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Fecal microbial transplant

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773467/human-microbiome-restoration-and-safety
#1
REVIEW
Eric Banan-Mwine Daliri, Charles Nkufi Tango, Byong H Lee, Deog-Hwan Oh
The human gut microbiome consists of many bacteria which are in symbiotic relationship with human beings. The gut microbial metabolism, as well as the microbial-host co-metabolism, has been found to greatly influence health and disease. Factors such as diet, antibiotic use and lifestyle have been associated with alterations in the gut microbial community and may result in several pathological conditions. For this reason, several strategies including fecal microbiota transplant and probiotic administration have been applied and proven to be feasible and effective in restoring the gut microbiota in humans...
May 9, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748817/the-role-of-the-microbiome-for-human-health-from-basic-science-to-clinical-applications
#2
M Hasan Mohajeri, Robert J M Brummer, Robert A Rastall, Rinse K Weersma, Hermie J M Harmsen, Marijke Faas, Manfred Eggersdorfer
The 2017 annual symposium organized by the University Medical Center Groningen in The Netherlands focused on the role of the gut microbiome in human health and disease. Experts from academia and industry examined interactions of prebiotics, probiotics, or vitamins with the gut microbiome in health and disease, the development of the microbiome in early-life and the role of the microbiome on the gut-brain axis. The gut microbiota changes dramatically during pregnancy and intrinsic factors (such as stress), in addition to extrinsic factors (such as diet, and drugs) influence the composition and activity of the gut microbiome throughout life...
May 10, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728388/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-experimental-ulcerative-colitis-reveals-associated-gut-microbial-and-host-metabolic-reprogramming
#3
Zhixiang Yan, Xue-Jiao Gao, Ting Li, Bin Wei, Panpan Wang, Ying Yang, Ru Yan
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is gaining attention for the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC). Data from individual case studies have suggested that FMT may be beneficial for UC but the detailed microbial and molecular basis remains unknown. Here, we employ 16S rRNA gene sequencing and metabolomics to investigate the influence of FMT on gut microbial community composition and host metabolism in the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced UC rat model. The findings from this pilot study suggest that FMT from normal donors to UC recipients could alleviate UC symptoms without close resemblance of donor's gut microbial and metabolic pattern...
May 4, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705121/dysbiosis-of-gut-microbiota-and-microbial-metabolites-in-parkinson-s-disease
#4
REVIEW
Meng-Fei Sun, Yan-Qin Shen
Gut microbial dysbiosis and alteration of microbial metabolites in Parkinson's disease (PD) have been increasingly reported. Dysbiosis in the composition and abundance of gut microbiota can affect both the enteric nervous system and the central nervous system (CNS), indicating the existence of a microbiota-gut-brain axis and thereby causing CNS diseases. Disturbance of the microbiota-gut-brain axis has been linked to specific microbial products that are related to gut inflammation and neuroinflammation. Future directions should therefore focus on the exploration of specific gut microbes or microbial metabolites that contribute to the development of PD...
April 26, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694952/dysbiosis-in-functional-bowel-disorders
#5
Paul Enck, Nazar Mazurak
Functional bowel disorders (FBD) resemble a group of diseases of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract that are without a clear pathogenesis; the best known is probably the "irritable bowel syndrome" (IBS). Only recently we have been able to explore the role of the gut microbiota in FBD due to progress in microbiological analytic techniques. There are different ways to explore the role of the gut microbiota and its dysbiosis in FBD. Comparison of the microbial composition in a group of patients with FBD, for example, with IBS to a group of healthy volunteers is one way...
April 25, 2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688901/safety-and-efficacy-of-encapsulated-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-a-systematic-review
#6
Umair Iqbal, Hafsa Anwar, Muhammad A Karim
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Fecal microbial transplantation (FMT) has been shown to be effective for the treatment of recurrent clostridium difficile infection (CDI). The efficacy and safety of freeze-dried encapsulated FMT for the treatment of recurrent CDI is unclear. We performed a systematic review to evaluate and analyze the current evidence in this respect. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed using the PubMed, Embase, and Medline databases until December 2017 to identify all original studies that investigated the role of administration of encapsulated FMT in recurrent CDI...
April 23, 2018: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667487/pre-colonization-with-the-commensal-fungus-candida-albicans-reduces-murine-susceptibility-to-clostridium-difficile-infection
#7
Laura Markey, Lamyaa Shaban, Erin R Green, Katherine P Lemon, Joan Mecsas, Carol A Kumamoto
Clostridium difficile is a major nosocomial pathogen responsible for close to half a million infections and 27,000 deaths annually in the U.S. Preceding antibiotic treatment is a major risk factor for C. difficile infection (CDI) leading to recognition that commensal microbes play a key role in resistance to CDI. Current antibiotic treatment of CDI is only partially successful due to a high rate of relapse. As a result, there is interest in understanding the effects of microbes on CDI susceptibility to support treatment of patients with probiotic microbes or entire microbial communities (e...
