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Fecal microbial transplant

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290658/characteristics-of-fecal-microbial-communities-in-patients-with-non-anastomotic-biliary-strictures-after-liver-transplantation
#1
Jing Zhang, Feng-Gang Ren, Peng Liu, Hong-Ke Zhang, Hao-Yang Zhu, Zhe Feng, Xu-Feng Zhang, Bo Wang, Xue-Ming Liu, Xiao-Gang Zhang, Rong-Qian Wu, Yi Lv
AIM: To explore the possible relationship between fecal microbial communities and non-anastomotic stricture (NAS) after liver transplantation (LT). METHODS: A total of 30 subjects including 10 patients with NAS, 10 patients with no complications after LT, and 10 non-LT healthy individuals were enrolled. Fecal microbial communities were assessed by the 16S rRNA gene sequencing technology. RESULTS: Different from the uncomplicated and healthy groups, unbalanced fecal bacterium ratio existed in patients with NAS after LT...
December 14, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278509/gut-microbiota-and-obesity-implications-for-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-therapy
#2
REVIEW
Yongbo Kang, Yue Cai
Obesity is a major public health issue as it is causally associated with several chronic disorders, including type-2 diabetes, cerebrovascular disease (CVD), and cancer. In the United States and other countries worldwide, the obesity epidemic has drastically impacted the status of health of millions as well as healthcare costs. Aside from poor diet, hygiene, and genetics, there are many other factors thought to play an important role in the emergence of obesity. Nowadays, accumulating evidence is elucidating the relation of dysbiosis of intestinal bacteria with obesity and metabolic disorders...
July 2017: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261736/randomized-clinical-trial-to-evaluate-the-effect-of-fecal-microbiota-transplant-for-initial-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-intestinal-microbiome
#3
Adrián Camacho-Ortiz, Eva María Gutiérrez-Delgado, Jose F Garcia-Mazcorro, Soraya Mendoza-Olazarán, Adrián Martínez-Meléndez, Laura Palau-Davila, Simon D Baines, Héctor Maldonado-Garza, Elvira Garza-González
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of fecal donor-unrelated donor mix (FMT-FURM) transplantation as first-line therapy for C. difficile infection (CDI) in intestinal microbiome. METHODS: We designed an open, two-arm pilot study with oral vancomycin (250mg every 6 h for 10-14 days) or FMT-FURM as treatments for the first CDI episode in hospitalized adult patients in Hospital Universitario "Dr. Jose Eleuterio Gonzalez". Patients were randomized by a closed envelope method in a 1: 1 ratio to either oral vancomycin or FMT-FURM...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209564/leukotriene-b4-receptor-1-mediated-host-response-shapes-gut-microbiota-and-controls-colon-tumor-progression
#4
Venkatakrishna R Jala, Paramahamsa Maturu, Sobha R Bodduluri, Elangovan Krishnan, Steven Mathis, Krishnaprasad Subbarao, Min Wang, Alfred B Jenson, Mary L Proctor, Eric C Rouchka, Rob Knight, Bodduluri Haribabu
Inflammation and infection are key promoters of colon cancer but the molecular interplay between these events is largely unknown. Mice deficient in leukotriene B4 receptor1 (BLT1) are protected in inflammatory disease models of arthritis, asthma and atherosclerosis. In this study, we show that BLT1-/- mice when bred onto a spontaneous tumor (ApcMin/+) model displayed an increase in the rate of intestinal tumor development and mortality. A paradoxical increase in inflammation in the tumors from the BLT1-/-ApcMin/+ mice is coincidental with defective host response to infection...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183720/contemporary-applications-of-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-to-treat-intestinal-diseases-in-humans
#5
REVIEW
Christopher Staley, Alexander Khoruts, Michael J Sadowsky
The intestinal microbiota comprise an important organ that plays a vital role in host digestion, development, energy maintenance, hemostasis, and immunity. Disruption of the gut microbial community due to diet, lifestyle, or antibiotic exposure increases susceptibility to chronic infection and disease. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) involves the transfer of gut microbiota from a healthy donor to a patient in order to restore normal diversity and function of the microbial community. This method has become a well established alternative therapy for the treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection...
November 25, 2017: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151426/-effects-of-antibiotics-on-intestinal-microflora-and-intestinal-mucosal-barrier-function-and-its-mechanisms
#6
Yue Han, Yuxin Leng, Gaiqi Yao
Antibiotics are the cornerstone to cure infectious diseases, however, it also destroys the intestinal inherent microflora, and may cause serious gastrointestinal dysfunction, such as abdominal distension, diarrhea, mucosal barrier damage etc. In severe conditions, it may induce intestinal sepsis. With the development of the human microbiology group program and the popularity of microbial sequencing technology, people can comprehend the effects of antibiotics on intestinal flora deeply, meanwhile the traditional biomedical model (the basis of bacterial disease) is questioned...
