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Fecal microbial transplant

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542523/impact-of-maintenance-immunosuppressive-therapy-on-the-fecal-microbiome-of-renal-transplant-recipients-comparison-between-an-everolimus-and-a-standard-tacrolimus-based-regimen
#1
Gianluigi Zaza, Alessandra Dalla Gassa, Giovanna Felis, Simona Granata, Sandra Torriani, Antonio Lupo
BACKGROUND: The gut microbiome is the full set of microbes living in the gastrointestinal tract and is emerging as an important dynamic/fluid system that, if altered by environmental, dietetic or pharmacological factors, could considerably influence drug response. However, the immunosuppressive drug-induced modifications of this system are still poorly defined. METHODS: We employed an innovative bioinformatics approach to assess differences in the whole-gut microbial metagenomic profile of 20 renal transplant recipients undergoing maintenance treatment with two different immunosuppressive protocols...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542111/clostridium-difficile-infection-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients
#2
Deepa Nanayakkara, Neha Nanda
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a major healthcare-associated infection that causes significant morbidity and an economic impact in the United States. In this review, we provide an overview of Clostridium difficile infection in solid organ transplant recipients with an emphasis on recent literature. RECENT FINDINGS: C. difficile in solid organ transplant population has unique risk factors. Fecal microbiota transplantation has shown favorable results in treatment of recurrent C...
May 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541799/limited-engraftment-of-donor-microbiome-via-one-time-fecal-microbial-transplantation-in-treated-hiv-infected-individuals
#3
Ivan Vujkovic-Cvijin, Rachel L Rutishauser, Montha Pao, Peter W Hunt, Susan V Lynch, Joseph M McCune, Ma Somsouk
BACKGROUND: Many HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART) exhibit persistent systemic inflammation, which predicts morbidity and mortality. ART-treated subjects concurrently exhibit marked compositional alterations in the gut bacterial microbiota and the degree of dysbiosis correlates with systemic inflammation. Whether interventions to modulate the microbiome can affect systemic inflammation is unknown. METHODS: An open-label fecal microbial transplantation (FMT) was delivered by colonoscopy to asymptomatic HIV-infected ART-suppressed individuals without antibiotic pre-treatment...
May 25, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536285/gut-microbiota-mediates-the-protective-effects-of-dietary-capsaicin-against-chronic-low-grade-inflammation-and-associated-obesity-induced-by-high-fat-diet
#4
Chao Kang, Bin Wang, Kanakaraju Kaliannan, Xiaolan Wang, Hedong Lang, Suocheng Hui, Li Huang, Yong Zhang, Ming Zhou, Mengting Chen, Mantian Mi
Metabolic endotoxemia originating from dysbiotic gut microbiota has been identified as a primary mediator for triggering the chronic low-grade inflammation (CLGI) responsible for the development of obesity. Capsaicin (CAP) is the major pungent bioactivator in chili peppers and has potent anti-obesity functions, yet the mechanisms linking this effect to gut microbiota remain obscure. Here we show that mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) supplemented with CAP exhibit lower levels of metabolic endotoxemia and CLGI associated with lower body weight gain...
May 23, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506317/changes-in-microbial-ecology-after-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-recurrent-c-difficile-infection-affected-by-underlying-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#5
Sahil Khanna, Yoshiki Vazquez-Baeza, Antonio González, Sophie Weiss, Bradley Schmidt, David A Muñiz-Pedrogo, John F Rainey, Patricia Kammer, Heidi Nelson, Michael Sadowsky, Alexander Khoruts, Stefan L Farrugia, Rob Knight, Darrell S Pardi, Purna C Kashyap
BACKGROUND: Gut microbiota play a key role in maintaining homeostasis in the human gut. Alterations in the gut microbial ecosystem predispose to Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and gut inflammatory disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from a healthy donor can restore gut microbial diversity and pathogen colonization resistance; consequently, it is now being investigated for its ability to improve inflammatory gut conditions such as IBD...
