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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220869/non-obese-fatty-liver-disease-is-associated-with-lacunar-infarct
#1
Min-Sun Kwak, Kyung Won Kim, Hyobin Seo, Goh-Eun Chung, Jeong Yoon Yim, Donghee Kim
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Lacunar infarct, a small subcortical ischemic lesion, is a known risk factor for future cognitive impairment, dementia, and stroke. We evaluated the relationship between fatty liver disease(FLD) and lacunar infarct in a healthy general population. METHODS: Subjects who underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) and abdominal ultrasonography(US) during health check-ups from 2007-2009 were included. FLD was diagnosed by US. Subjects with a history of cerebrovascular disease, radiological findings consistent with cerebrovascular stenosis, or cerebral small vessel disease were excluded...
December 8, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220866/neural-correlates-of-fatigue-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-combined-neurophysiological-and-neuroimaging-approach-r1
#2
M Russo, A Calamuneri, A Cacciola, L Bonanno, A Naro, V Dattola, E Sessa, M Buccafusca, D Milardi, P Bramanti, R S Calabrò, A Quartarone
The present study is aimed at further exploring structural and functional correlates of fatigue in Relapsing- Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS) patients by using a combined approach by means of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and a Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI). The physiopathology of fatigue in MS is still poorly understood, although a variety of pathogenic mechanisms has been proposed. Our working hypothesis is that diffuse microstructural white matter damage may subtend the cortico-subcortical functional disconnection described in patients with MS and fatigue...
September 30, 2017: Archives Italiennes de Biologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220623/the-aging-well-through-interaction-and-scientific-education-agewise-program
#3
Maureen K O'Connor, Malissa L Kraft, Ryan Daley, Michael A Sugarman, Erika L Clark, Arielle A J Scoglio, Steven D Shirk
OBJECTIVE: We conducted a randomized controlled trial of the Aging Well through Interaction and Scientific Education (AgeWISE) program, a 12-week manualized cognitive rehabilitation program designed to provide psychoeducation to older adults about the aging brain, lifestyle factors associated with successful brain aging, and strategies to compensate for age related cognitive decline. METHODS: Forty-nine cognitively intact participants ≥ 60 years old were randomly assigned to the AgeWISE program (n = 25) or a no-treatment control group (n = 24)...
November 2, 2017: Clinical Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220528/maternal-thyroid-function-in-early-pregnancy-and-neuropsychological-performance-of-the-child-at-5-years-of-age
#4
Stine Linding Andersen, Stig Andersen, Zeyan Liew, Peter Vestergaard, Jørn Olsen
Context: Abnormal maternal thyroid function in pregnancy may impair fetal brain development, but more evidence is needed to refine and corroborate the hypothesis. Objective: To estimate the association between maternal thyroid function in early pregnancy and neuropsychological performance of the child at 5 years of age. Design: Follow-up study. Participants: A cohort of 1,153 women and their children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220349/neural-correlates-of-motor-cognitive-dual-tasking-in-young-and-old-adults
#5
Selma Papegaaij, Tibor Hortobágyi, Ben Godde, Wim A Kaan, Peter Erhard, Claudia Voelcker-Rehage
When two tasks are performed simultaneously, performance often declines in one or both tasks. These so-called dual-task costs are more pronounced in old than in young adults. One proposed neurological mechanism of the dual-task costs is that old compared with young adults tend to execute single-tasks with higher brain activation. In the brain regions that are needed for both tasks, the reduced residual capacity may interfere with performance of the dual-task. This competition for shared brain regions has been called structural interference...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218405/multimodal-treatments-combined-with-gamma-knife-surgery-for-primary-atypical-teratoid-rhabdoid-tumor-of-the-central-nervous-system-a-single-institute-experience-of-18-patients
#6
Yan-Ming Ren, Xia Wu, Chao You, Yue-Kang Zhang, Qiang Li, Yan Ju
OBJECTIVES: Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is a rare, highly malignant tumor of the central nervous system with poor prognosis. Nowadays, multimodal management, including surgery, chemotherapy (CMT), and radiation therapy (RT), is advocated. However, AT/RT treatment with gamma knife surgery (GKS) was rarely reported. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of GKS for the treatment of AT/RT. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Medical records of AT/RT patients who underwent surgery from 2007 to 2014 at the West China Hospital were retrospectively reviewed and statistically analyzed...