November 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130220/-current-research-progress-and-thinking-of-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-the-treatment-of-gastrointestinal-disorders
#7
Ning Li, Hongliang Tian
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), also known as fecal bacteriotherapy or fecal infusion, consists of injection of a liquid filtrate of feces from a healthy donor into the gastrointestinal tract of a recipient individual. FMT has been proposed as a therapeutic approach for functional diseases of the gastrointestinal tract by reestablishment of a wide diversity of intestinal flora. Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) treatment guideline from American Gastroenterology Association (AGA) recommends that FMT can be used as the treatment protocols of relapse CDI...
October 25, 2017: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101192/fecal-microbiota-transplant-from-highly-feed-efficient-donors-shows-little-effects-on-age-related-changes-in-feed-efficiency-associated-fecal-microbiota-in-chickens
#8
Sina-Catherine Siegerstetter, Renée M Petri, Elizabeth Magowan, Peadar G Lawlor, Qendrim Zebeli, Niamh E O'Connell, Barbara U Metzler-Zebeli
Chickens of good and poor feed efficiency (FE) have been shown to differ in their intestinal microbiota composition. This study investigated differences in the fecal bacterial community of good and poor feed efficient chickens at 16 and 29 days post-hatch (dph) and evaluated whether a fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) from feed efficient donors early in life can affect the fecal microbiota in chickens at 16 and 29 dph, chicken's FE and nutrient retention at four weeks of age. One-hundred-ten chickens were inoculated with a FMT or a control transplant (CT) on 1, 6 and 9 dph and ranked according to residual feed intake (RFI; metric for FE) on 30 dph...
November 3, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077649/fecal-microbial-transplantation-for-pediatric-ulcerative-colitis-are-we-there-yet
#9
Eytan Wine, Anne M Griffiths
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 27, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066578/r-spondin1-expands-paneth-cells-and-prevents-dysbiosis-induced-by-graft-versus-host-disease
#10
Eiko Hayase, Daigo Hashimoto, Kiminori Nakamura, Clara Noizat, Reiki Ogasawara, Shuichiro Takahashi, Hiroyuki Ohigashi, Yuki Yokoi, Rina Sugimoto, Satomi Matsuoka, Takahide Ara, Emi Yokoyama, Tomohiro Yamakawa, Ko Ebata, Takeshi Kondo, Rina Hiramine, Tomoyasu Aizawa, Yoshitoshi Ogura, Tetsuya Hayashi, Hiroshi Mori, Ken Kurokawa, Kazuma Tomizuka, Tokiyoshi Ayabe, Takanori Teshima
The intestinal microbial ecosystem is actively regulated by Paneth cell-derived antimicrobial peptides such as α-defensins. Various disorders, including graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), disrupt Paneth cell functions, resulting in unfavorably altered intestinal microbiota (dysbiosis), which further accelerates the underlying diseases. Current strategies to restore the gut ecosystem are bacteriotherapy such as fecal microbiota transplantation and probiotics, and no physiological approach has been developed so far...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056925/host-microbiota-mutualism-in-metabolic-diseases
#11
REVIEW
Salvatore Fabbiano, Nicolas Suárez-Zamorano, Mirko Trajkovski
The intestinal microbiota is a plastic ecosystem that is shaped by environmental and genetic factors, interacting with virtually all tissues of the host. Many signals result from the interplay between the microbiota with its mammalian symbiont that can lead to altered metabolism. Disruptions in the microbial composition are associated with a number of comorbidities linked to the metabolic syndrome. Promoting the niche expansion of beneficial bacteria through diet and supplements can improve metabolic disorders...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052181/probiotic-strains-and-mechanistic-insights-for-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes
#12
REVIEW
Christiane S Hampe, Christian L Roth
INTRODUCTION: The intestinal microbial composition appears to differ between healthy controls and individuals with Type 2 diabetes (T2D). This observation has led to the hypothesis that perturbations of the intestinal microbiota may contribute to the development of T2D. Manipulations of the intestinal microbiota may therefore provide a novel approach in the prevention and treatment of T2D. Indeed, fecal transplants have shown promising results in both animal models for obesity and T2D and in human clinical trials...
November 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045252/altered-gut-microbiome-composition-in-hiv-infection-causes-effects-and-potential-intervention
#13
Alessandra Bandera, Ilaria De Benedetto, Giorgio Bozzi, Andrea Gori
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Aim of this review is to summarize the alterations occurring in gut microbiome composition after HIV infection, and to underline how intestinal dysbiosis can affect immune homeostasis, immune recovery, and persisting immune activation under antiretroviral therapy (ART). Many interventions have been suggested, mostly with inconclusive results. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent evidence showed that gut microbiota from HIV-infected patients harbor reproducible differences compared to uninfected individuals...
October 17, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026445/viral-communities-of-the-human-gut-metagenomic-analysis-of-composition-and-dynamics
#14
REVIEW
Varun Aggarwala, Guanxiang Liang, Frederic D Bushman
BACKGROUND: The numerically most abundant biological entities on Earth are viruses. Vast populations prey on the cellular microbiota in all habitats, including the human gut. MAIN BODY: Here we review approaches for studying the human virome, and some recent results on movement of viral sequences between bacterial cells and eukaryotic hosts. We first overview biochemical and bioinformatic methods, emphasizing that specific choices in the methods used can have strong effects on the results obtained...
