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Drosophila border cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207793/the-drosophila-speciation-factor-hmr-localizes-to-genomic-insulator-sites
#1
Thomas Andreas Gerland, Bo Sun, Pawel Smialowski, Andrea Lukacs, Andreas Walter Thomae, Axel Imhof
Hybrid incompatibility between Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans is caused by a lethal interaction of the proteins encoded by the Hmr and Lhr genes. In D. melanogaster the loss of HMR results in mitotic defects, an increase in transcription of transposable elements and a deregulation of heterochromatic genes. To better understand the molecular mechanisms that mediate HMR's function, we measured genome-wide localization of HMR in D. melanogaster tissue culture cells by chromatin immunoprecipitation. Interestingly, we find HMR localizing to genomic insulator sites that can be classified into two groups...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180997/functional-characterization-of-a-novel-disaccharide-transporter-in-lobster-hepatopancreas
#2
Olivia Scheffler, Gregory A Ahearn
In animals, the accepted model of carbohydrate digestion and absorption involves reduction of disaccharides into the monosaccharides glucose, fructose, and galactose followed by their individual transmembrane transport into cells. In 2011, a gene for a distinct disaccharide sucrose transporter (SCRT) was found in Drosophila melanogaster and characterized in a yeast expression system. The purpose of the present investigation was to functionally identify and characterize a putative disaccharide transporter analog in the hepatopancreas of the American lobster, Homarus americanus...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161642/drosophila-tensin-plays-an-essential-role-in-cell-migration-and-planar-polarity-formation-during-oogenesis-by-mediating-integrin-dependent-extracellular-signals-to-actin-organization
#3
In Jun Cha, Jang Ho Lee, Kyoung Sang Cho, Sung Bae Lee
Oogenesis in Drosophila involves very dynamic cellular changes such as cell migration and polarity formation inside an ovary during short period. Previous studies identified a number of membrane-bound receptors directly receiving certain types of extracellular inputs as well as intracellular signalings to be involved in the regulation of these dynamic cellular changes. However, yet our understanding on exactly how these receptor-mediated extracellular inputs lead to dynamic cellular changes remains largely unclear...
March 11, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143705/non-autonomous-role-of-cdc42-in-cell-cell-communication-during-collective-migration
#4
Nathalie Colombié, Valérie Choesmel-Cadamuro, Jennifer Series, Gregory Emery, Xiaobo Wang, Damien Ramel
Collective cell migration is involved in numerous processes both physiological, such as embryonic development, and pathological such as metastasis. Compared to single cell migration, collective motion requires cell behaviour coordination through an as-yet poorly understood but critical cell-cell communication mechanism. Using Drosophila border cell migration, we show here that the small Rho GTPase Cdc42 regulates cell-cell communication. Indeed, we demonstrate that Cdc42 controls protrusion formation in a cell non-autonomous manner...
January 28, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114410/a-gap-junction-protein-inx2-modulates-calcium-flux-to-specify-border-cell-fate-during-drosophila-oogenesis
#5
Aresh Sahu, Ritabrata Ghosh, Girish Deshpande, Mohit Prasad
Intercellular communication mediated by gap junction (GJ) proteins is indispensable during embryogenesis, tissue regeneration and wound healing. Here we report functional analysis of a gap junction protein, Innexin 2 (Inx2), in cell type specification during Drosophila oogenesis. Our data reveal a novel involvement of Inx2 in the specification of Border Cells (BCs), a migratory cell type, whose identity is determined by the cell autonomous STAT activity. We show that Inx2 influences BC fate specification by modulating STAT activity via Domeless receptor endocytosis...
January 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27600524/circuitous-genetic-regulation-governs-a-straightforward-cell-migration
#6
REVIEW
Afsoon Saadin, Michelle Starz-Gaiano
Drosophila border cells undergo a straightforward and stereotypical collective migration during egg development. However, a complex genetic program underlies this process. A variety of approaches, including biochemical, genetic, and imaging strategies have identified many regulatory components, revealing layers of control. This complexity suggests that the active processes of evaluating the environment, remodeling the cytoskeleton, and coordinating movements among cells, demand rapid systems for modulating cell behaviors...
