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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098250/tailoring-femtosecond-1-5-%C3%AE-m-bessel-beams-for-manufacturing-high-aspect-ratio-through-silicon-vias
#1
Fei He, Junjie Yu, Yuanxin Tan, Wei Chu, Changhe Zhou, Ya Cheng, Koji Sugioka
Three-dimensional integrated circuits (3D ICs) are an attractive replacement for conventional 2D ICs as high-performance, low-power-consumption, and small-footprint microelectronic devices. However, one of the major remaining challenges is the manufacture of high-aspect-ratio through-silicon vias (TSVs), which is a crucial technology for the assembly of 3D Si ICs. Here, we present the fabrication of high-quality TSVs using a femtosecond (fs) 1.5-μm Bessel beam. To eliminate the severe ablation caused by the sidelobes of a conventional Bessel beam, a fs Bessel beam is tailored using a specially designed binary phase plate...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091877/influence-of-enamel-dentin-thickness-on-the-toxic-and-esthetic-effects-of-experimental-in-office-bleaching-protocols
#2
C C de Oliveira Duque, D G Soares, F G Basso, J Hebling, C A de Souza Costa
OBJECTIVES: This paper aims to assess the whitening effectiveness and toxicity of tooth-bleaching protocols applied to enamel/dentin disks simulating mandibular incisors (ICs) and premolars (PMs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 10% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) gel was applied for 3 × 15, 1 × 15, or 1 × 5 min to enamel/dentin disks simulating mandibular ICs and PMs, and the trans-enamel and trans-dentinal diffusion products were applied to human dental pulp cells (1 h)...
January 14, 2017: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089081/asthma-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-overlap-syndrome-literature-review-and-contributions-towards-a-portuguese-consensus
#3
D Araújo, E Padrão, M Morais-Almeida, J Cardoso, F Pavão, R B Leite, A C Caldas, A Marques
INTRODUCTION: Phenotypic overlap between the two main chronic airway pulmonary diseases, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), has been the subject of debate for decades, and recently the nomenclature of asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS) was adopted for this condition. The definition of this entity in the literature is, however, very heterogeneous, it is therefore important to define how it applies to Portugal. METHODS: A literature review of ACOS was made in a first phase resulting in the drawing up of a document that was later submitted for discussion among a panel of chronic lung diseases experts, resulting in reflexions about diagnosis, treatment and clinical guidance for ACOS patients...
January 6, 2017: Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074051/anti-folates-potentiate-bactericidal-effects-of-other-antimicrobial-agents
#4
Kun Li, Xu-de Wang, Shan-Shan Yang, Jing Gu, Jiao-Yu Deng, Xian-En Zhang
Synergies between sulfonamides and other antimicrobial agents have long been reported, but the reason still remains unclear. Previously, Vilchèze et al. found that, sulfamethoxazole (SMX) could potentiate the bacterialcidal activity of isoniazid (INH) and rifampin (RIF) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. To test if this was also the case in other bacteria, the ability to potentiate bactericidal effect of RIF by SMX was evaluated in Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium and Mycobacterium smegmatis...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069248/race-is-associated-with-differences-in-airway-inflammation-in-patients-with-asthma
#5
Sharmilee M Nyenhuis, Jerry A Krishnan, Alalia Berry, William J Calhoun, Vernon M Chinchilli, Linda Engle, Nicole Grossman, Fernando Holguin, Elliot Israel, Rick A Kittles, Monica Kraft, Stephen C Lazarus, Erik B Lehman, David T Mauger, James N Moy, Stephen P Peters, Wanda Phipatanakul, Lewis J Smith, Kaharu Sumino, Stanley J Szefler, Michael E Wechsler, Sally Wenzel, Steven R White, Steven J Ackerman
BACKGROUND: African American subjects have a greater burden from asthma compared with white subjects. Whether the pattern of airway inflammation differs between African American and white subjects is unclear. OBJECTIVE: We sought to compare sputum airway inflammatory phenotypes of African American and white subjects treated or not with inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs; ICS+ and ICS-, respectively). METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis of self-identified African American and white subjects with asthma enrolled in clinical trials conducted by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-sponsored Asthma Clinical Research Network and AsthmaNet...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069068/the-sygma-programme-of-phase-3-trials-to-evaluate-the-efficacy-and-safety-of-budesonide-formoterol-given-as-needed-in-mild-asthma-study-protocols-for-two-randomised-controlled-trials
#6
Paul M O'Byrne, J Mark FitzGerald, Nanshan Zhong, Eric Bateman, Peter J Barnes, Christina Keen, Gun Almqvist, Kristine Pemberton, Carin Jorup, Stefan Ivanov, Helen K Reddel
BACKGROUND: In many patients with mild asthma, the low frequency of symptoms and the episodic nature of exacerbations make adherence to regular maintenance treatment difficult. This often leads to over-reliance on short-acting β2-agonist (SABA) reliever medication and under-treatment of the underlying inflammation, with poor control of asthma symptoms and increased risk of exacerbations. The use of budesonide/formoterol 'as needed' in response to symptoms may represent an alternative treatment option for patients with mild asthma...
