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Fecal microbial transplant

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422836/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-is-a-rescue-treatment-modality-for-refractory-ulcerative-colitis
#1
Ahmet Uygun, Kadir Ozturk, Hakan Demirci, Cem Oger, Ismail Yasar Avci, Turker Turker, Mustafa Gulsen
BACKGROUND: Fecal microbial transplantation (FMT) provides to replace beneficial bacteria with more favorable microbiomes in recipient with dysbiosis. The aim of the present study was to prospectively investigate the efficacy of FMT by assessing the clinical and endoscopic response in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) who had failed anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive therapy. METHODS: In this prospective and uncontrolled study, 30 patients with UC were included...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405600/longitudinal-analysis-of-the-intestinal-microbiota-in-liver-transplantation
#2
Karin Kato, Miki Nagao, Kentaro Miyamoto, Kentaro Oka, Motomichi Takahashi, Masaki Yamamoto, Yasufumi Matsumura, Toshimi Kaido, Shinji Uemoto, Satoshi Ichiyama
BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence suggests that the intestinal microbiota plays an important role in liver diseases. However, the dynamics of the intestinal microbiota during liver transplantation (LT) and its potential role in clinical course remain unknown. METHODS: We prospectively analyzed the intestinal microbiota of 38 patients who underwent LT in Kyoto University Hospital. We characterized the microbial compositions of fecal specimens from LT patients using a metagenomics approach by an Illumina MiSeq platform...
April 2017: Transplantation Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372330/the-gut-microbiota-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
Chunmei Jiang, Guangning Li, Pengru Huang, Zhou Liu, Bin Zhao
The gut microbiota comprises a complex community of microorganism species that resides in our gastrointestinal ecosystem and whose alterations influence not only various gut disorders but also central nervous system disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD, the most common form of dementia, is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with impaired cognition and cerebral accumulation of amyloid-β peptides (Aβ). Most notably, the microbiota-gut-brain axis is a bidirectional communication system that is not fully understood, but includes neural, immune, endocrine, and metabolic pathways...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369341/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-patients-with-blood-disorders-inhibits-gut-colonization-with-antibiotic-resistant-bacteria-results-of-a-prospective-single-center-study
#4
Jaroslaw Bilinski, Pawel Grzesiowski, Nikolaj Sorensen, Krzysztof Madry, Jacek Muszynski, Katarzyna Robak, Marta Wroblewska, Tomasz Dzieciatkowski, Grazyna Dulny, Jadwiga Dwilewicz-Trojaczek, Wieslaw Wiktor-Jedrzejczak, Grzegorz W Basak
BACKGROUND: Patients with blood disorders colonized with antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) are prone to systemic infections that are difficult to treat. Reintroduction of commensal bacteria in a murine model of enterococcal colonization of the gut can lead to eradication of enterococci. We hypothesized that fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) could be used to eradicate ARB in humans. METHODS: Participants colonized with ARB were treated with intraduodenal FMT according to a prospective protocol (NCT02461199)...
March 24, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348415/potential-role-of-fecal-microbiota-from-patients-with-slow-transit-constipation-in-the-regulation-of-gastrointestinal-motility
#5
Xiaolong Ge, Wei Zhao, Chao Ding, Hongliang Tian, Lizhi Xu, Hongkan Wang, Ling Ni, Jun Jiang, Jianfeng Gong, Weiming Zhu, Minsheng Zhu, Ning Li
The gut microbiota is involved in various physiological functions, and disturbances in the host-microbiome have been proven to contribute to the dysfunction of gut; however, whether microbiota participates in the pathogenesis of constipation remains unclear. In this study, we extracted and analyzed microbiota in feces from constipated donors who had undergone effective therapy with fecal microbiota transplantation, transplanted microbiota into pseudo-germ-free mice, and measured gut motility. These mice presented with lower pellet frequency and water percentage, smaller pellet size, delayed gastrointestinal transit time, and weaker spontaneous contractions of colonic smooth muscle...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347713/fecal-microbial-transplantation
#6
Indu Srinivasan, Shou-Jiang Tang, James Q Sones
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346928/diet-and-gut-microbiota-in-health-and-disease
#7
Ting-Chin David Shen
Gut microbiota plays an important role in host health maintenance and disease pathogenesis. The development of a stable and diverse gut microbiota is essential to various host physiologic functions such as immunoregulation, pathogen prevention, energy harvest, and metabolism. At the same time, a dysbiotic gut microbiota associated with disease is altered in structure and function, and often characterized by a decrease in species richness and proliferation of pathogenic bacterial taxa. As a shared substrate between the host and the gut microbiota, diet significantly impacts the health and disease states of the host both directly and through gut microbial metabolite production...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315032/novel-indications-for-fecal-microbial-transplantation-update-and-review-of-the-literature
#8
REVIEW
Nathaniel Aviv Cohen, Nitsan Maharshak
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Fecal microbial transplantation (FMT) is an established successful treatment modality for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). The safety profile and potential therapeutic advantages of FMT for diseases associated with dysbiosis and immune dysfunction have led to many publications, mainly case series, and while many studies and reviews have been published on the use of FMT for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), its potential use for other disease conditions has not been thoroughly reviewed...