2017: Mobile DNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020157/early-antibiotic-use-post-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-increases-the-risk-of-treatment-failure
#15
Jessica R Allegretti, Dina Kao, Jessica Sitko, Monika Fischer, Zain Kassam
Antibiotic use within the first 8 weeks post fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) may disrupt microbial engraftment and limit FMT effectiveness. We aimed to assess the burden of antibiotic use with 8 weeks of FMT its impact on FMT efficacy.
August 2, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991839/fecal-microbial-transplant-in-children-with-ulcerative-colitis-a-randomized-double-blinded-placebo-controlled-pilot-study
#16
Sonia Michail
OBJECTIVE: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a condition characterized by chronic inflammation of the colon and is related to a genetically and environmentally-generated altered immune response to the enteric microbiome. Previous work in the PI laboratory suggests that children with UC harbor a unique gut microbial profile, which can predict therapeutic response. We hypothesized that children with ulcerative colitis will benefit from fecal transplant therapy (FMT). To this date there have been a number of reports describing the role of FMT in this disease albeit without uniform success and without controlled pediatric studies...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978426/improvement-of-insulin-sensitivity-after-lean-donor-feces-in-metabolic-syndrome-is-driven-by-baseline-intestinal-microbiota-composition
#17
Ruud S Kootte, Evgeni Levin, Jarkko Salojärvi, Loek P Smits, Annick V Hartstra, Shanti D Udayappan, Gerben Hermes, Kristien E Bouter, Annefleur M Koopen, Jens J Holst, Filip K Knop, Ellen E Blaak, Jing Zhao, Hauke Smidt, Amy C Harms, Thomas Hankemeijer, Jacques J G H M Bergman, Hans A Romijn, Frank G Schaap, Steven W M Olde Damink, Mariette T Ackermans, Geesje M Dallinga-Thie, Erwin Zoetendal, Willem M de Vos, Mireille J Serlie, Erik S G Stroes, Albert K Groen, Max Nieuwdorp
The intestinal microbiota has been implicated in insulin resistance, although evidence regarding causality in humans is scarce. We therefore studied the effect of lean donor (allogenic) versus own (autologous) fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) to male recipients with the metabolic syndrome. Whereas we did not observe metabolic changes at 18 weeks after FMT, insulin sensitivity at 6 weeks after allogenic FMT was significantly improved, accompanied by altered microbiota composition. We also observed changes in plasma metabolites such as γ-aminobutyric acid and show that metabolic response upon allogenic FMT (defined as improved insulin sensitivity 6 weeks after FMT) is dependent on decreased fecal microbial diversity at baseline...
October 3, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951890/the-induction-of-oxalate-metabolism-in-vivo-is-more-effective-with-functional-microbial-communities-than-with-functional-microbial-species
#18
Aaron W Miller, Colin Dale, M Denise Dearing
For mammals, oxalate enters the body through the diet or is endogenously produced by the liver; it is removed by microbial oxalate metabolism in the gut and/or excretion in feces or urine. Deficiencies in any one of the these pathways can lead to complications, such as calcium oxalate urinary stones. While considerable research has been conducted on individual oxalate-degrading bacterial isolates, interactions between oxalate and the gut microbiota as a whole are unknown. We examined the reduction in oxalate excretion in a rat model following oral administration of fecal microbes from a mammalian herbivore adapted to a high oxalate diet or to fecal transplants consisting of two different formulations of mixed oxalate-degrading isolates...
September 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936948/control-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-by-defined-microbial-communities
#19
James Collins, Jennifer M Auchtung
Each year in the United States, billions of dollars are spent combating almost half a million Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) and trying to reduce the ∼29,000 patient deaths in which C. difficile has an attributed role. In Europe, disease prevalence varies by country and level of surveillance, though yearly costs are estimated at €3 billion. One factor contributing to the significant health care burden of C. difficile is the relatively high frequency of recurrent CDIs. Recurrent CDI, i.e., a second episode of symptomatic CDI occurring within 8 weeks of successful initial CDI treatment, occurs in ∼25% of patients, with 35 to 65% of these patients experiencing multiple episodes of recurrent disease...
September 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923757/clinical-practice-and-infrastructure-review-of-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-clostridium-difficile-infection
#20
REVIEW
Brendan J Kelly, Pablo Tebas
A substantial proportion of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) cases recur after completion of antibiotic therapy, and antibiotic cure rates diminish with each recurrence of CDI. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an effective therapy for recurrent FMT, which otherwise requires prolonged or indefinite antibiotic treatment. FMT is performed by introducing the fecal microbial community obtained from a healthy donor or pool of donors into the stomach, small intestine, or colon of a patient with CDI. Multiple clinical trials support the usefulness of FMT in treating recurrent CDI, and CDI treatment guidelines now include consideration of FMT at the third CDI recurrence...
January 2018: Chest
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