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Fecal microbial transplant

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893994/gut-microbiota-from-multiple-sclerosis-patients-enables-spontaneous-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-in-mice
#1
Kerstin Berer, Lisa Ann Gerdes, Egle Cekanaviciute, Xiaoming Jia, Liang Xiao, Zhongkui Xia, Chuan Liu, Luisa Klotz, Uta Stauffer, Sergio E Baranzini, Tania Kümpfel, Reinhard Hohlfeld, Gurumoorthy Krishnamoorthy, Hartmut Wekerle
There is emerging evidence that the commensal microbiota has a role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), a putative autoimmune disease of the CNS. Here, we compared the gut microbial composition of 34 monozygotic twin pairs discordant for MS. While there were no major differences in the overall microbial profiles, we found a significant increase in some taxa such as Akkermansia in untreated MS twins. Furthermore, most notably, when transplanted to a transgenic mouse model of spontaneous brain autoimmunity, MS twin-derived microbiota induced a significantly higher incidence of autoimmunity than the healthy twin-derived microbiota...
September 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866242/to-engraft-or-not-to-engraft-an-ecological-framework-for-gut-microbiome-modulation-with-live-microbes
#2
REVIEW
Jens Walter, María X Maldonado-Gómez, Inés Martínez
Strategies aimed at modulating the gut microbiota by using live microbes range from single strains (probiotics or live biotherapeutics) to whole non-defined fecal transplants. Although often clinically efficacious, our understanding on how microbial-based strategies modulate gut microbiome composition and function is vastly incomplete. In this review, we present a framework based on ecological theory that provides mechanistic explanations for the findings obtained in studies that attempted to modulate the gut microbiota of humans and animals using live microbes...
August 31, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789710/transplanted-human-fecal-microbiota-enhanced-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-autoantibody-responses-after-campylobacter-jejuni-infection-in-c57bl-6-mice
#3
Phillip T Brooks, Kelsey A Brakel, Julia A Bell, Christopher E Bejcek, Trey Gilpin, Jean M Brudvig, Linda S Mansfield
BACKGROUND: Campylobacter jejuni is the leading antecedent infection to the autoimmune neuropathy Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), which is accompanied by an autoimmune anti-ganglioside antibody attack on peripheral nerves. Previously, we showed that contrasting immune responses mediate C. jejuni induced colitis and autoimmunity in interleukin-10 (IL-10)-deficient mice, dependent upon the infecting strain. Strains from colitis patients elicited T helper 1 (TH1)-dependent inflammatory responses while strains from GBS patients elicited TH2-dependent autoantibody production...
August 8, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770495/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-beyond-clostridium-difficile
#4
REVIEW
Braden Millan, Michael Laffin, Karen Madsen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been established as standard of care in the treatment of antibiotic refractory Clostridium difficile infection (RCDI). This review examines the current evidence that exists to support the use of FMT in the treatment of human disease beyond C. difficile infection. RECENT FINDINGS: Beneficial effects of FMT have been described in case series or small prospective trials on a wide spectrum of conditions, including inflammatory bowel disease, functional gastrointestinal disorders, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, alcoholic hepatitis, hepatic encephalopathy, and neuropsychiatric conditions, and in limiting antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections...
September 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769880/human-gut-microbiota-toward-an-ecology-of-disease
#5
REVIEW
Susannah Selber-Hnatiw, Belise Rukundo, Masoumeh Ahmadi, Hayfa Akoubi, Hend Al-Bizri, Adelekan F Aliu, Tanyi U Ambeaghen, Lilit Avetisyan, Irmak Bahar, Alexandra Baird, Fatema Begum, Hélène Ben Soussan, Virginie Blondeau-Éthier, Roxane Bordaries, Helene Bramwell, Alicia Briggs, Richard Bui, Matthew Carnevale, Marisa Chancharoen, Talia Chevassus, Jin H Choi, Karyne Coulombe, Florence Couvrette, Samantha D'Abreau, Meghan Davies, Marie-Pier Desbiens, Tamara Di Maulo, Sean-Anthony Di Paolo, Sabrina Do Ponte, Priscyla Dos Santos Ribeiro, Laure-Anne Dubuc-Kanary, Paola K Duncan, Frédérique Dupuis, Sara El-Nounou, Christina N Eyangos, Natasha K Ferguson, Nancy R Flores-Chinchilla, Tanya Fotakis, Mariam Gado Oumarou H D, Metodi Georgiev, Seyedehnazanin Ghiassy, Natalija Glibetic, Julien Grégoire Bouchard, Tazkia Hassan, Iman Huseen, Marlon-Francis Ibuna Quilatan, Tania Iozzo, Safina Islam, Dilan B Jaunky, Aniththa Jeyasegaram, Marc-André Johnston, Matthew R Kahler, Kiranpreet Kaler, Cedric Kamani, Hessam Karimian Rad, Elisavet Konidis, Filip Konieczny, Sandra Kurianowicz, Philippe Lamothe, Karina Legros, Sebastien Leroux, Jun Li, Monica E Lozano Rodriguez, Sean Luponio-Yoffe, Yara Maalouf, Jessica Mantha, Melissa McCormick, Pamela Mondragon, Thivaedee Narayana, Elizaveta Neretin, Thi T T Nguyen, Ian Niu, Romeo B Nkemazem, Martin O'Donovan, Matthew Oueis, Stevens Paquette, Nehal Patel, Emily Pecsi, Jackie Peters, Annie Pettorelli, Cassandra Poirier, Victoria R Pompa, Harshvardhan Rajen, Reginald-Olivier Ralph, Josué Rosales-Vasquez, Daria Rubinshtein, Surya Sakr, Mohammad S Sebai, Lisa Serravalle, Fily Sidibe, Ahnjana Sinnathurai, Dominique Soho, Adithi Sundarakrishnan, Veronika Svistkova, Tsolaye E Ugbeye, Megan S Vasconcelos, Michael Vincelli, Olga Voitovich, Pamela Vrabel, Lu Wang, Maryse Wasfi, Cong Y Zha, Chiara Gamberi
