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Fecal microbial transplant

Dai Ishikawa, Takashi Sasaki, Taro Osada, Kyoko Kuwahara-Arai, Keiichi Haga, Tomoyoshi Shibuya, Keiichi Hiramatsu, Sumio Watanabe
BACKGROUND: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a potential therapeutic approach to restore normal intestinal microbiota in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), which is associated with dysbiosis; however, treatment efficacy remains unclear. Hence, we studied the impact of antibiotic pretreatment with amoxicillin, fosfomycin, and metronidazole (AFM therapy) and FMT versus AFM alone. METHODS: AFM therapy was administered to patients for 2 weeks until 2 days before FMT...
November 22, 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Stephan J Ott, Georg H Waetzig, Ateequr Rehman, Jacqueline Moltzau-Anderson, Richa Bharti, Juris A Grasis, Liam Cassidy, Andreas Tholey, Helmut Fickenscher, Dirk Seegert, Philip Rosenstiel, Stefan Schreiber
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a highly effective therapy for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). However, transferring undefined living bacteria entails uncontrollable risks for infectious and metabolic or malignant diseases, particularly in immunocompromised patients. We investigated whether sterile fecal filtrates (containing bacterial debris, proteins, antimicrobial compounds, metabolic products and oligonucleotides/DNA), rather than intact microorganisms, are effective in patients with CDI...
November 17, 2016: Gastroenterology
Lauren E Hudson, Sarah E Anderson, Anita H Corbett, Tracey J Lamb
Beneficial microorganisms hold promise for the treatment of numerous gastrointestinal diseases. The transfer of whole microbiota via fecal transplantation has already been shown to ameliorate the severity of diseases such as Clostridium difficile infection, inflammatory bowel disease, and others. However, the exact mechanisms of fecal microbiota transplant efficacy and the particular strains conferring this benefit are still unclear. Rationally designed combinations of microbial preparations may enable more efficient and effective treatment approaches tailored to particular diseases...
January 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
Monica M Santisteban, Yanfei Qi, Jasenka Zubcevic, Seungbum Kim, Tao Yang, Vinayak Shenoy, Colleen T Cole-Jeffrey, Gilberto O Lobaton, Daniel C Stewart, Andres Rubiano, Chelsey S Simmons, Fernando Garcia-Pereira, Richard D Johnson, Carl J Pepine, Mohan K Raizada
RATIONALE: Sympathetic nervous system control of inflammation plays a central role in hypertension. The gut receives significant sympathetic innervation, is densely populated with a diverse microbial ecosystem, and contains immune cells that greatly impact overall inflammatory homeostasis. Despite this uniqueness, little is known about the involvement of the gut in hypertension. OBJECTIVE: Test the hypothesis that increased sympathetic drive to the gut is associated with increased gut wall permeability, increased inflammatory status, and microbial dysbiosis and that these gut pathological changes are linked to hypertension...
October 31, 2016: Circulation Research
John Slattery, Derrick F MacFabe, Richard E Frye
Recent studies have highlighted the fact that the enteric microbiome, the trillions of microbes that inhabit the human digestive tract, has a significant effect on health and disease. Methods for manipulating the enteric microbiome, particularly through probiotics and microbial ecosystem transplantation, have undergone some study in clinical trials. We review some of the evidence for microbiome alteration in relation to childhood disease and discuss the clinical trials that have examined the manipulation of the microbiome in an effort to prevent or treat childhood disease with a primary focus on probiotics, prebiotics, and/or synbiotics (ie, probiotics + prebiotics)...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Pediatrics
R Balfour Sartor, Gary D Wu
Intestinal microbiota are involved in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and pouchitis. We review the mechanisms by which these gut bacteria, fungi, and viruses mediate mucosal homeostasis, via their composite genes (metagenome) and metabolic products (metabolome). We explain how alterations to their profiles and functions under conditions of dysbiosis contribute to inflammation and effector immune responses that mediate inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) in humans and enterocolitis in mice...