May 15, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473000/tracking-microbial-colonization-in-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-experiments-via-genome-resolved-metagenomics
#6
Sonny T M Lee, Stacy A Kahn, Tom O Delmont, Alon Shaiber, Özcan C Esen, Nathaniel A Hubert, Hilary G Morrison, Dionysios A Antonopoulos, David T Rubin, A Murat Eren
BACKGROUND: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an effective treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection and shows promise for treating other medical conditions associated with intestinal dysbioses. However, we lack a sufficient understanding of which microbial populations successfully colonize the recipient gut, and the widely used approaches to study the microbial ecology of FMT experiments fail to provide enough resolution to identify populations that are likely responsible for FMT-derived benefits...
May 4, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471618/a-retrospective-comparison-of-fecal-microbial-transplantation-methods-for-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection
#7
Nathaniel A Cohen, Dan M Livovsky, Shir Yaakobovitch, Merav Ben Yehoyada, Ronen Ben Ami, Amos Adler, Hanan Guzner-Gur, Eran Goldin, Moshe E Santo, Zamir Halpern, Kalman Paz, Nitsan Maharshak
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic treatment of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has a high failure rate. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has proven very effective in treating these recurrences. OBJECTIVES: To determine which method of fecal microbiota transplantation (upper or lower gastrointestinal) and which type of donor (a relative or unrelated) is superior. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of treatment protocols and outcomes in 22 patients with refractory or recurrent CDI who underwent FMT at two Israeli facilities...
October 2016: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469619/immune-responses-to-broad-spectrum-antibiotic-treatment-and-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-mice
#8
Ira Ekmekciu, Eliane von Klitzing, Ulrike Fiebiger, Ulrike Escher, Christian Neumann, Petra Bacher, Alexander Scheffold, Anja A Kühl, Stefan Bereswill, Markus M Heimesaat
Compelling evidence demonstrates the pivotal role of the commensal intestinal microbiota in host physiology and the detrimental effects of its perturbations following antibiotic treatment. Aim of this study was to investigate the impact of antibiotics induced depletion and subsequent restoration of the intestinal microbiota composition on the murine mucosal and systemic immunity. To address this, conventional C57BL/6j mice were subjected to broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment for 8 weeks. Restoration of the intestinal microbiota by peroral fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) led to reestablishment of small intestinal CD4(+), CD8(+), and B220(+) as well as of colonic CD4(+) cell numbers as early as 7 days post-FMT...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445246/single-delivery-of-high-diversity-fecal-microbiota-preparation-by-colonoscopy-is-safe-and-effective-in-increasing-microbial-diversity-in-active-ulcerative-colitis
#9
Vinita Jacob, Carl Crawford, Shirley Cohen-Mekelburg, Monica Viladomiu, Gregory G Putzel, Yecheskel Schneider, Fatiha Chabouni, Sarah OʼNeil, Brian Bosworth, Viola Woo, Nadim J Ajami, Joseph F Petrosino, Ylaine Gerardin, Zain Kassam, Mark Smith, Iliyan D Iliev, Gregory F Sonnenberg, David Artis, Ellen Scherl, Randy S Longman
BACKGROUND: Recent trials suggest fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) with repeated enemas and high-diversity FMT donors is a promising treatment to induce remission in ulcerative colitis. METHODS: We designed a prospective, open-label pilot study to assess the safety, clinical efficacy, and microbial engraftment of single FMT delivery by colonoscopy for active ulcerative colitis using a 2-donor fecal microbiota preparation (FMP). Safety and clinical endpoints of response, remission, and mucosal healing at week 4 were assessed...