May 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288099/nlrp12-attenuates-colon-inflammation-by-maintaining-colonic-microbial-diversity-and-promoting-protective-commensal-bacterial-growth
#9
Liang Chen, Justin E Wilson, Mark J Koenigsknecht, Wei-Chun Chou, Stephanie A Montgomery, Agnieszka D Truax, W June Brickey, Christopher D Packey, Nitsan Maharshak, Glenn K Matsushima, Scott E Plevy, Vincent B Young, R Balfour Sartor, Jenny P-Y Ting
Inflammatory bowel diseases involve the dynamic interaction of host genetics, the microbiome and inflammatory responses. Here we found lower expression of NLRP12 (which encodes a negative regulator of innate immunity) in human ulcerative colitis, by comparing monozygotic twins and other patient cohorts. In parallel, Nlrp12 deficiency in mice caused increased basal colonic inflammation, which led to a less-diverse microbiome and loss of protective gut commensal strains (of the family Lachnospiraceae) and a greater abundance of colitogenic strains (of the family Erysipelotrichaceae)...
May 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280484/variable-colonization-after-reciprocal-fecal-microbiota-transfer-between-mice-with-low-and-high-richness-microbiota
#10
Aaron C Ericsson, Alexa R Personett, Giedre Turner, Rebecca A Dorfmeyer, Craig L Franklin
Several associations have been made between characteristics of the resident gut microbiota and human health and disease susceptibility. Animal models provide the means to test these correlations prospectively and evaluate causality. Experimental fecal microbiota transfer (FMT), or the intentional transplantation of gut microbes into recipient mice depleted of their autochthonous microbes with antibiotics, is a commonly used method of testing these relationships. The true completeness of microbial transfer through such procedures is poorly documented in the literature, particularly in the context of reciprocal transfer of microbes between recipient and donor mice harboring microbial populations of differing richness and diversity...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251905/transplantation-of-fecal-microbiota-from-patients-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome-alters-gut-function-and-behavior-in-recipient-mice
#11
Giada De Palma, Michael D J Lynch, Jun Lu, Vi T Dang, Yikang Deng, Jennifer Jury, Genevieve Umeh, Pedro M Miranda, Marc Pigrau Pastor, Sacha Sidani, Maria Ines Pinto-Sanchez, Vivek Philip, Peter G McLean, Moreno-Gabriel Hagelsieb, Michael G Surette, Gabriela E Bergonzelli, Elena F Verdu, Philip Britz-McKibbin, Josh D Neufeld, Stephen M Collins, Premysl Bercik
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common disorder characterized by altered gut function and often is accompanied by comorbid anxiety. Although changes in the gut microbiota have been documented, their relevance to the clinical expression of IBS is unknown. To evaluate a functional role for commensal gut bacteria in IBS, we colonized germ-free mice with the fecal microbiota from healthy control individuals or IBS patients with diarrhea (IBS-D), with or without anxiety, and monitored gut function and behavior in the transplanted mice...
March 1, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195180/successful-resolution-of-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-using-freeze-dried-encapsulated-fecal-microbiota-pragmatic-cohort-study
#12
Christopher Staley, Matthew J Hamilton, Byron P Vaughn, Carolyn T Graiziger, Krista M Newman, Amanda J Kabage, Michael J Sadowsky, Alexander Khoruts
OBJECTIVES: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is increasingly being used for treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (R-CDI) that cannot be cured with antibiotics alone. In addition, FMT is being investigated for a variety of indications where restoration or restructuring of the gut microbial community is hypothesized to be beneficial. We sought to develop a stable, freeze-dried encapsulated preparation of standardized fecal microbiota that can be used for FMT with ease and convenience in clinical practice and research...
February 14, 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187526/secondary-bile-acid-induced-dysbiosis-promotes-intestinal-carcinogenesis
#13
Hailong Cao, Mengque Xu, Wenxiao Dong, Baoru Deng, Sinan Wang, Yujie Zhang, Shan Wang, Shenhui Luo, Weiqiang Wang, Yanrong Qi, Jianxin Gao, Xiaocang Cao, Fang Yan, Bangmao Wang
The gut microbiota plays an important role in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. Dysbiosis is associated with intestinal tumorigenesis. Deoxycholic acid (DCA), a secondary bile acid increased by a western diet, correlates with intestinal carcinogenesis. However, evidence relating bile acids, intestinal microbiota and tumorigenesis are limited. In our study, we investigated the effect of DCA on induction of intestinal dysbiosis and its roles in intestinal carcinogenesis. Alteration of the composition of the intestinal microbiota was induced in DCA-treated APC(min/+) mice, which was accompanied by impaired intestinal barrier, gut low grade inflammation and tumor progression...