October 18, 2016: Gastroenterology
Angélica Thomaz Vieira, Claudio Fukumori, Caroline Marcantonio Ferreira
The interaction between the gut microbiota and the host immune system is very important for balancing and resolving inflammation. The human microbiota begins to form during childbirth; the complex interaction between bacteria and host cells becomes critical for the formation of a healthy or a disease-promoting microbiota. C-section delivery, formula feeding, a high-sugar diet, a high-fat diet and excess hygiene negatively affect the health of the microbiota. Considering that the majority of the global population has experienced at least one of these factors that can lead to inflammatory disease, it is important to understand strategies to modulate the gut microbiota...
June 2016: Clinical & Translational Immunology
Yu Qi Qiao, Chen Wen Cai, Zhi Hua Ran
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients exhibit impaired control of the microbiome in the gut. "Dysbiosis" is commonly observed. A Western diet is a risk factor for the development of IBD but may have different effects on the gut microbiota in IBD and non-IBD individuals. Exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) can induce remission in pediatric Crohn's disease (CD) with a decrease in gut microbiome diversity after EEN treatment. Although there are some theoretical benefits, the actual treatment effects of prebiotics and probiotics in IBD patients can vary...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Digestive Diseases
Atsushi Nishida, Hirotsugu Imaeda, Masashi Ohno, Osamu Inatomi, Shigeki Bamba, Mitsushige Sugimoto, Akira Andoh
BACKGROUND: The clinical utility of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) is still controversial. We investigated the efficacy and safety of single FMT for patients with mild to moderately active UC in a Japanese population. METHODS: Fifty-seven patients were evaluated for eligibility, and 16 patients were excluded. Forty-one patients with UC refractory to standard medical therapy were treated with single FMT by colonoscopic administration...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology
Christian Carlucci, Elaine O Petrof, Emma Allen-Vercoe
The human gut microbiome is a complex ecosystem of fundamental importance to human health. Our increased understanding of gut microbial composition and functional interactions in health and disease states has spurred research efforts examining the gut microbiome as a valuable target for therapeutic intervention. This review provides updated insight into the state of the gut microbiome in recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), ulcerative colitis (UC), and obesity while addressing the rationale for the modulation of the gut microbiome using fecal microbiota transplant (FMT)-based therapies...
October 1, 2016: EBioMedicine
Qian Ba, Mian Li, Peizhan Chen, Chao Huang, Xiaohua Duan, Lijun Lu, Jingquan Li, Ruiai Chu, Dong Xie, Haiyun Song, Yongning Wu, Hao Ying, Xudong Jia, Hui Wang
BACKGROUND: Environmental cadmium, with a high average dietary intake, is a severe public health risk. However, the long-term health implications of environmental exposure to cadmium in different life stages remain unclear. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of early exposure to cadmium, at an environmentally relevant dosage, on adult metabolism and the mechanism of action. METHODS: We established mouse models with low-dose cadmium (LDC) exposure in early life to examine the long-term metabolic consequences...
September 16, 2016: Environmental Health Perspectives
Naomi L Ward, Caleb D Phillips, Deanna D Nguyen, Nanda Kumar N Shanmugam, Yan Song, Richard Hodin, Hai Ning Shi, Bobby J Cherayil, Allan M Goldstein
BACKGROUND: The interplay between host genetics, immunity, and microbiota is central to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. Previous population-based studies suggested a link between antibiotic use and increased inflammatory bowel disease risk, but the mechanisms are unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the long-term effects of antibiotic administration on microbiota composition, innate immunity, and susceptibility to colitis, as well as the mechanism by which antibiotics alter host colitogenicity...
October 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Hotaik Sung, Seung Woo Kim, Meegun Hong, Ki Tae Suk
Gut microbiota plays a key role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Consumption of alcohol leads to increased gut permeability, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, and enteric dysbiosis. These factors contribute to the increased translocation of microbial products to the liver via the portal tract. Subsequently, bacterial endotoxins such as lipopolysaccharide, in association with the Toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway, induce a gamut of damaging immune responses in the hepatic milieu...