Composed of trillions of individual microbes, the human gut microbiota has adapted to the uniquely diverse environments found in the human intestine. Quickly responding to the variances in the ingested food, the microbiota interacts with the host via reciprocal biochemical signaling to coordinate the exchange of nutrients and proper immune function. Host and microbiota function as a unit which guards its balance against invasion by potential pathogens and which undergoes natural selection. Disturbance of the microbiota composition, or dysbiosis, is often associated with human disease, indicating that, while there seems to be no unique optimal composition of the gut microbiota, a balanced community is crucial for human health...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764868/modeling-new-immunoregulatory-therapeutics-as-antimicrobial-alternatives-for-treating-clostridium-difficile-infection
#6
Andrew Leber, Raquel Hontecillas, Vida Abedi, Nuria Tubau-Juni, Victoria Zoccoli-Rodriguez, Caroline Stewart, Josep Bassaganya-Riera
The current treatment paradigm in Clostridium difficile infection is the administration of antibiotics contributing to the high rates of recurrent infections. Recent alternative strategies, such as fecal microbiome transplantation and anti-toxin antibodies, have shown similar efficacy in the treatment of C. difficile associated disease (CDAD). However, barriers exist for either treatment or other novel treatments to displace antibiotics as the standard of care. To aid in the comparison of these and future treatments in CDAD, we developed an in silico pipeline to predict clinical efficacy with nonclinical results...
May 2017: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761936/clostridium-difficile-colonizes-alternative-nutrient-niches-during-infection-across-distinct-murine-gut-microbiomes
#7
Matthew L Jenior, Jhansi L Leslie, Vincent B Young, Patrick D Schloss
Clostridium difficile is the largest single cause of hospital-acquired infection in the United States. A major risk factor for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is prior exposure to antibiotics, as they disrupt the gut bacterial community which protects from C. difficile colonization. Multiple antibiotic classes have been associated with CDI susceptibility, many leading to distinct community structures stemming from variation in bacterial targets of action. These community structures present separate metabolic challenges to C...
July 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747917/upregulation-of-intestinal-barrier-function-in-mice-with-dss-induced-colitis-by-a-defined-bacterial-consortium-is-associated-with-expansion-of-il-17a-producing-gamma-delta-t-cells
#8
Ming Li, Bing Wang, Xiaotong Sun, Yan Tang, Xiaoqing Wei, Biying Ge, Yawei Tang, Ying Deng, Chunyang He, Jieli Yuan, Xia Li
Bacterial consortium transplantation (BCT) is a promising alternative to fecal microbiota transplantation in treating inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Here, we showed that a defined bacterial consortium derived from healthy mice was able to enhance the intestinal barrier function of mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Interestingly, we found that the bacterial consortium significantly promoted the expansion of IL-17A-producing γδT (γδT17) cells in colonic lamina propria, which was closely associated with changing of intestinal microbial composition...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733895/clinical-impact-of-pre-transplant-gut-microbial-diversity-on-outcomes-of-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#9
Noriko Doki, Masahiro Suyama, Satoshi Sasajima, Junko Ota, Aiko Igarashi, Iyo Mimura, Hidetoshi Morita, Yuki Fujioka, Daisuke Sugiyama, Hiroyoshi Nishikawa, Yutaka Shimazu, Wataru Suda, Kozue Takeshita, Koji Atarashi, Masahira Hattori, Eiichi Sato, Kyoko Watakabe-Inamoto, Kosuke Yoshioka, Yuho Najima, Takeshi Kobayashi, Kazuhiko Kakihana, Naoto Takahashi, Hisashi Sakamaki, Kenya Honda, Kazuteru Ohashi
Post-transplant microbial diversity in the gastrointestinal tract is closely associated with clinical outcomes following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). However, little is known about the impact of the fecal microbiota before allo-HSCT. We analyzed fecal samples approximately 2 weeks before conditioning among 107 allo-HSCT recipients between 2013 and 2015. Microbial analysis was performed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Operational taxonomic unit-based microbial diversity was estimated by calculating the Shannon index...