October 2016: Trends in Genetics: TIG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27552097/the-selector-gene-apterous-and-notch-are-required-to-locally-increase-mechanical-cell-bond-tension-at-the-drosophila-dorsoventral-compartment-boundary
#7
Marcus Michel, Maryam Aliee, Katrin Rudolf, Lisa Bialas, Frank Jülicher, Christian Dahmann
The separation of cells with distinct fates and functions is important for tissue and organ formation during animal development. Regions of different fates within tissues are often separated from another along straight boundaries. These compartment boundaries play a crucial role in tissue patterning and growth by stably positioning organizers. In Drosophila, the wing imaginal disc is subdivided into a dorsal and a ventral compartment. Cells of the dorsal, but not ventral, compartment express the selector gene apterous...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27412523/relating-proton-pumps-with-gap-junctions-colocalization-of-ductin-the-channel-forming-subunit-c-of-v-atpase-with-subunit-a-and-with-innexins-2-and-3-during-drosophila-oogenesis
#8
Julia Lautemann, Johannes Bohrmann
BACKGROUND: Ion-transport mechanisms and gap junctions are known to cooperate in creating bioelectric phenomena, like pH gradients, voltage gradients and ion fluxes within single cells, tissues, organs, and whole organisms. Such phenomena have been shown to play regulatory roles in a variety of developmental and regenerative processes. Using Drosophila oogenesis as a model system, we aim at characterizing in detail the mechanisms underlying bioelectric phenomena in order to reveal their regulatory functions...
July 13, 2016: BMC Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27396338/an-atypical-tropomyosin-in-drosophila-with-intermediate-filament-like-properties
#9
Aeri Cho, Masato Kato, Tess Whitwam, Ji Hoon Kim, Denise J Montell
A longstanding mystery has been the absence of cytoplasmic intermediate filaments (IFs) from Drosophila despite their importance in other organisms. In the course of characterizing the in vivo expression and functions of Drosophila Tropomyosin (Tm) isoforms, we discovered an essential but unusual product of the Tm1 locus, Tm1-I/C, which resembles an IF protein in some respects. Like IFs, Tm1-I/C spontaneously forms filaments in vitro that are intermediate in diameter between F-actin and microtubules. Like IFs but unlike canonical Tms, Tm1-I/C contains N- and C-terminal low-complexity domains flanking a central coiled coil...
July 26, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27303647/dynamics-of-cell-polarity-in-tissue-morphogenesis-a-comparative-view-from-drosophila-and-ciona
#10
REVIEW
Michael T Veeman, Jocelyn A McDonald
Tissues in developing embryos exhibit complex and dynamic rearrangements that shape forming organs, limbs, and body axes. Directed migration, mediolateral intercalation, lumen formation, and other rearrangements influence the topology and topography of developing tissues. These collective cell behaviors are distinct phenomena but all involve the fine-grained control of cell polarity. Here we review recent findings in the dynamics of polarized cell behavior in both the Drosophila ovarian border cells and the Ciona notochord...
2016: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27271901/live-imaging-of-border-cell-migration-in-drosophila
#11
Wei Dai, Denise J Montell
Border cells are a cluster of cells that migrate from the anterior tip of the Drosophila egg chamber to the border of the oocyte in stage 9. They serve as a useful model to study collective cell migration in a native tissue environment. Here we describe a protocol for preparing ex vivo egg chamber cultures from transgenic flies expressing fluorescent proteins in the border cells, and using confocal microscopy to take a multi-positional time-lapse movie. We include an image analysis method for tracking border cell cluster dynamics as well as tracking individual cell movements...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27266970/cell-reprogramming-during-regeneration-in-drosophila-transgression-of-compartment-boundaries
#12
REVIEW
Ginés Morata, Salvador C Herrera
We discuss recent work about cellular reprogramming during regeneration of the imaginal discs of Drosophila. These contain various lineage blocks, compartments, which express distinct genetic programmes. It has been found that after massive damage to a compartment cells from a neighbour compartment can transgress the compartment border and contribute to its regeneration. The transgressing cells are genetically reprogrammed and acquire a new identity, a process facilitated by up regulation of the JNK pathway and transient loss of epigenetic control by the Pc-G and trx-G genes...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27212024/complementary-expression-of-optomotor-blind-and-the-iroquois-complex-promotes-fold-formation-to-separate-wing-notum-and-hinge-territories
#13
Dan Wang, Lingyun Li, Juan Lu, Suning Liu, Jie Shen
Animal morphogenesis requires folds or clefts to separate populations of cells which are often associated with different cell affinities. In the Drosophila wing imaginal disc, the regional expression of the Iroquois complex (Iro-C) in the notum leads to the formation of the hinge/notum (H/N) fold that separates the wing hinge and notum territories. Although Decapentaplegic (Dpp) signaling has been revealed as essential for the hinge/notum subdivision through the restriction of Iro-C toward the notum region, the mechanism by which the H/N border develops into a fold is unknown...
August 1, 2016: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27175018/identification-of-novel-regulators-of-the-jak-stat-signaling-pathway-that-control-border-cell-migration-in-the-drosophila-ovary
#14
Afsoon Saadin, Michelle Starz-Gaiano
The Janus Kinase/Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling pathway is an essential regulator of cell migration both in mammals and fruit flies. Cell migration is required for normal embryonic development and immune response but can also lead to detrimental outcomes, such as tumor metastasis. A cluster of cells termed "border cells" in the Drosophila ovary provides an excellent example of a collective cell migration, in which two different cell types coordinate their movements. Border cells arise within the follicular epithelium and are required to invade the neighboring cells and migrate to the oocyte to contribute to a fertilizable egg...
