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aging brain

Huawang Wu, Hui Sun, Chao Wang, Lin Yu, Yilan Li, Hongjun Peng, Xiaobing Lu, Qingmao Hu, Yuping Ning, Tianzi Jiang, Jinping Xu, Jiaojian Wang
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common psychiatric disorder that is characterized by cognitive deficits and affective symptoms. To date, an increasing number of neuroimaging studies have focused on emotion regulation and have consistently shown that emotion dysregulation is one of the central features and underlying mechanisms of MDD. Although gray matter morphological abnormalities in regions within emotion regulation networks have been identified in MDD, the interactions and relationships between these gray matter structures remain largely unknown...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Isabelle F van der Velpen, Stephanie Feleus, Anne Suzanne Bertens, Behnam Sabayan
INTRODUCTION: Cardiac function is a key player in maintaining energy homeostasis in the brain. Heart failure is closely related to higher risk of neurocognitive disorders. Recent evidence shows that this relationship might not be limited to patients with advanced heart failure, and even suboptimal cardiac functioning is associated with accelerated brain aging. Hence, hemodynamic and serum cardiac markers may provide valuable information about the risk of dementia. METHODS: We provide an overview on the link between cardiac markers and cognitive function by a systematic search in five databases...
October 19, 2016: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
Cees de Baat, Paul de Baat, Anneloes E Gerritsen, Karien A Flohil, Gert-Jan van der Putten, Claar D van der Maarel-Wierink
One-third of community-dwelling people older than 65 years of age fall each year, and half of them fall at least twice a year. Older care home residents are approximately three times more likely to fall when compared to community-dwelling older people. Risk indicators for falls are related to the older people's body, environment, behavior, and activities. An important health risk indicator is (orthostatic or postprandial) hypotension, which may induce cerebral hypoperfusion. Although the majority of falls remain without major consequences, 10% to 25% of falls in care homes result in bodily trauma...
October 22, 2016: Special Care in Dentistry
Thomas Vanicek, Alexandra Kutzelnigg, Cecile Philippe, Helen L Sigurdardottir, Gregory M James, Andreas Hahn, Georg S Kranz, Anna Höflich, Alexander Kautzky, Tatjana Traub-Weidinger, Marcus Hacker, Wolfgang Wadsak, Markus Mitterhauser, Siegfried Kasper, Rupert Lanzenberger
Altered serotonergic neurotransmission has been found to cause impulsive and aggressive behavior, as well as increased motor activity, all exemplifying key symptoms of ADHD. The main objectives of this positron emission tomography (PET) study were to investigate the serotonin transporter binding potential (SERT BPND ) in patients with ADHD and to assess associations of SERT BPND between the brain regions. 25 medication-free patients with ADHD (age ± SD; 32.39 ± 10.15;10 females) without any psychiatric comorbidity and 25 age and sex matched healthy control subjects (33...
October 22, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Joseph S Domino, Jonggyu Baek, William J Meurer, Nelda Garcia, Lewis B Morgenstern, Morgan Campbell, Lynda D Lisabeth
OBJECTIVE: To explore temporal trends in tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) administration for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in a biethnic community without an academic medical center and variation in trends by age, sex, ethnicity, and stroke severity. METHODS: Cases of AIS were identified from 7 hospitals in the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi (BASIC) project, a population-based surveillance study between January 1, 2000, and June 30, 2012. tPA, demographics, and stroke severity as assessed by the NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS) were ascertained from medical records...
October 21, 2016: Neurology
Jaweed Haqparwar, Antonio Pepe, Klaus Fassbender, Ulrich Dillmann, Samer Ezziddin, Andrea Schaefer, Daniela Leppert, Jörg Spiegel
INTRODUCTION: Alpha-synuclein pathology (ASP) is a characteristic histopathological finding in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). The ASP involves not only the brain but also extracranial structures. In the present study we utilized MIBG scintigraphy to measure the sympathetic innervation of the major salivary glands. We were interested in whether MIBG uptake in the major salivary glands represents a potential biomarker for ASP in PD. METHODS: We investigated 77 PD patients (age 61 ± 10 years, mean ± SD), while 15 non-PD patients (age 58 ± 15 years) with arterial hypertension, who underwent MIBG scintigraphy to exclude pheochromocytoma, served as age-matched controls...
