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SPECT Alzheimer

Luca Bors, Kinga Tóth, Estilla Zsófia Tóth, Ágnes Bajza, Attila Csorba, Krisztián Szigeti, Domokos Máthé, Gábor Perlaki, Gergely Orsi, Gábor K Tóth, Franciska Erdő
Decreased beta-amyloid clearance in Alzheimer's disease and increased blood-brain barrier permeability in aged subjects have been reported in several articles. However, morphological and functional characterization of blood-brain barrier and its membrane transporter activity have not been described in physiological aging yet. The aim of our study was to explore the structural changes in the brain microvessels and possible functional alterations of P-glycoprotein at the blood-brain barrier with aging. Our approach included MR imaging for anatomical orientation in middle aged rats, electronmicroscopy and immunohistochemistry to analyse the alterations at cellular level, dual or triple-probe microdialysis and SPECT to test P-glycoprotein functionality in young and middle aged rats...
March 6, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Satoshi Hayashi, Seishi Terada, Etsuko Oshima, Shuhei Sato, Kairi Kurisu, Shintaro Takenoshita, Osamu Yokota, Norihito Yamada
Objective: Among many cognitive function deficits, memory impairment is an initial and cardinal symptom in Alzheimer disease (AD). In most cases, verbal and visual memory scores correlate highly, but in some cases the deficit of verbal or visual memory is very different from that of the other memory. In this study, we examined the neural substrates of verbal and visual memory in patients with AD. Methods: One hundred eighty-eight consecutive patients with AD were recruited from outpatient units...
January 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
Pantelis Maiovis, Panagiotis Ioannidis, Georgios Gerasimou, Anna Gotzamani-Psarrakou, Dimitrios Karacostas
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Cognitive reserve (CR) mediates the clinical expression of brain pathology in Alzheimer's disease, while there are much less relevant data in frontotemporal dementia (FTD). In the present study we examined whether CR, measured using the Cognitive Reserve Index (CRI), correlated with regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in Greek FTD patients. METHODS: Eighty FTD patients, i.e., 47 with behavioral variant FTD (bvFTD) and 33 with primary progressive aphasia (PPA), were enrolled into this study...
March 7, 2018: Neuro-degenerative Diseases
Fumihito Yoshii, Chikako Kawaguchi, Saori Kohara, Mie Shimizu, Hiroe Onaka, Masafuchi Ryo, Wakoh Takahashi
The Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale (Japanese version) cognitive subscale (ADAS-Jcog) is composed of a number of subscale tasks. However, it is not clear which subscale tasks are most susceptible to impairment in Alzheimer's disease (AD) or what is the relationship between reduction in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and decreased ADAS-Jcog scores. Subjects were 32 AD patients, aged 52-86 years. We examined the relationship between subscale tasks that showed marked score changes and brain regions that showed reduced rCBF over a 2-year period...
March 5, 2018: Neurological Sciences
Madhavi Tripathi, Atin Kumar, Chandrasekhar Bal
Neuroimaging (NI) in Parkinson's disease (PD) includes functional techniques like positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and morphological imaging using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and transcranial sonography to probe different aspects of the neurobiology of PD. Changes in neurotransmitters in various regions of the brain and their influence on brain networks is the basis for the motor symptoms of PD which are interrogated by NI. The recent Movement Disorders Society Clinical Diagnostic Criteria for PD (MDS-PD) have included the results of a few of these neuroimaging techniques to serve as single supportive criteria or absolute exclusion criteria for the diagnosis of PD...
March 2018: Neurology India
Yumi Takano, Keiko Kunitoki, Yasuko Tatewaki, Tatsushi Mutoh, Tomoko Totsune, Hideo Shimomura, Manabu Nakagawa, Hiroyuki Arai, Yasuyuki Taki
BACKGROUND Semantic dementia (SD) is a type of primary progressive aphasia with prominent language dysfunction, mostly within the spectrum of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Although there is an overlap in clinical manifestations of SD attributable to FTLD and neuropathologically proven Alzheimer disease (AD), clinical diagnostic clues are not readily available. We present a characteristic finding based on a single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)-based regional cerebral blood flow study and its statistical imaging analysis for a rare case of SD with AD-like pathology...
February 12, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
Ryoko Kawai, Mitsugu Araki, Masashi Yoshimura, Narutoshi Kamiya, Masahiro Ono, Hideo Saji, Yasushi Okuno
Development of new diagnostic imaging probes for Alzheimer's disease, such as positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) probes, has been strongly desired. In this study, we investigated the most accessible amyloid β (Aβ) binding site of [123I]IMPY, a Thioflavin-T-derived SPECT probe, using experimental and computational methods. First, we performed a competitive inhibition assay with Orange-G, which recognizes the KLVFFA region in Aβ fibrils, suggesting that IMPY and Orange-G bind to different sites in Aβ fibrils...