April 25, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422836/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-is-a-rescue-treatment-modality-for-refractory-ulcerative-colitis
#10
Ahmet Uygun, Kadir Ozturk, Hakan Demirci, Cem Oger, Ismail Yasar Avci, Turker Turker, Mustafa Gulsen
BACKGROUND: Fecal microbial transplantation (FMT) provides to replace beneficial bacteria with more favorable microbiomes in recipient with dysbiosis. The aim of the present study was to prospectively investigate the efficacy of FMT by assessing the clinical and endoscopic response in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) who had failed anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive therapy. METHODS: In this prospective and uncontrolled study, 30 patients with UC were included...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405600/longitudinal-analysis-of-the-intestinal-microbiota-in-liver-transplantation
#11
Karin Kato, Miki Nagao, Kentaro Miyamoto, Kentaro Oka, Motomichi Takahashi, Masaki Yamamoto, Yasufumi Matsumura, Toshimi Kaido, Shinji Uemoto, Satoshi Ichiyama
BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence suggests that the intestinal microbiota plays an important role in liver diseases. However, the dynamics of the intestinal microbiota during liver transplantation (LT) and its potential role in clinical course remain unknown. METHODS: We prospectively analyzed the intestinal microbiota of 38 patients who underwent LT in Kyoto University Hospital. We characterized the microbial compositions of fecal specimens from LT patients using a metagenomics approach by an Illumina MiSeq platform...
April 2017: Transplantation Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372330/the-gut-microbiota-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Chunmei Jiang, Guangning Li, Pengru Huang, Zhou Liu, Bin Zhao
The gut microbiota comprises a complex community of microorganism species that resides in our gastrointestinal ecosystem and whose alterations influence not only various gut disorders but also central nervous system disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD, the most common form of dementia, is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with impaired cognition and cerebral accumulation of amyloid-β peptides (Aβ). Most notably, the microbiota-gut-brain axis is a bidirectional communication system that is not fully understood, but includes neural, immune, endocrine, and metabolic pathways...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369341/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-patients-with-blood-disorders-inhibits-gut-colonization-with-antibiotic-resistant-bacteria-results-of-a-prospective-single-center-study
#13
Jaroslaw Bilinski, Pawel Grzesiowski, Nikolaj Sorensen, Krzysztof Madry, Jacek Muszynski, Katarzyna Robak, Marta Wroblewska, Tomasz Dzieciatkowski, Grazyna Dulny, Jadwiga Dwilewicz-Trojaczek, Wieslaw Wiktor-Jedrzejczak, Grzegorz W Basak
BACKGROUND: Patients with blood disorders colonized with antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) are prone to systemic infections that are difficult to treat. Reintroduction of commensal bacteria in a murine model of enterococcal colonization of the gut can lead to eradication of enterococci. We hypothesized that fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) could be used to eradicate ARB in humans. METHODS: Participants colonized with ARB were treated with intraduodenal FMT according to a prospective protocol (NCT02461199)...
March 24, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348415/potential-role-of-fecal-microbiota-from-patients-with-slow-transit-constipation-in-the-regulation-of-gastrointestinal-motility
#14
Xiaolong Ge, Wei Zhao, Chao Ding, Hongliang Tian, Lizhi Xu, Hongkan Wang, Ling Ni, Jun Jiang, Jianfeng Gong, Weiming Zhu, Minsheng Zhu, Ning Li
The gut microbiota is involved in various physiological functions, and disturbances in the host-microbiome have been proven to contribute to the dysfunction of gut; however, whether microbiota participates in the pathogenesis of constipation remains unclear. In this study, we extracted and analyzed microbiota in feces from constipated donors who had undergone effective therapy with fecal microbiota transplantation, transplanted microbiota into pseudo-germ-free mice, and measured gut motility. These mice presented with lower pellet frequency and water percentage, smaller pellet size, delayed gastrointestinal transit time, and weaker spontaneous contractions of colonic smooth muscle...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347713/fecal-microbial-transplantation
#15
Indu Srinivasan, Shou-Jiang Tang, James Q Sones
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346928/diet-and-gut-microbiota-in-health-and-disease
#16
Ting-Chin David Shen
Gut microbiota plays an important role in host health maintenance and disease pathogenesis. The development of a stable and diverse gut microbiota is essential to various host physiologic functions such as immunoregulation, pathogen prevention, energy harvest, and metabolism. At the same time, a dysbiotic gut microbiota associated with disease is altered in structure and function, and often characterized by a decrease in species richness and proliferation of pathogenic bacterial taxa. As a shared substrate between the host and the gut microbiota, diet significantly impacts the health and disease states of the host both directly and through gut microbial metabolite production...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315032/novel-indications-for-fecal-microbial-transplantation-update-and-review-of-the-literature
#17
REVIEW
Nathaniel Aviv Cohen, Nitsan Maharshak
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Fecal microbial transplantation (FMT) is an established successful treatment modality for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). The safety profile and potential therapeutic advantages of FMT for diseases associated with dysbiosis and immune dysfunction have led to many publications, mainly case series, and while many studies and reviews have been published on the use of FMT for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), its potential use for other disease conditions has not been thoroughly reviewed...
