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Fecal microbial transplant

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195180/successful-resolution-of-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-using-freeze-dried-encapsulated-fecal-microbiota-pragmatic-cohort-study
#1
Christopher Staley, Matthew J Hamilton, Byron P Vaughn, Carolyn T Graiziger, Krista M Newman, Amanda J Kabage, Michael J Sadowsky, Alexander Khoruts
OBJECTIVES: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is increasingly being used for treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (R-CDI) that cannot be cured with antibiotics alone. In addition, FMT is being investigated for a variety of indications where restoration or restructuring of the gut microbial community is hypothesized to be beneficial. We sought to develop a stable, freeze-dried encapsulated preparation of standardized fecal microbiota that can be used for FMT with ease and convenience in clinical practice and research...
February 14, 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187526/secondary-bile-acid-induced-dysbiosis-promotes-intestinal-carcinogenesis
#2
Hailong Cao, Mengque Xu, Wenxiao Dong, Baoru Deng, Sinan Wang, Yujie Zhang, Shan Wang, Shenhui Luo, Weiqiang Wang, Yanrong Qi, Jianxin Gao, Xiaocang Cao, Fang Yan, Bangmao Wang
The gut microbiota plays an important role in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. Dysbiosis is associated with intestinal tumorigenesis. Deoxycholic acid (DCA), a secondary bile acid increased by a western diet, is associated with intestinal carcinogenesis. However, evidence relating bile acids, intestinal microbiota and tumorigenesis is limited. In this study, we investigated the effect of DCA on induction of intestinal dysbiosis and its roles in intestinal carcinogenesis. Alteration of the composition of the intestinal microbiota was induced in DCA-treated mice, which was accompanied by impaired intestinal barrier, gut low grade inflammation and tumor progression...
February 10, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181098/effect-of-aging-on-the-composition-of-fecal-microbiota-in-donors-for-fmt-and-its-impact-on-clinical-outcomes
#3
Rohit Anand, Yang Song, Shashank Garg, Mohit Girotra, Amitasha Sinha, Anita Sivaraman, Laila Phillips, Sudhir K Dutta
BACKGROUND: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is emerging as an effective therapy for the treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (RCDI). Selecting an appropriate donor is vital to the success of FMT. However, the relationship between age of donors and the efficacy of FMT has not been examined to date. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of age of healthy donors on their fecal microbiota and assess the impact of these changes on the clinical efficacy of FMT...
February 8, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28175249/p766-combination-therapy-of-fresh-fecal-microbial-transplantation-and-antibiotics-for-ulcerative-colitis
#4
D Ishikawa, M Takahashi, K Haga, T Shibuya, T Osada, S Watanabe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143587/gut-microbiota-dysbiosis-contributes-to-the-development-of-hypertension
#5
Jing Li, Fangqing Zhao, Yidan Wang, Junru Chen, Jie Tao, Gang Tian, Shouling Wu, Wenbin Liu, Qinghua Cui, Bin Geng, Weili Zhang, Ryan Weldon, Kelda Auguste, Lei Yang, Xiaoyan Liu, Li Chen, Xinchun Yang, Baoli Zhu, Jun Cai
BACKGROUND: Recently, the potential role of gut microbiome in metabolic diseases has been revealed, especially in cardiovascular diseases. Hypertension is one of the most prevalent cardiovascular diseases worldwide, yet whether gut microbiota dysbiosis participates in the development of hypertension remains largely unknown. To investigate this issue, we carried out comprehensive metagenomic and metabolomic analyses in a cohort of 41 healthy controls, 56 subjects with pre-hypertension, 99 individuals with primary hypertension, and performed fecal microbiota transplantation from patients to germ-free mice...