December 7, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218261/bilateral-occipital-lobe-hemorrhages-presenting-as-denial-of-blindness-in-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-a-rare-combination-of-anton-syndrome-and-encephalopathy
#7
Raja Godasi, Chintan Rupareliya, Pradeep C Bollu
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) or reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy (RPL) is an acute neurological syndrome characterized by the development of radiological abnormalities on brain imaging along with clinical manifestations, such as a headache, seizures, encephalopathy, etc. We report the case of a middle-aged male who presented to the emergency department after he woke up with complete blindness and was found to have hemorrhagic PRES. Intracranial hemorrhages were seen in around 15% of patients who presented with this condition...
October 4, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217832/inter-and-intra-hemispheric-structural-imaging-markers-predict-depression-relapse-after-electroconvulsive-therapy-a-multisite-study
#8
Benjamin S C Wade, Jing Sui, Gerhard Hellemann, Amber M Leaver, Randall T Espinoza, Roger P Woods, Christopher C Abbott, Shantanu H Joshi, Katherine L Narr
Relapse of depression following treatment is high. Biomarkers predictive of an individual's relapse risk could provide earlier opportunities for prevention. Since electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) elicits robust and rapidly acting antidepressant effects, but has a >50% relapse rate, ECT presents a valuable model for determining predictors of relapse-risk. Although previous studies have associated ECT-induced changes in brain morphometry with clinical response, longer-term outcomes have not been addressed. Using structural imaging data from 42 ECT-responsive patients obtained prior to and directly following an ECT treatment index series at two independent sites (UCLA: n = 17, age = 45...
December 8, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217819/association-between-serum-neuron-specific-enolase-age-overweight-and-structural-mri-patterns-in-901-subjects
#9
Johanna Hoffmann, Deborah Janowitz, Sandra Van der Auwera, Katharina Wittfeld, Matthias Nauck, Nele Friedrich, Mohamad Habes, Christos Davatzikos, Jan Terock, Martin Bahls, Annemarie Goltz, Angela Kuhla, Henry Völzke, Hans Jörgen Grabe
Serum neuron-specific enolase (sNSE) is considered a marker for neuronal damage, related to gray matter structures. Previous studies indicated its potential as marker for structural and functional damage in conditions with adverse effects to the brain like obesity and dementia. In the present study, we investigated the putative association between sNSE levels, body mass index (BMI), total gray matter volume (GMV), and magnetic resonance imaging-based indices of aging as well as Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like patterns...
December 8, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217686/synaptic-regulator-%C3%AE-synuclein-in-dopaminergic-fibers-is-essentially-required-for-the-maintenance-of-subependymal-neural-stem-cells
#10
Ana Perez-Villalba, Mª Salomé Sirerol-Piquer, Germán Belenguer, Raúl Soriano-Cantón, Ana Belén Muñoz-Manchado, Javier Villadiego, Diana Alarcón-Arís, Federico N Soria, Benjamin Dehay, Erwan Bezard, Miquel Vila, Analía Bortolozzi, Juan José Toledo-Aral, Francisco Pérez-Sánchez, Isabel Fariñas
Synaptic protein α-synuclein (α-SYN) modulates neurotransmission in a complex and poorly understood manner and aggregates in the cytoplasm of degenerating neurons in Parkinson's disease. Here, we report that α-SYN present in dopaminergic nigral afferents is essential for the normal cycling and maintenance of neural stem cells (NSCs) in the brain subependymal zone of adult male and female mice. We also show that premature senescence of adult NSCs into non-neurogenic astrocytes in mice lacking α-SYN resembles the effects of dopaminergic fiber degeneration resulting from chronic exposure to MPTP or intranigral inoculation of aggregated toxic α-SYN...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217680/non-newly-generated-immature-neurons-in-the-sheep-brain-are-not-restricted-to-cerebral-cortex
#11
Matteo Piumatti, Ottavia Palazzo, Chiara La Rosa, Paola Crociara, Roberta Parolisi, Federico Luzzati, Frederic Lévy, Luca Bonfanti