January 10, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065396/inhaled-corticosteroid-dose-response-in-asthma-should-we-measure-inflammation
#7
William J Anderson, Philip M Short, Sunny Jabbal, Brian J Lipworth
BACKGROUND: Inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) titration in asthma is primarily based on symptoms and pulmonary function. ICSs may not be increased on this basis despite residual airway inflammation. OBJECTIVE: To compare the dose-response relationships of ICSs on measures of pulmonary function, symptoms, and inflammation in patients with persistent asthma. METHODS: We performed a pooled post hoc analysis of 121 patients with mild to moderate asthma from 4 randomized clinical trials that incorporated an ICS dose ramp...
January 3, 2017: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059269/research-on-an-uplink-carrier-sense-multiple-access-algorithm-of-large-indoor-visible-light-communication-networks-based-on-an-optical-hard-core-point-process
#8
Zhufen Nan, Xuefen Chi
The IEEE 802.15.7 protocol suggests that it could coordinate the channel access process based on the competitive method of carrier sensing. However, the directionality of light and randomness of diffuse reflection would give rise to a serious imperfect carrier sense (ICS) problem [e.g., hidden node (HN) problem and exposed node (EN) problem], which brings great challenges in realizing the optical carrier sense multiple access (CSMA) mechanism. In this paper, the carrier sense process implemented by diffuse reflection light is modeled as the choice of independent sets...
December 20, 2016: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055826/system-on-chip-considerations-for-heterogeneous-integration-of-cmos-and-fluidic-bio-interfaces
#9
Timir Datta-Chaudhuri, Elisabeth Smela, Pamela A Abshire
CMOS chips are increasingly used for direct sensing and interfacing with fluidic and biological systems. While many biosensing systems have successfully combined CMOS chips for readout and signal processing with passive sensing arrays, systems that co-locate sensing with active circuits on a single chip offer significant advantages in size and performance but increase the complexity of multi-domain design and heterogeneous integration. This emerging class of lab-on-CMOS systems also poses distinct and vexing technical challenges that arise from the disparate requirements of biosensors and integrated circuits (ICs)...
December 2016: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054154/interstitial-cell-modulation-of-pyeloureteric-peristalsis-in-the-mouse-renal-pelvis-examined-using-fibsem-tomography-and-calcium-indicators
#10
Hikaru Hashitani, Michael J Nguyen, Haruka Noda, Retsu Mitsui, Ryuhei Higashi, Keisuke Ohta, Kei-Ichiro Nakamura, Richard J Lang
Typical and atypical smooth muscle cells (TSMCs and ASMCs, respectively) and interstitial cells (ICs) within the pacemaker region of the mouse renal pelvis were examined using focused ion beam scanning electron (FIB SEM) tomography, immunohistochemistry and Ca(2+) imaging. Individual cells within 500-900 electron micrograph stacks were volume rendered and associations with their neighbours established. 'Ribbon-shaped', Ano1 Cl(-) channel immuno-reactive ICs were present in the adventitia and the sub-urothelial space adjacent to the TSMC layer...