February 1, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134687/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-gastrointestinal-disorders
#6
Thomas Malikowski, Sahil Khanna, Darrell S Pardi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The importance of the gut microbiome in human health is being increasingly recognized. The purpose of this review is to examine the existing literature pertaining to alterations in the gut microbiome and the utility of microbiome restoration therapies in gastrointestinal disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Imbalance and maladaptation of the microbiome, termed dysbiosis, has been associated with several disease states such as irritable bowel syndrome, Clostridium difficile infection, inflammatory bowel diseases, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and obesity among others...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125667/profiling-living-bacteria-informs-preparation-of-fecal-microbiota-transplantations
#7
Nathaniel D Chu, Mark B Smith, Allison R Perrotta, Zain Kassam, Eric J Alm
Fecal microbiota transplantation is a compelling treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infections, with potential applications against other diseases associated with changes in gut microbiota. But variability in fecal bacterial communities-believed to be the therapeutic agent-can complicate or undermine treatment efficacy. To understand the effects of transplant preparation methods on living fecal microbial communities, we applied a DNA-sequencing method (PMA-seq) that uses propidium monoazide (PMA) to differentiate between living and dead fecal microbes, and we created an analysis pipeline to identify individual bacteria that change in abundance between samples...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115022/gut-microbial-degradation-of-organophosphate-insecticides-induces-glucose-intolerance-via-gluconeogenesis
#8
Ganesan Velmurugan, Tharmarajan Ramprasath, Krishnan Swaminathan, Gilles Mithieux, Jeyaprakash Rajendhran, Mani Dhivakar, Ayothi Parthasarathy, D D Venkatesh Babu, Leishman John Thumburaj, Allen J Freddy, Vasudevan Dinakaran, Shanavas Syed Mohamed Puhari, Balakrishnan Rekha, Yacob Jenifer Christy, Sivakumar Anusha, Ganesan Divya, Kannan Suganya, Boominathan Meganathan, Narayanan Kalyanaraman, Varadaraj Vasudevan, Raju Kamaraj, Maruthan Karthik, Balakrishnan Jeyakumar, Albert Abhishek, Eldho Paul, Muthuirulan Pushpanathan, Rajamani Koushick Rajmohan, Kumaravel Velayutham, Alexander R Lyon, Subbiah Ramasamy
BACKGROUND: Organophosphates are the most frequently and largely applied insecticide in the world due to their biodegradable nature. Gut microbes were shown to degrade organophosphates and cause intestinal dysfunction. The diabetogenic nature of organophosphates was recently reported but the underlying molecular mechanism is unclear. We aimed to understand the role of gut microbiota in organophosphate-induced hyperglycemia and to unravel the molecular mechanism behind this process. RESULTS: Here we demonstrate a high prevalence of diabetes among people directly exposed to organophosphates in rural India (n = 3080)...
January 24, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059612/fecal-microbial-transplantation-as-a-therapeutic-option-in-patients-colonized-with-antibiotic-resistant-organisms
#9
Michael Laffin, Braden Millan, Karen L Madsen
Despite increasing interest in fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), its full therapeutic potential has yet to be determined. Since its increase in popularity, FMT has been shown to be highly effective in the treatment of both Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and its recurrent form. Interest in FMT now expands well beyond the treatment of CDI to other processes with known associations to the microbiota such as antibiotic resistant infections, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), hepatic encephalopathy, neuropsychiatric disorders, and metabolic disease...
January 6, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058011/fecal-microbial-transplant-for-the-treatment-of-pediatric-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#10
REVIEW
Alice Yuxin Wang, Jelena Popov, Nikhil Pai
The role of fecal microbial transplant (FMT) in the treatment of pediatric gastrointestinal disease has become increasingly popular among pediatric practitioners, patients, and parents. The success of FMT for the treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (RCDI) has bolstered interest in its potential application to other disease states, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). FMT has particular interest in pediatrics, given the concerns of patients and parents about rates of adverse events with existing therapeutic options, and the greater cumulative medication burden associated with childhood-onset disease...
