, dysregulation of IFNs production and function could also mediate immune pathogenesis such as inflammatory autoimmune diseases and infectious diseases via aberrantly activating inflammatory responses or improperly suppressing microbial controls...
March 19, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329008/insulin-and-diet-induced-changes-in-the-ubiquitin-modified-proteome-of-rat-liver
#10
Shilpa R Nagarajan, Amanda E Brandon, Jessie A McKenna, Harrison C Shtein, Thinh Q Nguyen, Eurwin Suryana, Philip Poronnik, Gregory J Cooney, Darren N Saunders, Andrew J Hoy
Ubiquitin is a crucial post-translational modification regulating numerous cellular processes, but its role in metabolic disease is not well characterized. In this study, we identified the in vivo ubiquitin-modified proteome in rat liver and determined changes in this ubiquitome under acute insulin stimulation and high-fat and sucrose diet-induced insulin resistance. We identified 1267 ubiquitinated proteins in rat liver across diet and insulin-stimulated conditions, with 882 proteins common to all conditions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328971/mapping-the-n-linked-glycosites-of-rice-oryza-sativa-l-germinating-embryos
#11
Jiezheng Ying, Juan Zhao, Yuxuan Hou, Yifeng Wang, Jiehua Qiu, Zhiyong Li, Xiaohong Tong, Zhaomei Shi, Jun Zhu, Jian Zhang
Germination is a key event in the angiosperm life cycle. N-glycosylation of proteins is one of the most common post-translational modifications, and has been recognized to be an important regulator of the proteome of the germinating embryo. Here, we report the first N-linked glycosites mapping of rice embryos during germination by using a hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) glycopeptides enrichment strategy associated with high accuracy mass spectrometry identification. A total of 242 glycosites from 191 unique proteins was discovered...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327990/estimating-the-total-number-of-phosphoproteins-and-phosphorylation-sites-in-eukaryotic-proteomes
#12
Panayotis Vlastaridis, Pelagia Kyriakidou, Anargyros Chaliotis, Yves Van de Peer, Stephen G Oliver, Grigoris D Amoutzias
Background: Phosphorylation is the most frequent post-translational modification made to proteins and may regulate protein activity as either a molecular digital switch or a rheostat. Despite the cornucopia of high-throughput (HTP) phosphoproteomic data in the last decade, it remains unclear how many proteins are phosphorylated and how many phosphorylation sites (p-sites) can exist in total within a eukaryotic proteome. We present the first reliable estimates of the total number of phosphoproteins and phosphorylation sites (p-sites), for four eukaryotes (human, mouse, Arabidopsis, and yeast)...
January 7, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327356/type-2-inositol-trisphosphate-receptor-gene-expression-in-hepatocytes-is-regulated-by-cyclic-amp
#13
Emma Kruglov, M Ananthanarayanan, Pedro Sousa, Jittima Weerachayaphorn, Mateus T Guerra, Michael H Nathanson
The type 2 inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R2) is the principal intracellular Ca(2+) release channel in hepatocytes, and so is important for bile secretion and other functions. IP3R2 activity is regulated in part by post-translational modifications but little is known about transcriptional regulation of its expression. We found that both IP3R2 mRNA and protein levels in liver were increased during fasting. Treatment of hepatocytes with forskolin or 8-CPT-cAMP also increased IP3R2, and this was reduced by actinomycin D...
March 18, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326191/global-histone-modification-fingerprinting-in-human-cells-using-epigenetic-reverse-phase-protein-array
#14
Marina Partolina, Hazel C Thoms, Kenneth G MacLeod, Giovanny Rodriguez-Blanco, Matthew N Clarke, Anuroop V Venkatasubramani, Rima Beesoo, Vladimir Larionov, Vidushi S Neergheen-Bhujun, Bryan Serrels, Hiroshi Kimura, Neil O Carragher, Alexander Kagansky
The balance between acetylation and deacetylation of histone proteins plays a critical role in the regulation of genomic functions. Aberrations in global levels of histone modifications are linked to carcinogenesis and are currently the focus of intense scrutiny and translational research investments to develop new therapies, which can modify complex disease pathophysiology through epigenetic control. However, despite significant progress in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of epigenetic machinery in various genomic contexts and cell types, the links between epigenetic modifications and cellular phenotypes are far from being clear...