January 4, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053970/leukotriene-b4-levels-in-sputum-from-asthma-patients
#11
Andrew Higham, Paul Cadden, Thomas Southworth, Matthew Rossall, Umme Kolsum, Simon Lea, Richard Knowles, Dave Singh
Poor asthma control is associated with increased airway neutrophils. Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) is a potent neutrophil chemoattractant. We examined the levels of LTB4 levels in the sputum of asthma patients and the relationship with disease severity. 47 asthma patients (categorised according to Global Initiative for Asthma treatment stage) and 12 healthy controls provided sputum samples that were processed first with PBS to obtain supernatants and secondly with dithiothreitol (DTT) to obtain supernatants. LTB4 levels were determined by ELISA...
October 2016: ERJ Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049170/airway-inflammation-in-copd-after-long-term-withdrawal-of-inhaled-corticosteroids
#12
Lisette I Z Kunz, Nick H T Ten Hacken, Thérèse S Lapperre, Wim Timens, Huib A M Kerstjens, Annemarie van Schadewijk, Judith M Vonk, Jacob K Sont, Jiska B Snoeck-Stroband, Dirkje S Postma, Peter J Sterk, Pieter S Hiemstra
Long-term treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) might attenuate lung function decline and decrease airway inflammation in a subset of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and discontinuing ICS treatment could result in further lung function decline. We hypothesised that airway inflammation increases after ICS withdrawal following long-term ICS treatment in COPD.In the GLUCOLD-1 study (GL1), 114 patients with moderate-severe COPD were randomised to 6-month or 30-month treatment with fluticasone propionate (500 µg twice daily), 30-month treatment with fluticasone/salmeterol (500/50 µg twice daily) or placebo...
January 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047369/su-f-t-16-experimental-determination-of-ionization-chamber-correction-factors-for-in-phantom-measurements-of-reference-air-kerma-rate-and-absorbed-water-dose-rate-of-brachytherapy-192ir-source
#13
M Chan, V Lee, M Wong, R Leung, G Law, K Lee, S Cheung, S Tung
PURPOSE: Following the method of in-phantom measurements of reference air kerma rate (Ka) at 100cm and absorbed water dose rate (Dw1) at 1cm of high-dose-rate 192Ir brachytherapy source using 60Co absorbed-dose-to-water calibrated (ND,w,60Co) ionization chamber (IC), we experimentally determined the in-phantom correction factors (kglob) of the PTW30013 (PTW, Freiburg, Germany) IC by comparing the Monte Carlo (MC)-calculated kglob of the other PTW30016 IC. METHODS: The Dw1 formalism of in-phantom measurement is: M*ND,w,60Co*(kglob)Dw1, where M is the collected charges, and (kglob)Dw1 the in-phantom Dw1 correction factor...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046823/su-g-tep4-07-automatic-epid-based-2d-measurement-of-mlc-leaf-offset-as-a-quality-control-tool
#14
T Ritter, B Schultz, G Kim, M Barnes, M Perez, K Farrey, R Popple, P Greer, J Moran
PURPOSE: The MLC dosimetric leaf gap (DLG) and transmission are measured parameters which impact the dosimetric accuracy of IMRT and VMAT plans. This investigation aims to develop an efficient and accurate routine constancy check of the physical DLG in two dimensions. METHODS: The manufacturer's recommended DLG measurement method was modified by using 5 fields instead of 11 and by utilizing the Electronic Portal Imaging Device (EPID). Validations were accomplished using an ion chamber (IC) in solid water and a 2D IC array...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043108/the-prevalence-of-nocturia-and-nocturnal-polyuria-can-new-cutoff-values-be-suggested-according-to-age-and-sex
#15
Ali Ersin Zumrutbas, Ali Ihsan Bozkurt, Okan Alkis, Cihan Toktas, Bulent Cetinel, Zafer Aybek
PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of nocturia and nocturnal polyuria (NP) and to define new cutoff values according to age and sex for both conditions. METHODS: Data from a population-based prevalence survey conducted among a random sample of 2,128 adults were analyzed in this study. Participants were requested to fill out a questionnaire including the International Continence Society (ICS) definitions of lower urinary tract symptoms and the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire - Short Form...