January 30, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Chi-Wei Huang, Shih-Wei Hsu, Ya-Ting Chang, Shu-Hua Huang, Yung-Cheng Huang, Chen-Chang Lee, Wen-Neng Chang, Chun-Chung Lui, Na-Ching Chen, Chiung-Chih Chang
Micro- or macro-circulatory insufficiency has a negative impact in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study used arterial spin-labeled magnetic resonance imaging (ASL-MRI) and ethylcysteinate dimer single-photon emission computed tomography (ECD-SPECT) in 50 patients with AD and 30 age-matched controls to investigate how hypoperfusion patterns were associated with gray matter atrophy and clinical data. All participants completed 3DT1-MRI, ECD-SPECT and ASL-MRI examinations. Medial temporal cortex (MTC) volumes were correlated with regional signals showing significantly lower relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in ASL-MRI or perfusion index (PI) in ECD-SPECT...
January 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
Paul C Donaghy, John-Paul Taylor, John T O'Brien, Nicola Barnett, Kirsty Olsen, Sean J Colloby, Jim Lloyd, George Petrides, Ian G McKeith, Alan J Thomas
BACKGROUND: The accurate clinical characterisation of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is becoming increasingly important. The aim of this study was to compare the neuropsychiatric symptoms and cognitive profile of MCI with Lewy bodies (MCI-LB) with Alzheimer's disease MCI (MCI-AD). METHODS: Participants were ⩾60 years old with MCI. Each had a thorough clinical and neuropsychological assessment and 2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)-N-(3-fluoropropyl)-nortropane single photon emission computed tomography FP-CIT SPECT)...
January 24, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Aditya A Murgai, Mandar S Jog
Corticobasal syndrome is a rare neurodegenerative disorder, which presents with a progressive, asymmetrical, akinetic rigid syndrome and early cortical signs. However, clinical, pathological, and electrophysiological heterogeneity makes the understanding of this syndrome challenging. Corticobasal syndrome can have various pathological substrates including corticobasal degeneration, Alzheimer's disease, Fronto-temporal degeneration with TDP inclusions, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP)...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Daniela Andriuta, Véronique Moullart, Susanna Schraen, Agnes Devendeville, Marc-Etienne Meyer, Olivier Godefroy
The diagnostic accuracy of hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAo) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in Alzheimer disease (AD) remains undetermined in a "real-life" clinical population. The objective was to determine the HMPAo SPECT hypoperfusion pattern in cognitively impaired patients with positive CSF AD biomarker and to evaluate its diagnostic accuracy. This study included 120 patients referred to a university memory clinic assessed using HMPAo SPECT, MRI, and CSF biomarkers. Three biomarker signatures suggestive of AD were analyzed (1, Aß1-42; 2, Aß1-42+t-tau and/or p-tau; 3, Aß1-42/p-tau)...
December 19, 2017: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
Yukihiko Shirayama, Michio Takahashi, Yasunori Oda, Kouhei Yoshino, Koichi Sato, Toshiyuki Okubo, Masaomi Iyo
Late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) differs substantially from early-onset AD. In this cross sectional study we investigated brain perfusion changes after 18 months of treatment with cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) donepezil or galantamine. Twenty-five drug-naïve late-onset AD patients were recruited from outpatient clinics. We examined brain perfusion using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and used three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection (3D-SSP) and the stereotactic extraction estimation method (SEE) level 3 to analyze classified gyrus level segments...