September 2017: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719392/intestinal-microbiome-in-scleroderma-recent-progress
#10
Elizabeth R Volkmann
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Our evolving understanding of how gut microbiota affects immune function and homeostasis has led many investigators to explore the potentially pathologic role of gut microbiota in autoimmune diseases. This review will discuss the rapidly advancing field of microbiome research in systemic sclerosis (SSc), an incurable autoimmune disease with significant gastrointestinal morbidity and mortality. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent reports have identified common perturbations in gut microbiota across different SSc cohorts...
July 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695658/fecal-microbial-transplantation-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-movement-too-big-to-be-ignored
#11
M Laffin, K L Madsen
The development of new therapies for inflammatory bowel disease is plagued by high costs, potential side effects, and variable levels of effectiveness. Fecal microbial transplant in inflammatory bowel diseases can offer an alternative to traditionally developed pharmacologic therapies and has demonstrated the ability to induce disease remission in randomized control trials. However, questions remain about the ultimate role of this therapy in disease management, including long term safety, and the optimal composition of transplanted stool...
July 10, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677158/update-on-intestinal-microbiota-in-crohn-s-disease-2017-mechanisms-clinical-application-adverse-reactions-and-outlook
#12
REVIEW
Zhaohua Shen, Changxin Zhu, Yongsheng Quan, Wei Yuan, Shuai Wu, Zhenyu Yang, Weiwei Luo, Bei Tan, Xiaoyan Wang
The pathogenesis of CD is complex and it is thought to be associated with the environment, immune, hereditary, microbe and other factors. If the balance between the host and the intestinal microbes in CD patients was broken, immune-inflammatory response of susceptible individuals might be triggered. Probiotics could improve the intestinal microbial flora balance and treat human effectively. There are several new mechanisms which might explain the role of probiotics. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is becoming more and more attractive in treating a large amount of digestive system diseases which are related to the dysbiosis of intestinal microbiota...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649413/identification-of-donor-microbe-species-that-colonize-and-persist-long-term-in-the-recipient-after-fecal-transplant-for-recurrent-clostridium-difficile
#13
Ranjit Kumar, Nengjun Yi, Degui Zhi, Peter Eipers, Kelly T Goldsmith, Paula Dixon, David K Crossman, Michael R Crowley, Elliot J Lefkowitz, J Martin Rodriguez, Casey D Morrow
Fecal microbiota transplantation has been shown to be an effective treatment for patients with recurrent C. difficile colitis. Although fecal microbiota transplantation helps to re-establish a normal gut function in patients, the extent of the repopulation of the recipient microbial community varies. To further understand this variation, it is important to determine the fate of donor microbes in the patients following fecal microbiota transplantation. We have developed a new method that utilizes the unique single nucleotide variants of gut microbes to accurately identify microbes in paired fecal samples from the same individual taken at different times...
2017: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630433/gut-microbiota-of-liver-transplantation-recipients
#14
Li-Ying Sun, Yun-Sheng Yang, Wei Qu, Zhi-Jun Zhu, Lin Wei, Zhi-Sheng Ye, Jian-Rui Zhang, Xiao-Ye Sun, Zhi-Gui Zeng
The characteristics of intestinal microbial communities may be affected by changes in the pathophysiology of patients with end-stage liver disease. Here, we focused on the characteristics of intestinal fecal microbial communities in post-liver transplantation (LT) patients in comparison with those in the same individuals pre-LT and in healthy individuals. The fecal microbial communities were analyzed via MiSeq-PE250 sequencing of the V4 region of 16S ribosomal RNA and were then compared between groups. We found that the gut microbiota of patients with severe liver disease who were awaiting LT was significantly different from that of healthy controls, as represented by the first principal component (p = 0...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628918/bifidobacterium-rich-fecal-donor-may-be-a-positive-predictor-for-successful-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-patients-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#15
Shinta Mizuno, Tatsuhiro Masaoka, Makoto Naganuma, Taishiro Kishimoto, Momoko Kitazawa, Shunya Kurokawa, Moeko Nakashima, Kozue Takeshita, Wataru Suda, Masaru Mimura, Masahira Hattori, Takanori Kanai
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Dysbiosis is associated with various systemic disorders including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) might restore intestinal microbial balance. The study aimed to determine the safety and efficacy of FMT in IBS patients, as well as also positive predictors for FMT. METHODS: This was a single-arm, open-label study. Eligible patients were diagnosed based on Rome III Diagnostic Criteria. Fecal materials were administered to the patient via colonoscopy...