December 21, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039159/gut-microbiota-differs-between-children-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-healthy-siblings-in-taxonomic-and-functional-composition-a-metagenomic-analysis
#11
Rebecca Luise Knoll, Kristoffer Forslund, Jens Roat Kultima, Claudius U Meyer, Ulrike Kullmer, Shinichi Sunagawa, Peer Bork, Stephan Gehring
Current treatment for pediatric IBD patients is often ineffective, with serious side effects. Manipulating the gut microbiota via fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an emerging treatment approach but remains controversial. We aimed to assess the composition of the fecal microbiome through a comparison of pediatric IBD patients to their healthy siblings, evaluating risks and prospects for FMT in this setting. A Case-Control (Sibling) Study was conducted analyzing fecal samples of six children with Crohn's Disease (CD), six children with Ulcerative Colitis (UC) and 12 healthy siblings by metagenomic sequencing...
December 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028357/can-probiotics-benefit-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#12
REVIEW
Fernando Navarro, Yuying Liu, Jon Marc Rhoads
Children with autism are commonly affected by gastrointestinal problems such as abdominal pain, constipation and diarrhea. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the use of probiotics in this population, as it hypothetically may help to improve bowel habits and the behavioral and social functioning of these individuals. The gut microbiome plays an important role in the pathophysiology of organic as well as functional gastrointestinal disorders. Microbial modification with the use of antibiotics, probiotics, and fecal transplantation have been effective in the treatment of conditions such as recurrent Clostridium difficile infection, pouchitis, and irritable bowel syndrome...
December 14, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008842/-microbiota-and-representations-of-the-human-body
#13
Betty Dodet
Although the presence of an intestinal flora has been known for a long time, the discovery of the role of gut microbiota in human health and disease has been widely recognized as one of the most important advances in the recent years. Chronic diseases may result from dysbiosis, i.e. a disruption of the balance within the bacterial population hosted by the human body. These developments open new prospects in terms of prevention and treatment, including the design of adapted diets, the development of functional foods and fecal transplantation...
November 2016: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965663/alteration-in-the-gut-microbiota-provokes-susceptibility-to-tuberculosis
#14
Nargis Khan, Aurobind Vidyarthi, Sajid Nadeem, Shikha Negi, Girish Nair, Javed N Agrewala
The microbiota that resides in the gastrointestinal tract provides essential health benefits to the host. In particular, they regulate immune homeostasis. Recently, several evidences indicate that alteration in the gut microbial community can cause infectious and non-infectious diseases. Tuberculosis (TB) is the most devastating disease, inflicting mortality and morbidity. It remains unexplored, whether changes in the gut microbiota can provoke or prevent TB. In the current study, we have demonstrated the antibiotics driven changes in the gut microbial composition and their impact on the survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in the lungs, liver, and spleen of infected mice, compared to those with intact microbiota...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959316/clostridium-difficile-infection-and-fecal-microbiota-transplant
#15
Alyssa Liubakka, Byron P Vaughn
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a major source of morbidity and mortality for hospitalized patients. Although most patients have a clinical response to existing antimicrobial therapies, recurrent infection develops in up to 30% of patients. Fecal microbiota transplant is a novel approach to this complex problem, with an efficacy rate of nearly 90% in the setting of multiple recurrent CDI. This review covers the current epidemiology of CDI (including toxigenic and nontoxigenic strains, risk factors for infection, and recurrent infection), methods of diagnosis, existing first-line therapies in CDI, the role of fecal microbiota transplant for multiple recurrent CDIs, and the potential use of fecal microbial transplant for patients with severe or refractory infection...