A newly proposed form of brain structural plasticity consists of non-newly generated, "immature" neurons of the adult cerebral cortex. Similar to newly generated neurons, these cells express the cytoskeletal protein Doublecortin (DCX), yet they are generated prenatally, then remaining in a state of immaturity for long periods. In rodents, the immature neurons are restricted to the paleocortex, whereas in other mammals are found also in neocortex. Here, we analyzed the DCX-expressing cells in the whole sheep brain of both sexes, to search for an indicator of structural plasticity at a cellular level in a relatively large-brained, long-living mammal...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217656/anti-inflammatory-effects-of-omega-3-fatty-acids-in-the-brain-physiological-mechanisms-and-relevance-to-pharmacology
#12
REVIEW
Sophie Layé, Agnès Nadjar, Corinne Joffre, Richard P Bazinet
Classically, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were largely thought to be relatively inert structural components of brain, largely important for the formation of cellular membranes. Over the past 10 years, a host of bioactive lipid mediators that are enzymatically derived from arachidonic acid, the main n-6 PUFA, and docosahexaenoic acid, the main n-3 PUFA in the brain, known to regulate peripheral immune function, have been detected in the brain and shown to regulate microglia activation. Recent advances have focused on how PUFA regulate the molecular signaling of microglia, especially in the context of neuroinflammation and behavior...
January 2018: Pharmacological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217330/-cognitive-neuroscience-of-aging-contributions-and-challenges
#13
Fernando Díaz, Arturo X Pereiro
The cognitive neuroscience of aging is a young discipline that has emerged as a result of the combination of: A) the theoretical and explanatory frameworks proposed by the cognitive psychology perspective throughout the second half of the twentieth century; B) the designs and methodological procedures arising from experimental psychology and the need to test the hypotheses proposed from the cognitive psychology perspective; C) the contributions of the computer sciences to the explanation of brain functions; and D) the development and use of neuroimaging techniques that have enabled the recording of brain activity in humans while tasks that test some cognitive process or function are performed...
December 4, 2017: Revista Española de Geriatría y Gerontología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217259/gender-differences-in-anomalous-subcortical-morphology-for-children-with-adhd
#14
Yanpei Wang, Qinfang Xu, Shuting Li, Gen Li, Chenyi Zuo, Shuirong Liao, Yang Long, Shan Li, R Malatesha Joshi
Although studies showed subtle reductions in brain volume in fronto-striatial regions in children with ADHD, there have been limited investigations of volume and lateralizaton in subcortical structures and a paucity of exploration of the influence of gender on these findings. This study aims to examine morphology of subcortical structures and their association with ADHD symptoms in boys and girls as compared to their typically-developing (TD) peers. One hundred and eighty five children aged 7-14 years with and without ADHD were included from ADHD-200 Consortium...
December 4, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216786/a-study-of-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-in-cd157-aim2-and-jarid2-genes-in-han-chinese-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#15
Weiming Mo, Jun Liu, Zengyu Zhang, Hong Yu, Aiping Yang, Fei Qu, Pingfang Hu, Zhuo Liu, Fengpei Hu
PURPOSE: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of developmental brain disorders caused by genetic and environmental factors. The objective of this study was to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes related to immune function were associated with ASD in Chinese Han children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 201 children with ASD and 200 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were recruited from September 2012 to June 2106. A TaqMan probe-based approach was used to genotype SNPs corresponding to rs28532698 and rs4301112 in CD157, rs855867 in AIM2, and rs2237126 in JARID2...