December 2016: International Neurourology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040224/household-air-pollution-following-replacement-of-traditional-open-fire-with-an-improved-rocket-type-cookstove
#16
Caroline Ochieng, Sotiris Vardoulakis, Cathryn Tonne
Cooking with biomass fuel is an important source of household air pollution (HAP) in developing countries, and a leading risk factor for ill-health. Although various designs of "improved cookstoves" (ICS) have been promoted as HAP interventions in these settings, few of them have undergone in-field evaluation, partly due to the challenge of conducting field measurements in remote settings. In this study we assessed the change in carbon monoxide (CO) exposure following the replacement of the traditional three-stone stove with a popular ICS in 49 homes in Western Kenya...
December 28, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039105/long-acting-%C3%AE-2-agonists-promote-glucocorticoid-mediated-repression-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-by-enhancing-expression-of-the-feedback-regulator-tnfaip3
#17
Mohammed Omar Altonsy, Mahmoud M Mostafa, Anthony N Gerber, Robert Newton
Glucocorticoids, or corticosteroids, are effective treatments for many chronic inflammatory diseases and, in mild/moderate asthma, long-acting β2-adrenoceptor agonists (LABAs) enhance the efficacy of inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) more than increasing the ICS dose. In human bronchial epithelial, BEAS-2B, cells, expression of TNFα-induced protein 3 (TNFAIP3), or A20, a dual-ubiquitin ligase that provides feedback inhibition of NF-κB, was induced by budesonide, an ICS, formoterol, a LABA, and was further enhanced by budesonide/formoterol combination...
December 29, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035441/continuous-recording-of-intrarectal-pressures-during-the-second-phase-of-labour-correlations-with-postpartum-pelvic-floor-complaints-a-biomechanical-clinical-study
#18
Sylvain Meyer, François Salchli, Patrick Hohlfeld, David Baud, Yvan Vial, Chahin Achtari
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: We correlated intrarectal pressure parameter recordings during the second phase of labour in primiparous women with postpartum pelvic floor (PF) complaints to try to define a critical pressure threshold for the occurrence of permanent PF injury. METHODS: Using a microsystem device, the duration of bearing-down efforts, the area under the pressure curve and the peak pressure during bearing-down efforts were continuously recorded in 43 women with spontaneous delivery (group one) and in 17 women with forceps-assisted delivery (group two)...
December 29, 2016: International Urogynecology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032414/the-german-intelligibility-in-context-scale-ics-g-reliability-and-validity-evidence
#19
Sandra Neumann, Christian Rietz, Prisca Stenneken
BACKGROUND: In 2012 the Intelligibility in Context Scale (ICS) was published as a parent-report screening assessment that considers parents' perceptions of their children's functional intelligibility with a range of communication partners that differ in levels of authority and familiarity in real-life situations. To date, the ICS has been translated into 60 languages (including German). AIMS: To evaluate the psychometric properties of the German translation of the ICS ( = ICS-G), especially its reliability and validity, using four objective measures of speech sound disorder (SSD) severity: percentage of consonants correct (PCC); percentage of initial consonants correct (PICC); percentage of vowels correct (PVC); and percentage of phonemes correct (PPC)...
December 29, 2016: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027562/microcirculation-violations-of-the-conjunctiva-in-clean-up-workers-of-the-chornobyl-npp-accident
#20
P A Fedirko, N A Garkava
OBJECTIVE: Explore hemomicrocirculation changes after radiation exposure depending of irradiation dose in dynam ics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The research conducted on 470 clean up workers of the Chornobyl NPP accident. After 10-15 years after radiation exposure examined 450 Chornobyl clean up workers in age of 28 to 65 years. The con trol group consisted of 110 industrial workers who had not a contact of IR. In 22 years after radiation exposure sep arately examined 20 randomly selected Chornobyl clean up workers accident...
December 2016: Problemy Radiat︠s︡iĭnoï Medyt︠s︡yny Ta Radiobiolohiï
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