2017: Cell Death Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326143/posttranslational-isoprenylation-of-tryptophan-in-bacteria
#15
REVIEW
Masahiro Okada, Tomotoshi Sugita, Ikuro Abe
Posttranslational isoprenylation is generally recognized as a universal modification of the cysteine residues in peptides and the thiol groups of proteins in eukaryotes. In contrast, the Bacillus quorum sensing peptide pheromone, the ComX pheromone, possesses a posttranslationally modified tryptophan residue, and the tryptophan residue is isoprenylated with either a geranyl or farnesyl group at the gamma position to form a tricyclic skeleton that bears a newly formed pyrrolidine, similar to proline. The post-translational dimethylallylation of two tryptophan residues of a cyclic peptide, kawaguchipeptin A, from cyanobacteria has also been reported...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326097/different-proteome-profiles-between-male-and-female-populus-cathayana-exposed-to-uv-b-radiation
#16
Yunxiang Zhang, Lihua Feng, Hao Jiang, Yuanbin Zhang, Sheng Zhang
With increasing altitude, solar UV-B radiation is enhanced. Based on the phenomenon of male-biased sex ratio of Populus cathayana Rehder in high altitude alpine area, we hypothesized that males have a faster and more sophisticated responsive mechanism to high UV-B radiation than that of females. Our previous studies have shown sexually different responses to high UV-B radiation were existed in P. cathayana at the morphological, physiological, and transcriptomic levels. However, the responses at the proteomic level remain unclear...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325758/the-tubulin-code-at-a-glance
#17
REVIEW
Sudarshan Gadadhar, Satish Bodakuntla, Kathiresan Natarajan, Carsten Janke
Microtubules are key cytoskeletal elements of all eukaryotic cells and are assembled of evolutionarily conserved α-tubulin-β-tubulin heterodimers. Despite their uniform structure, microtubules fulfill a large diversity of functions. A regulatory mechanism to control the specialization of the microtubule cytoskeleton is the 'tubulin code', which is generated by (i) expression of different α- and β-tubulin isotypes, and by (ii) post-translational modifications of tubulin. In this Cell Science at a Glance article and the accompanying poster, we provide a comprehensive overview of the molecular components of the tubulin code, and discuss the mechanisms by which these components contribute to the generation of functionally specialized microtubules...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323416/one-pot-two-nanoprobe-assay-uncovers-targeted-glycoprotein-biosignature
#18
Mira Anne C Dela Rosa, Wei-Chun Chen, Yi-Ju Chen, Rofeamor P Obena, Chih-Hsiang Chang, Rey Y Capangpangan, Tung-Hung Su, Chi-Ling Chen, Pei-Jer Chen, Yu-Ju Chen
We report a one-pot two-nanoprobe approach coupled to mass spectrometry for simultaneous quantification and post-translational modification (PTM) profiling of targeted protein in biofluid. Using N-glycoprotein as model, the assay employs two nanoprobes, antibody-conjugated SiO2 nanoparticles and lectin-conjugated magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles, to achieve target glycoprotein isolation from biofluid and subsequent glycopeptide enrichment in a single tube. As demonstrated on α-fetoprotein (AFP), a serum biomarker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the assay has high purification specificity (20 glycopeptides) with 2-fold and 10-fold superior total glycopeptide intensity compared to non-one-pot method (9 glycopeptides) or without enrichment (6 glycopeptides), respectively...
March 21, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323169/isolation-and-characterization-of-human-capg-expressed-and-post-translationally-modified-in-pichia-pastoris
#19
Agnes Papala, Marc Sylvester, Nadine Dyballa-Rukes, Sabine Metzger, Jochen D'Haese
CapG is an actin-binding protein, which is overexpressed in a variety of tumors, i.e. breast, ovarian, pancreatic and lung carcinoma. We successfully expressed human CapG in the wild type strain X-33 of the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris), which does not express endogenous CapG, in order to characterize this protein in more detail. After mechanical cell lysis, debris was centrifuged and the soluble protein was precipitated with ammonium sulfate. This protein pellet was dialyzed and used for CapG purification...
March 18, 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323055/a-6-alkylsalicylate-histone-acetyltransferase-inhibitor-inhibits-histone-acetylation-and-pro-inflammatory-gene-expression-in-murine-precision-cut-lung-slices
#20
Thea van den Bosch, Niek G J Leus, Hannah Wapenaar, Alexander Boichenko, Jos Hermans, Rainer Bischoff, Hidde J Haisma, Frank J Dekker
Lysine acetylations are post-translational modifications of cellular proteins, that are crucial in the regulation of many cellular processes. Lysine acetylations on histone proteins are part of the epigenetic code regulating gene transcription and are installed by histone acetyltransferases. Observations that inflammatory lung diseases, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, are characterized by increased histone acetyltransferase activity indicate that development of small molecule inhibitors for these enzymes might be a valuable approach towards new therapies for these diseases...
March 16, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
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