May 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288099/nlrp12-attenuates-colon-inflammation-by-maintaining-colonic-microbial-diversity-and-promoting-protective-commensal-bacterial-growth
#18
Liang Chen, Justin E Wilson, Mark J Koenigsknecht, Wei-Chun Chou, Stephanie A Montgomery, Agnieszka D Truax, W June Brickey, Christopher D Packey, Nitsan Maharshak, Glenn K Matsushima, Scott E Plevy, Vincent B Young, R Balfour Sartor, Jenny P-Y Ting
Inflammatory bowel diseases involve the dynamic interaction of host genetics, the microbiome and inflammatory responses. Here we found lower expression of NLRP12 (which encodes a negative regulator of innate immunity) in human ulcerative colitis, by comparing monozygotic twins and other patient cohorts. In parallel, Nlrp12 deficiency in mice caused increased basal colonic inflammation, which led to a less-diverse microbiome and loss of protective gut commensal strains (of the family Lachnospiraceae) and a greater abundance of colitogenic strains (of the family Erysipelotrichaceae)...
May 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280484/variable-colonization-after-reciprocal-fecal-microbiota-transfer-between-mice-with-low-and-high-richness-microbiota
#19
Aaron C Ericsson, Alexa R Personett, Giedre Turner, Rebecca A Dorfmeyer, Craig L Franklin
Several associations have been made between characteristics of the resident gut microbiota and human health and disease susceptibility. Animal models provide the means to test these correlations prospectively and evaluate causality. Experimental fecal microbiota transfer (FMT), or the intentional transplantation of gut microbes into recipient mice depleted of their autochthonous microbes with antibiotics, is a commonly used method of testing these relationships. The true completeness of microbial transfer through such procedures is poorly documented in the literature, particularly in the context of reciprocal transfer of microbes between recipient and donor mice harboring microbial populations of differing richness and diversity...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251905/transplantation-of-fecal-microbiota-from-patients-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome-alters-gut-function-and-behavior-in-recipient-mice
#20
Giada De Palma, Michael D J Lynch, Jun Lu, Vi T Dang, Yikang Deng, Jennifer Jury, Genevieve Umeh, Pedro M Miranda, Marc Pigrau Pastor, Sacha Sidani, Maria Ines Pinto-Sanchez, Vivek Philip, Peter G McLean, Moreno-Gabriel Hagelsieb, Michael G Surette, Gabriela E Bergonzelli, Elena F Verdu, Philip Britz-McKibbin, Josh D Neufeld, Stephen M Collins, Premysl Bercik
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common disorder characterized by altered gut function and often is accompanied by comorbid anxiety. Although changes in the gut microbiota have been documented, their relevance to the clinical expression of IBS is unknown. To evaluate a functional role for commensal gut bacteria in IBS, we colonized germ-free mice with the fecal microbiota from healthy control individuals or IBS patients with diarrhea (IBS-D), with or without anxiety, and monitored gut function and behavior in the transplanted mice...
March 1, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
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