2017: Digestion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609252/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-metabolic-syndrome-history-present-and-future
#16
P F de Groot, M N Frissen, N C de Clercq, M Nieuwdorp
The history of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) dates back even to ancient China. Recently, scientific studies have been looking into FMT as a promising treatment of various diseases, while in the process teaching us about the interaction between the human host and its resident microbial communities. Current research focuses mainly on Clostridium difficile infections, however interest is rising in other areas such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and the metabolic syndrome. With regard to the latter, the intestinal microbiota might be causally related to the progression of insulin resistance and diabetes...
May 4, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592766/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-acute-graft-versus-host-disease-of-the-gut
#17
Kazuhiko Kakihana
Advances in microbial analysis have provided new insights into the complex interactions between the host and gut microbiota. An imbalance in the gut microbiota (dysbiosis) is associated with various disorders and their pathogenesis. Furthermore, in allogeneic stem cell transplantation, increasing evidence indicates that the gut microbiota is closely associated with acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and transplant outcomes, suggesting that its manipulation could be a new treatment strategy for this acute condition...
2017: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586116/fecal-microbiota-transplant-from-a-rational-stool-donor-improves-hepatic-encephalopathy-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#18
Jasmohan S Bajaj, Zain Kassam, Andrew Fagan, Edith A Gavis, Eric Liu, I Jane Cox, Raffi Kheradman, Douglas Heuman, Jessica Wang, Thomas Gurry, Roger Williams, Masoumeh Sikaroodi, Michael Fuchs, Eric Alm, Binu John, Leroy R Thacker, Antonio Riva, Mark Smith, Simon D Taylor-Robinson, Patrick M Gillevet
Recurrent hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a leading cause of readmission despite standard of care (SOC) associated with microbial dysbiosis. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) may improve dysbiosis; however, it has not been studied in HE. We aimed to define whether FMT using a rationally-derived stool donor is safe in recurrent HE compared to SOC alone. An open-label, randomized clinical trial with a 5 month follow-up in outpatient cirrhotic men with recurrent HE on SOC was conducted with 1:1 randomization...
June 6, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576434/-molecular-epidemiology-and-kinetics-of-early-escherichia-coli-urinary-tract-infections-in-kidney-transplant-recipients
#19
Parvine Tashk, Marie Lecronier, Olivier Clermont, Aurélie Renvoisé, Alexandra Aubry, Benoît Barrou, Alexandre Hertig, Mathilde Lescat, Olivier Tenaillon, Erick Denamur, Jérôme Tourret
BACKGROUND: Escherichia coli strains causing Urinary Tract Infections (UTI) have a fecal origin. METHODS: A fecal sample was collected before Kidney Transplantation (KT) and concomitantly with urine at each of the 15 E. coli UTIs which occurred in 11 KT recipients. Unique E. coli strains were identified among 25 isolates per feces and 5 isolates per urinary sample by random amplification of polymorphic DNA. Phylogenetic group (which is correlated to virulence in the E...
May 30, 2017: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572754/functional-amplification-and-preservation-of-human-gut-microbiota
#20
Nadia Gaci, Prem Prashant Chaudhary, William Tottey, Monique Alric, Jean-François Brugère
Background: The availability of fresh stool samples is a prerequisite in most gut microbiota functional studies. Objective: Strategies for amplification and long-term gut microbiota preservation from fecal samples would favor sample sharing, help comparisons and reproducibility over time and between laboratories, and improve the safety and ethical issues surrounding fecal microbiota transplantations. Design: Taking advantage of in vitro gut-simulating systems, we amplified the microbial repertoire of a fresh fecal sample and assessed the viability and resuscitation of microbes after preservation with some common intracellular and extracellular acting cryoprotective agents (CPAs), alone and in different combinations...
2017: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
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