April 18, 2018: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665102/antibiotic-associated-disruption-of-microbiota-composition-and-function-in-cirrhosis-is-restored-by-fecal-transplant
#8
Jasmohan S Bajaj, Genta Kakiyama, Tor Savidge, Hajime Takei, Zain A Kassam, Andrew Fagan, Edith A Gavis, William M Pandak, Hiroshi Nittono, Phillip B Hylemon, Prapaporn Boonma, Anthony Haag, Douglas M Heuman, Michael Fuchs, Binu John, Masoumeh Sikaroodi, Patrick M Gillevet
Cirrhotic patients are often exposed to antibiotics that can lead to resistance and fungal overgrowth. The role of fecal microbial transplant (FMT) to restore gut microbial function is unclear in cirrhosis. In an FDA-monitored Phase 1 clinical safety trial, decompensated cirrhotic patients on standard therapies (lactulose and rifaximin) were randomized to standard-of-care (SOC, no antibiotics/FMT) or 5 days of broad-spectrum antibiotics followed by FMT from a donor enriched in Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae...
April 17, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600698/role-of-microbiota-in-the-autism-spectrum-disorders
#9
Daniela Campion, Paola Ponzo, Carlo Alessandria, Giorgio M Saracco, Federico Balzola
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) defines a set of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by persistent deficits in social communication and interaction, along with repetitive patterns of behavior. Symptoms generally appear in the early developmental period and cause significant impairment in individual and social functioning. In recent years the increased prevalence of ASD, along with the evidence of a significant link between autism and gastrointestinal (GI) disturbances, raised a special interest in exploringì the reciprocal influences between gut and brain...
March 30, 2018: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599513/akkermansia-muciniphila-is-permissive-to-arthritis-in-the-k-bxn-mouse-model-of-arthritis
#10
Matthew L Stoll, M Kathy Pierce, Jordan A Watkins, Mingce Zhang, Pamela F Weiss, Jennifer E Weiss, Charles O Elson, Randy Q Cron, Ranjit Kumar, Casey D Morrow, Trenton R Schoeb
Studies have identified abnormalities in the microbiota of patients with arthritis. To evaluate the pathogenicity of human microbiota, we performed fecal microbial transplantation from children with spondyloarthritis and controls to germ-free KRN/B6xNOD mice. Ankle swelling was equivalent in those that received patient vs. control microbiota. Principal coordinates analysis revealed incomplete uptake of the human microbiota with over-representation of two genera (Bacteroides and Akkermansia) among the transplanted mice...
March 24, 2018: Genes and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581220/effect-of-vegan-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-on-carnitine-and-choline-derived-trimethylamine-n-oxide-production-and-vascular-inflammation-in-patients-with-metabolic-syndrome
#11
Loek P Smits, Ruud S Kootte, Evgeni Levin, Andrei Prodan, Susana Fuentes, Erwin G Zoetendal, Zeneng Wang, Bruce S Levison, Maartje C P Cleophas, E Marleen Kemper, Geesje M Dallinga-Thie, Albert K Groen, Leo A B Joosten, Mihai G Netea, Erik S G Stroes, Willem M de Vos, Stanley L Hazen, Max Nieuwdorp
BACKGROUND: Intestinal microbiota have been found to be linked to cardiovascular disease via conversion of the dietary compounds choline and carnitine to the atherogenic metabolite TMAO (trimethylamine-N-oxide). Specifically, a vegan diet was associated with decreased plasma TMAO levels and nearly absent TMAO production on carnitine challenge. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a double-blind randomized controlled pilot study in which 20 male metabolic syndrome patients were randomized to single lean vegan-donor or autologous fecal microbiota transplantation...
March 26, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566738/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-against-intestinal-colonization-by-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-a-proof-of-principle-study
#12
Ramandeep Singh, Pieter F de Groot, Suzanne E Geerlings, Caspar J Hodiamont, Clara Belzer, Ineke J M Ten Berge, Willem M de Vos, Frederike J Bemelman, Max Nieuwdorp
OBJECTIVE: Infections with multidrug-resistant microorganisms are associated with increased hospitalization, medication costs and mortality. Based on our fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) experience for Clostridium difficile infection, we treated 15 patients carrying ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-EB) with FMT. Seven patients underwent a second FMT after 4 weeks when ESBL-EB remained, amounting to a total number of 22 transplants. The objective was decolonization of ESBL-EB...
March 22, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492875/targeting-friend-and-foe-emerging-therapeutics-in-the-age-of-gut-microbiome-and-disease
#13
REVIEW
Jin Ah Cho, Daniel J F Chinnapen
Mucosal surfaces that line our gastrointestinal tract are continuously exposed to trillions of bacteria that form a symbiotic relationship and impact host health and disease. It is only beginning to be understood that the cross-talk between the host and microbiome involve dynamic changes in commensal bacterial population, secretion, and absorption of metabolites between the host and microbiome. As emerging evidence implicates dysbiosis of gut microbiota in the pathology and progression of various diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, and allergy, conventional treatments that either overlook the microbiome in the mechanism of action, or eliminate vast populations of microbes via wide-spectrum antibiotics need to be reconsidered...