February 10, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181098/effect-of-aging-on-the-composition-of-fecal-microbiota-in-donors-for-fmt-and-its-impact-on-clinical-outcomes
#14
Rohit Anand, Yang Song, Shashank Garg, Mohit Girotra, Amitasha Sinha, Anita Sivaraman, Laila Phillips, Sudhir K Dutta
BACKGROUND: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is emerging as an effective therapy for the treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (RCDI). Selecting an appropriate donor is vital to the success of FMT. However, the relationship between age of donors and the efficacy of FMT has not been examined to date. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of age of healthy donors on their fecal microbiota and assess the impact of these changes on the clinical efficacy of FMT...
February 8, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28175249/p766-combination-therapy-of-fresh-fecal-microbial-transplantation-and-antibiotics-for-ulcerative-colitis
#15
D Ishikawa, M Takahashi, K Haga, T Shibuya, T Osada, S Watanabe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143587/gut-microbiota-dysbiosis-contributes-to-the-development-of-hypertension
#16
Jing Li, Fangqing Zhao, Yidan Wang, Junru Chen, Jie Tao, Gang Tian, Shouling Wu, Wenbin Liu, Qinghua Cui, Bin Geng, Weili Zhang, Ryan Weldon, Kelda Auguste, Lei Yang, Xiaoyan Liu, Li Chen, Xinchun Yang, Baoli Zhu, Jun Cai
BACKGROUND: Recently, the potential role of gut microbiome in metabolic diseases has been revealed, especially in cardiovascular diseases. Hypertension is one of the most prevalent cardiovascular diseases worldwide, yet whether gut microbiota dysbiosis participates in the development of hypertension remains largely unknown. To investigate this issue, we carried out comprehensive metagenomic and metabolomic analyses in a cohort of 41 healthy controls, 56 subjects with pre-hypertension, 99 individuals with primary hypertension, and performed fecal microbiota transplantation from patients to germ-free mice...
February 1, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134687/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-gastrointestinal-disorders
#17
Thomas Malikowski, Sahil Khanna, Darrell S Pardi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The importance of the gut microbiome in human health is being increasingly recognized. The purpose of this review is to examine the existing literature pertaining to alterations in the gut microbiome and the utility of microbiome restoration therapies in gastrointestinal disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Imbalance and maladaptation of the microbiome, termed dysbiosis, has been associated with several disease states such as irritable bowel syndrome, Clostridium difficile infection, inflammatory bowel diseases, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and obesity among others...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125667/profiling-living-bacteria-informs-preparation-of-fecal-microbiota-transplantations
#18
Nathaniel D Chu, Mark B Smith, Allison R Perrotta, Zain Kassam, Eric J Alm
Fecal microbiota transplantation is a compelling treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infections, with potential applications against other diseases associated with changes in gut microbiota. But variability in fecal bacterial communities-believed to be the therapeutic agent-can complicate or undermine treatment efficacy. To understand the effects of transplant preparation methods on living fecal microbial communities, we applied a DNA-sequencing method (PMA-seq) that uses propidium monoazide (PMA) to differentiate between living and dead fecal microbes, and we created an analysis pipeline to identify individual bacteria that change in abundance between samples...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115022/gut-microbial-degradation-of-organophosphate-insecticides-induces-glucose-intolerance-via-gluconeogenesis
#19
Ganesan Velmurugan, Tharmarajan Ramprasath, Krishnan Swaminathan, Gilles Mithieux, Jeyaprakash Rajendhran, Mani Dhivakar, Ayothi Parthasarathy, D D Venkatesh Babu, Leishman John Thumburaj, Allen J Freddy, Vasudevan Dinakaran, Shanavas Syed Mohamed Puhari, Balakrishnan Rekha, Yacob Jenifer Christy, Sivakumar Anusha, Ganesan Divya, Kannan Suganya, Boominathan Meganathan, Narayanan Kalyanaraman, Varadaraj Vasudevan, Raju Kamaraj, Maruthan Karthik, Balakrishnan Jeyakumar, Albert Abhishek, Eldho Paul, Muthuirulan Pushpanathan, Rajamani Koushick Rajmohan, Kumaravel Velayutham, Alexander R Lyon, Subbiah Ramasamy
BACKGROUND: Organophosphates are the most frequently and largely applied insecticide in the world due to their biodegradable nature. Gut microbes were shown to degrade organophosphates and cause intestinal dysfunction. The diabetogenic nature of organophosphates was recently reported but the underlying molecular mechanism is unclear. We aimed to understand the role of gut microbiota in organophosphate-induced hyperglycemia and to unravel the molecular mechanism behind this process. RESULTS: Here we demonstrate a high prevalence of diabetes among people directly exposed to organophosphates in rural India (n = 3080)...
January 24, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059612/fecal-microbial-transplantation-as-a-therapeutic-option-in-patients-colonized-with-antibiotic-resistant-organisms
#20
Michael Laffin, Braden Millan, Karen L Madsen
Despite increasing interest in fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), its full therapeutic potential has yet to be determined. Since its increase in popularity, FMT has been shown to be highly effective in the treatment of both Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and its recurrent form. Interest in FMT now expands well beyond the treatment of CDI to other processes with known associations to the microbiota such as antibiotic resistant infections, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), hepatic encephalopathy, neuropsychiatric disorders, and metabolic disease...
January 6, 2017: Gut Microbes
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