July 2016: AACN Advanced Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922565/a-perspective-on-brain-gut-communication-the-american-gastroenterology-association-and-american-psychosomatic-society-joint-symposium-on-brain-gut-interactions-and-the-intestinal-microenvironment
#16
Olga C Aroniadis, Douglas A Drossman, Magnus Simren
BACKGROUND: Alterations in brain-gut communication and the intestinal microenvironment have been implicated in a variety of medical and neuropsychiatric diseases. Three central areas require basic and clinical research: (1) how the intestinal microenvironment interacts with the host immune system, central nervous system and enteric nervous system; (2) the role of the intestinal microenvironment in the pathogenesis of medical and neuropsychiatric disease; (3) the effects of diet, prebiotics, probiotics and fecal microbiota transplantation on the intestinal microenvironment and the treatment of disease...
January 17, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893543/changes-in-intestinal-microbiota-following-combination-therapy-with-fecal-microbial-transplantation-and-antibiotics-for-ulcerative-colitis
#17
Dai Ishikawa, Takashi Sasaki, Taro Osada, Kyoko Kuwahara-Arai, Keiichi Haga, Tomoyoshi Shibuya, Keiichi Hiramatsu, Sumio Watanabe
BACKGROUND: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a potential therapeutic approach to restore normal intestinal microbiota in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), which is associated with dysbiosis; however, treatment efficacy remains unclear. Hence, we studied the impact of antibiotic pretreatment with amoxicillin, fosfomycin, and metronidazole (AFM therapy) and FMT versus AFM alone. METHODS: AFM therapy was administered to patients for 2 weeks until 2 days before FMT...
January 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866880/efficacy-of-sterile-fecal-filtrate-transfer-for-treating-patients-with-clostridium-difficile-infection
#18
Stephan J Ott, Georg H Waetzig, Ateequr Rehman, Jacqueline Moltzau-Anderson, Richa Bharti, Juris A Grasis, Liam Cassidy, Andreas Tholey, Helmut Fickenscher, Dirk Seegert, Philip Rosenstiel, Stefan Schreiber
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a highly effective therapy for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). However, transferring undefined living bacteria entails uncontrollable risks for infectious and metabolic or malignant diseases, particularly in immunocompromised patients. We investigated whether sterile fecal filtrates (containing bacterial debris, proteins, antimicrobial compounds, metabolic products, and oligonucleotides/DNA), rather than intact microorganisms, are effective in patients with CDI...
November 17, 2016: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856521/gleaning-insights-from-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-and-probiotic-studies-for-the-rational-design-of-combination-microbial-therapies
#19
REVIEW
Lauren E Hudson, Sarah E Anderson, Anita H Corbett, Tracey J Lamb
Beneficial microorganisms hold promise for the treatment of numerous gastrointestinal diseases. The transfer of whole microbiota via fecal transplantation has already been shown to ameliorate the severity of diseases such as Clostridium difficile infection, inflammatory bowel disease, and others. However, the exact mechanisms of fecal microbiota transplant efficacy and the particular strains conferring this benefit are still unclear. Rationally designed combinations of microbial preparations may enable more efficient and effective treatment approaches tailored to particular diseases...
January 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799253/hypertension-linked-pathophysiological-alterations-in-the-gut
#20
Monica M Santisteban, Yanfei Qi, Jasenka Zubcevic, Seungbum Kim, Tao Yang, Vinayak Shenoy, Colleen T Cole-Jeffrey, Gilberto O Lobaton, Daniel C Stewart, Andres Rubiano, Chelsey S Simmons, Fernando Garcia-Pereira, Richard D Johnson, Carl J Pepine, Mohan K Raizada
RATIONALE: Sympathetic nervous system control of inflammation plays a central role in hypertension. The gut receives significant sympathetic innervation, is densely populated with a diverse microbial ecosystem, and contains immune cells that greatly impact overall inflammatory homeostasis. Despite this uniqueness, little is known about the involvement of the gut in hypertension. OBJECTIVE: Test the hypothesis that increased sympathetic drive to the gut is associated with increased gut wall permeability, increased inflammatory status, and microbial dysbiosis and that these gut pathological changes are linked to hypertension...
January 20, 2017: Circulation Research
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