August 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Byron P Vaughn, Tommi Vatanen, Jessica R Allegretti, Aiping Bai, Ramnik J Xavier, Joshua Korzenik, Dirk Gevers, Amanda Ting, Simon C Robson, Alan C Moss
BACKGROUND: The microbiota in the lumen of patients with Crohn's disease (CD) is characterized by reduced diversity, particularly Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. It is unknown whether the introduction of the intestinal microbiota from healthy individuals could correct this dysbiosis and reverse mucosal inflammation. We investigated the response to fecal microbial transplantation (FMT) from healthy individuals to subjects with active CD. METHODS: We performed a prospective open-label study (uncontrolled) of FMT from healthy donors to subjects with active CD...
September 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
M Grąt, K M Wronka, M Krasnodębski, Ł Masior, Z Lewandowski, I Kosińska, K Grąt, J Stypułkowski, S Rejowski, M Wasilewicz, M Gałęcka, P Szachta, M Krawczyk
BACKGROUND: Changes within the gut microbiota contribute to the progression of chronic liver diseases. According to the results of several studies performed in animal models, gut dysbiosis plays an important role in hepatocarcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to explore the characteristics of gut microbiota associated with the presence of hepatocellular cancer (HCC) in patients with cirrhosis of the liver undergoing liver transplantation. METHODS: A total of 15 patients with HCC and 15 non-HCC patients matched according to etiology of cirrhosis and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) scores who underwent liver transplantations between 2012 and 2014 were included...
June 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
Joanna Lopez, Ari Grinspan
The gut bacterial microbiome, particularly its role in disease and inflammation, has gained international attention with the successful use of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection. This success has led to studies exploring the role of FMT in other conditions, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are chronic inflammatory conditions of the gastrointestinal system that have multifactorial etiologies. A shift in gut microbial composition in genetically susceptible individuals, an altered immune system, and environmental factors are all hypothesized to have a role in the pathogenesis of IBD...
June 2016: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Matthew J Wolf-Meyer
In 1987, Nancy Scheper-Hughes and Margaret Lock proposed "three bodies" to think through biomedicine and the kinds of subjects it produces. In the current article, I revise their theory of three bodies in two ways: first, I suggest that the three bodies are a scaling process, which allows medical governance to manage bodies across scales, from the individual to the group; second, I add two new levels of scalar analysis, the molecular and the microbial, in an attempt to flesh out the three bodies based on contemporary medical practice, including pharmaceuticalization and therapeutic to the microbiome...
July 30, 2016: Medical Anthropology Quarterly
Mohit Girotra, Shashank Garg, Rohit Anand, Yang Song, Sudhir K Dutta
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has become the cornerstone in management of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (RCDI) in adults. However, data on efficacy, safety, long-term outcomes, and microbiota alterations are limited in elderly patients (>65 years). METHODS: Twenty-nine consecutive elderly patients with RCDI underwent FMT with combined jejunal and colonic method and monitored for long-term outcomes. Fecal samples from five elderly RCDI patients (G65) were subjected to genomic analysis before and after FMT, and microbiota changes were compared with matched RCDI patients below 65 years (L65)...
October 2016: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Mitchell J Brittnacher, Sonya L Heltshe, Hillary S Hayden, Matthew C Radey, Eli J Weiss, Christopher J Damman, Timothy L Zisman, David L Suskind, Samuel I Miller
BACKGROUND: Comparative analysis of gut microbiomes in clinical studies of human diseases typically rely on identification and quantification of species or genes. In addition to exploring specific functional characteristics of the microbiome and potential significance of species diversity or expansion, microbiome similarity is also calculated to study change in response to therapies directed at altering the microbiome. Established ecological measures of similarity can be constructed from species abundances, however methods for calculating these commonly used ecological measures of similarity directly from whole genome shotgun (WGS) metagenomic sequence are lacking...
2016: PloS One
Paul E Wischmeyer, Daniel McDonald, Rob Knight
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Loss of 'health-promoting' microbes and overgrowth of pathogenic bacteria (dysbiosis) in ICU is believed to contribute to nosocomial infections, sepsis, and organ failure (multiple organ dysfunction syndrome). This review discusses new understanding of ICU dysbiosis, new data for probiotics and fecal transplantation in ICU, and new data characterizing the ICU microbiome. RECENT FINDINGS: ICU dysbiosis results from many factors, including ubiquitous antibiotic use and overuse...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Critical Care
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