December 15, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Jane Maryam Rondina, Luiz Kobuti Ferreira, Fabio Luis de Souza Duran, Rodrigo Kubo, Carla Rachel Ono, Claudia Costa Leite, Jerusa Smid, Ricardo Nitrini, Carlos Alberto Buchpiguel, Geraldo F Busatto
Background: Machine learning techniques such as support vector machine (SVM) have been applied recently in order to accurately classify individuals with neuropsychiatric disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) based on neuroimaging data. However, the multivariate nature of the SVM approach often precludes the identification of the brain regions that contribute most to classification accuracy. Multiple kernel learning (MKL) is a sparse machine learning method that allows the identification of the most relevant sources for the classification...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Gemma Cuberas-Borrós, Isabel Roca, Mercè Boada, Lluís Tárraga, Isabel Hernández, Mar Buendia, Lourdes Rubio, Gustavo Torres, Ángel Bittini, Juan A Guzmán-de-Villoria, Francesc Pujadas, Mireia Torres, Laura Núñez, Joan Castell, Antonio Páez
BACKGROUND: Recently, modifications of Aβ1-42 levels in CSF and plasma associated with improvement in memory and language functions have been observed in patients with mild-moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD) treated with plasma exchange (PE) with albumin replacement. OBJECTIVE: To detect structural and functional brain changes in PE-treated AD patients as part of a Phase II clinical trial. METHODS: Patients received between 3 and 18 PE with albumin (Albutein® 5%, Grifols) or sham-PE (controls) for 21 weeks (divided in one intensive and two maintenance periods) followed by 6-month follow-up...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Shakya Bhattacharjee, Albi J Chalissery, Tim Barry, Donagh O'Sullivan, Martin O'Connell, Timothy Lynch
AIMS: We studied the referral practice, reporting standards, and the impact of 123 ioflupane single photon emission computed tomogram dopamine transporters (DAT-SPECT) scans conducted for the diagnosis and clinical management of patients. SETTINGS AND DESIGNS: The present study was a retrospective, non-interventional study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We assessed the DAT scan referral and the official reports available from the Nuclear Medicine Department of the Mater Misericordiae University Hospital over 1 year (2013)...
November 2017: Neurology India
Tomomichi Iizuka, Rui Iizuka, Masashi Kameyama
The cingulate island sign (CIS) that reflects sparing of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) relative to the precuneus plus cuneus on FDG-PET and brain perfusion SPECT, has been proposed as a feature of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). As the CIS is influenced by concomitant Alzheimer's disease (AD)-type neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) pathology, we postulated that the CIS gradually disappears as DLB progresses. To determine temporal changes in the CIS, 24 patients with mild DLB and 7 with prodromal DLB underwent (123)I-IMP-SPECT and MMSE twice at an interval of two years...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
Mehrshad Abbasi, Nafise Ghalandari, Saeed Farzanefar, Vajiheh Aghamollaii, Mona Ahmadi, Morsaleh Ganji, Mohsen Afarideh, Sogol Loloee, Maryam Naseri, Abbas Tafakhori
OBJECTIVES: Clinical difficulty to discriminate between the Alzheimer disease (AD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) has led researchers to focus on highly sensitive functional imaging modalities. The aim of the present study was to assess 131I-MIBG cardiac imaging to distinguish between AD and DLB. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seventeen patients who were known cases of dementia underwent 131I-MIBG myocardial scintigraphy to differentiate AD from DLB. Planar and 131I-MIBG SPECT were obtained 2h after the injection of 1mCi 131I-MIBG on a dual head gamma camera...
December 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Hiroyuki Watanabe
 Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of irreversible dementia among elderly people. In the postmortem brains of AD patients, the deposition of senile plaques composed of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides and neurofibrillary tangles composed of highly phosphorylated tau proteins are two neuropathological hallmarks. Therefore, the in vivo imaging of Aβ and tau aggregates with positron-emission tomography (PET) or single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) would promote drug development, early diagnosis, and monitoring of the disease status in AD patients...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
Drew R DeBay, George A Reid, Ian R Pottie, Earl Martin, Chris V Bowen, Sultan Darvesh
INTRODUCTION: Diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in vivo, by molecular imaging of amyloid or tau, is constrained because similar changes can be found in brains of cognitively normal individuals. Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), which becomes associated with these structures in AD, could elevate the accuracy of AD diagnosis by focusing on BChE pathology in the cerebral cortex, a region of scant BChE activity in healthy brain. METHODS: N-methylpiperidin-4-yl 4-[(123)I]iodobenzoate, a BChE radiotracer, was injected intravenously into B6SJL-Tg(APPSwFlLon, PSEN1∗M146 L∗L286 V) 6799Vas/Mmjax (5XFAD) mice and their wild-type (WT) counterparts for comparative single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies...
June 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
Christos Kiritsis, Barbara Mavroidi, Antonio Shegani, Lazaros Palamaris, George Loudos, Marina Sagnou, Ioannis Pirmettis, Minas Papadopoulos, Maria Pelecanou
The development of a (99m)Tc-radiotracer for imaging of β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is strongly anticipated to provide a low cost and broadly accessible diagnostic tool for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Within this framework, 2-(4'-aminophenyl)benzothiazole, known to display affinity and specificity for Aβ plaques, has been joined to the tricarbonyl fac-[M(CO)3](+) (M = Re(I), (99m)Tc(I)) core through the cyclopentadienyl moiety to yield stable, neutral, and lipophilic complexes (Re-1 and (99m)Tc-1, respectively)...
October 12, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
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