March 2018: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471030/neuroprotective-effects-of-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-on-mptp-induced-parkinson-s-disease-mice-gut-microbiota-glial-reaction-and-tlr4-tnf-%C3%AE-signaling-pathway
#14
Meng-Fei Sun, Ying-Li Zhu, Zhi-Lan Zhou, Xue-Bing Jia, Yi-Da Xu, Qin Yang, Chun Cui, Yan-Qin Shen
Parkinson's disease (PD) patients display alterations in gut microbiota composition. However, mechanism between gut microbial dysbiosis and pathogenesis of PD remains unexplored, and no recognized therapies are available to halt or slow progression of PD. Here we identified that gut microbiota from PD mice induced motor impairment and striatal neurotransmitter decrease on normal mice. Sequencing of 16S rRNA revealed that phylum Firmicutes and order Clostridiales decreased, while phylum Proteobacteria, order Turicibacterales and Enterobacteriales increased in fecal samples of PD mice, along with increased fecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs)...
February 20, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470297/competitively-selected-donor-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-butyrate-concentration-and-diversity-as-measures-of-donor-quality
#15
Danielle Barnes, Katharine Ng, Sam Smits, Justin Sonnenburg, Zain Kassam, K T Park
In this prospective cohort study, we examine the feasibility of a protocol to optimize microbiota for fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). Donor stool metrics generally accepted as markers of gut health were used to select a stool donor based on superior microbial diversity, balanced constitution of Bacteroidetes versus Firmicutes and high concentration of fecal butyrate. Selected donor microbiota was then administered via FMT. A total of 10 patients with median age of 12 years with recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (rCDI) received the intervention...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469650/prenatal-androgen-exposure-causes-hypertension-and-gut-microbiota-dysbiosis
#16
Shermel Sherman, Nadeen Sarsour, Marziyeh Salehi, Allen Schroering, Blair Mell, Bina Joe, Jennifer W Hill
BACKGROUND: Conditions of excess androgen in women, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), often exhibit intergenerational transmission. One way in which the risk for PCOS may be increased in daughters of affected women is through exposure to elevated androgens in utero. Hyperandrogenemic conditions have serious health consequences, including increased risk for hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Recently, gut dysbiosis has been found to induce hypertension in rats, such that blood pressure can be normalized through fecal microbial transplant...
February 22, 2018: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432297/should-fecal-microbial-transplantation-be-used-in-the-icu
#17
Stephen A McClave, Jayshil Patel, Neal Bhutiani
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Maintaining gut barrier defenses, modulating immune responses, and supporting the role of commensal microbiota are major factors influencing outcome in critical illness. Of these, maintaining a commensal 'lifestyle' and preventing the emergence of a virulent pathobiome may be most important in reducing risk of infection and multiple organ failure. RECENT FINDINGS: The polymeric formulas utilized for enteral nutrition in the ICU are absorbed high in the gastrointestinal tract and may not reach the microbial burden in the cecum where their effect is most needed...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429468/-research-advances-in-necrotizing-enterocolitis-in-neonates
#18
REVIEW
Xin Gan, Juan Li
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a catastrophic disease caused by a variety of factors in neonates, especially preterm infants. Severe NEC has a high fatality rate, and most survivors may face short- and long-term adverse prognosis. Risk factors for NEC include preterm birth, non-breastfeeding, microbial abnormalities in the digestive tract, and ischemia-reperfusion injury. High-resolution abdominal ultrasound helps with the early diagnosis of NEC. The preventive measures for NEC include protecting the intestinal mucosa through nutritional intervention, interfering with intestinal injury signals, changing intestinal microflora, and performing early minimal enteral nutrition...
February 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388040/microbial-treatment-in-chronic-constipation
#19
REVIEW
Linsheng Huang, Qi Zhu, Xiao Qu, Huanlong Qin
Chronic functional constipation is a kind of common intestinal disease that occurs in children, adults and elderly people. This disease not only causes great influence to physiological function, but also results in varying degrees of psychological barriers. At present, constipation treatments continue to rely on traditional methods such as purgative therapy and surgery. However, these approaches can disrupt intestinal function. Recent research between intestinal diseases and gut microbiota has gradually revealed a connection between constipation and intestinal flora disturbance, providing a theoretical basis for microbial treatment in chronic constipation...
January 23, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385143/longitudinal-microbiome-analysis-of-single-donor-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-patients-with-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-and-or-ulcerative-colitis
#20
Michael Mintz, Shanawaj Khair, Suman Grewal, Joseph F LaComb, Jiyhe Park, Breana Channer, Ramona Rajapakse, Juan Carlos Bucobo, Jonathan M Buscaglia, Farah Monzur, Anupama Chawla, Jie Yang, Charlie E Robertson, Daniel N Frank, Ellen Li
BACKGROUND: Studies of colonoscopic fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) in patients with recurrent CDI, indicate that this is a very effective treatment for preventing further relapses. In order to provide this service at Stony Brook University Hospital, we initiated an open-label prospective study of single colonoscopic FMT among patients with ≥ 2 recurrences of CDI, with the intention of monitoring microbial composition in the recipient before and after FMT, as compared with their respective donor...
2018: PloS One
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