December 7, 2017: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216710/a-novel-prognostic-nomogram-for-predicting-risks-of-distant-failure-in-patients-with-invasive-breast-cancer-following-postoperative-adjuvant-radiotherapy
#16
Yu Jin Lim, Sea-Won Lee, Noorie Choi, Jeanny Kwon, Keun-Yong Eom, Eunyoung Kang, Eun-Kyu Kim, Jee Hyun Kim, Yu Jung Kim, Se Hyun Kim, So Yeon Park, In Ah Kim
Purpose: This study aimed to identify predictors for distant metastatic behavior and build a related prognostic nomogram in breast cancer. Materials and Methods: A total of 1,181 patients with non-metastatic breast cancer between 2003 and 2011 were analyzed. To predict the probability of distant metastasis, a nomogram was constructed based on prognostic factors identified using a Cox proportional hazards model. Results: The 7-year overall survival and 5-year post-progression survival of locoregional vs...
December 7, 2017: Cancer Research and Treatment: Official Journal of Korean Cancer Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216448/age-dependent-effects-of-apoe-reduction-using-antisense-oligonucleotides-in-a-model-of-%C3%AE-amyloidosis
#17
Tien-Phat V Huynh, Fan Liao, Caroline M Francis, Grace O Robinson, Javier Remolina Serrano, Hong Jiang, Joseph Roh, Mary Beth Finn, Patrick M Sullivan, Thomas J Esparza, Floy R Stewart, Thomas E Mahan, Jason D Ulrich, Tracy Cole, David M Holtzman
The apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene is the strongest genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer disease. Previous studies suggest that reduction of apoE levels through genetic manipulation can reduce Aβ pathology. However, it is not clear how reduction of apoE levels after birth would affect amyloid deposition. We utilize an antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) to reduce apoE expression in the brains of APP/PS1-21 mice homozygous for the APOE-ε4 or APOE-ε3 allele. ASO treatment starting after birth led to a significant decrease in Aβ pathology when assessed at 4 months...
December 6, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216393/monte-carlo-simulation-of-out-of-field-organ-doses-and-cancer-risk-in-tanzania-for-radiation-therapy-of-unilateral-retinoblastoma-using-a-60co-unit
#18
Suleiman Ameir Suleiman, Yaping Qi, Yifei Pi, X George Xu
The use of 60Co teletherapy unit for the treatment of unilateral retinoblastoma (Rb) patients is a very common procedure in many developing countries including Tanzania. The aim of this study was to estimate organ-specific absorbed doses from an external beam radiation therapy 60Co unit for unilateral Rb and to assess the risks of the patients developing a secondary primary cancer. The absorbed dose estimations were based on a Monte Carlo method and a set of age-dependent computational male phantoms. The estimated doses were used to calculate the secondary cancer risks in out-of-field organs using the Biological Effects of Ionising Radiation VII risk models...
December 5, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215914/feasibility-and-effectiveness-of-a-parenting-programme-for-mexican-parents-of-children-with-acquired-brain-injury-case-report
#19
Clara Chavez-Arana, Cathy Catroppa, Guillermina Yáñez Téllez, Celia Godfrey, Belén Prieto-Corona, Miguel A de León, Antonio García, Vicki Anderson
BACKGROUND: Acquired brain injury (ABI) during childhood typically causes behaviour problems in the child and high levels of stress in the family. OBJECTIVES: (1) To investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of a parenting programme to: improve behaviour and self-regulation (SR) in Mexican children with ABI, enhance parenting skills, and decrease parental stress in parents of children with ABI; (2) to explore the impact of parent SR on child. METHODS: Case study design with four participants post-ABI, aged 7-12 years, recruited in Mexico City...
December 7, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215907/chemotherapy-and-cognitive-impairment-an-animal-model-approach
#20
Gordon Winocur
A substantial number of cancer survivors who undergo chemotherapy report cognitive disturbances that severely limit daily function (chemobrain). Despite supportive neuropsychological evidence, there is controversy over whether cognitive impairment is caused by the chemotherapy or is the result of potentially confounding factors that include the disease itself, age, and psychological stress. Our research program, conducted on rodents, has confirmed that a range of cognitive processes, mediated in particular by hippocampal and prefrontal brain regions, are affected by anticancer drugs in combination with tumor development and that many of the effects are long lasting...
December 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
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