2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27169237/-hrs-gene-and-borders-of-compartments-of-imaginal-wing-disc-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#15
E V Marylovtseva, L V Omelyanchuk
Hepatocyte growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase substrate (Hrs) is an endosome protein involved in the sorting and transport of receptor tyrosine kinases and other proteins (which are absorbed by the cell during endocytosis) from early endosomes to lysosomes. Since receptor tyrosine kinases are important components of different cellular signaling systems, Hrs protein defects can result in the appearance of a number of developmental anomalies. In particular, it was demonstrated that ectopic Hrs expression in the wing kidney results in the disappearance of one or several rows of marginal wing setae in imago (which indicates hrs gene involvement in the development of the disc D/V border)...
October 2015: Genetika
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27130192/signaling-through-the-g-protein-coupled-receptor-rickets-is-important-for-polarity-detachment-and-migration-of-the-border-cells-in-drosophila
#16
Lauren Anllo, Trudi Schüpbach
Cell migration plays crucial roles during development. An excellent model to study coordinated cell movements is provided by the migration of border cell clusters within a developing Drosophila egg chamber. In a mutagenesis screen, we isolated two alleles of the gene rickets (rk) encoding a G-protein-coupled receptor. The rk alleles result in border cell migration defects in a significant fraction of egg chambers. In rk mutants, border cells are properly specified and express the marker Slbo. Yet, analysis of both fixed as well as live samples revealed that some single border cells lag behind the main border cell cluster during migration, or, in other cases, the entire border cell cluster can remain tethered to the anterior epithelium as it migrates...
June 15, 2016: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27122602/dynamic-myosin-activation-promotes-collective-morphology-and-migration-by-locally-balancing-oppositional-forces-from-surrounding-tissue
#17
George Aranjuez, Ashley Burtscher, Ketki Sawant, Pralay Majumder, Jocelyn A McDonald
Migrating cells need to overcome physical constraints from the local microenvironment to navigate their way through tissues. Cells that move collectively have the additional challenge of negotiating complex environments in vivo while maintaining cohesion of the group as a whole. The mechanisms by which collectives maintain a migratory morphology while resisting physical constraints from the surrounding tissue are poorly understood. Drosophila border cells represent a genetic model of collective migration within a cell-dense tissue...
June 15, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27072072/the-cell-adhesion-molecule-fasciclin2-regulates-brush-border-length-and-organization-in-drosophila-renal-tubules
#18
Kenneth A Halberg, Stephanie M Rainey, Iben R Veland, Helen Neuert, Anthony J Dornan, Christian Klämbt, Shireen-Anne Davies, Julian A T Dow
Multicellular organisms rely on cell adhesion molecules to coordinate cell-cell interactions, and to provide navigational cues during tissue formation. In Drosophila, Fasciclin 2 (Fas2) has been intensively studied due to its role in nervous system development and maintenance; yet, Fas2 is most abundantly expressed in the adult renal (Malpighian) tubule rather than in neuronal tissues. The role Fas2 serves in this epithelium is unknown. Here we show that Fas2 is essential to brush border maintenance in renal tubules of Drosophila...
2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27062996/prickle3-synergizes-with-wtip-to-regulate-basal-body-organization-and-cilia-growth
#19
Chih-Wen Chu, Olga Ossipova, Andriani Ioannou, Sergei Y Sokol
PCP proteins maintain planar polarity in many epithelial tissues and have been implicated in cilia development in vertebrate embryos. In this study we examine Prickle3 (Pk3), a vertebrate homologue of Drosophila Prickle, in Xenopus gastrocoel roof plate (GRP). GRP is a tissue equivalent to the mouse node, in which cilia-generated flow promotes left-right patterning. We show that Pk3 is enriched at the basal body of GRP cells but is recruited by Vangl2 to anterior cell borders. Interference with Pk3 function disrupted the anterior polarization of endogenous Vangl2 and the posterior localization of cilia in GRP cells, demonstrating its role in PCP...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26991203/emergent-collective-chemotaxis-without-single-cell-gradient-sensing
#20
Brian A Camley, Juliane Zimmermann, Herbert Levine, Wouter-Jan Rappel
Many eukaryotic cells chemotax, sensing and following chemical gradients. However, experiments show that even under conditions when single cells cannot chemotax, small clusters may still follow a gradient. This behavior is observed in neural crest cells, in lymphocytes, and during border cell migration in Drosophila, but its origin remains puzzling. Here, we propose a new mechanism underlying this "collective guidance," and study a model based on this mechanism both analytically and computationally. Our approach posits that contact inhibition of locomotion, where cells polarize away from cell-cell contact, is regulated by the chemoattractant...
March 4, 2016: Physical Review Letters
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