October 15, 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Ethan A Winkler, John K Yue, Adam R Ferguson, Nancy R Temkin, Murray B Stein, Jason Barber, Esther L Yuh, Sourabh Sharma, Gabriela G Satris, Thomas W McAllister, Jonathan Rosand, Marco D Sorani, Hester F Lingsma, Phiroz E Tarapore, Esteban G Burchard, Donglei Hu, Celeste Eng, Kevin K W Wang, Pratik Mukherjee, David O Okonkwo, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Geoffrey T Manley
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) results in variable clinical trajectories and outcomes. The source of variability remains unclear, but may involve genetic variations, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). A SNP in catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT) is suggested to influence development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but its role in TBI remains unclear. Here, we utilize the Transforming Research and Clinical Knowledge in Traumatic Brain Injury Pilot (TRACK-TBI Pilot) study to investigate whether the COMT Val(158)Met polymorphism is associated with PTSD and global functional outcome as measured by the PTSD Checklist - Civilian Version and Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE), respectively...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
A D Surowka, M Töpperwien, M Bernhardt, J D Nicolas, M Osterhoff, T Salditt, D Adamek, M Szczerbowska-Boruchowska
Human dopaminergic system in general, and substantia nigra (SN) neurons, in particular, are implicated in the pathologies underlying the human brain aging. The interplay between aberrations in the structural organization and elemental composition of SN neuron bodies has recently gained in importance as selected metals: Fe, Cu, Zn, Ca were found to trigger oxidative-stress-mediated aberration in their molecular assembly due to concomitant protein (alpha-synuclein, tau-protein) aggregation, gliosis and finally oxidative stress...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Alexander Romagna, Marcus Unterrainer, Christine Schmid-Tannwald, Matthias Brendel, Jörg-Christian Tonn, Silke Birgit Nachbichler, Alexander Muacevic, Peter Bartenstein, Friedrich-Wilhelm Kreth, Nathalie Lisa Albert
BACKGROUND: After focused high dose radiotherapy of brain metastases, differentiation between tumor recurrence and radiation-induced lesions by conventional MRI is challenging. This study investigates the usefulness of dynamic O-(2-(18)F-Fluoroethyl)-L-Tyrosine positron emission tomography ((18)F-FET PET) in patients with MRI-based suspicion of tumor recurrence after focused high dose radiotherapy of brain metastases. METHODS: Twenty-two patients with 34 brain metastases (median age 61...
October 21, 2016: Radiation Oncology
Thomas Maribo, Asger R Pedersen, Jim Jensen, Jørgen F Nielsen
BACKGROUND: Assessing primary rehabilitation needs in patients with acquired brain injury is a challenge due to case complexity and the heterogeneity of symptoms after brain injury. The Rehabilitation Complexity Scale-Extended (RCS-E) is an instrument used in assessment of rehabilitation complexity in patients with severe brain injury. The aim of the present study was to translate and test the face validity of the RCS-E as a referral tool for primary rehabilitation. Face validity was tested in a sample of patients with acquired brain injury...
October 21, 2016: BMC Neurology
Tzipi Horowitz-Kraus, Rola Farah, Mark DiFrancesco, Jennifer Vannest
Story listening in children relies on brain regions supporting speech perception, auditory word recognition, syntax, semantics, and discourse abilities, along with the ability to attend and process information (part of executive functions). Speed-of-processing is an early-developed executive function. We used functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to demonstrate the relationship between story listening and speed-of-processing in preschool-age children. Eighteen participants performed story-listening tasks during MRI scans...
October 21, 2016: Neuropediatrics
Takashi Hashido, Shigeyoshi Saito
PURPOSE: Neuromelanin is a dark pigment granule present within certain catecholamine neurons of the human brain. Here, we aimed to clarify the relationship between contrast of neuromelanin-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MR relaxation times using T1, T2, and T2* mapping of the lower midbrain. METHODS: The subjects were 14 healthy volunteers (11 men and 3 women, mean age 29.9 ± 6.9 years). Neuromelanin-sensitive MRI was acquired using an optimized T1-weighted two-dimensional (2D)-turbo spin-echo sequence...
2016: PloS One
Waleed Brinjikji, Vivek N Iyer, Christopher P Wood, Giuseppe Lanzino
OBJECTIVE Patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) are known to suffer from high rates of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). The authors performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature examining prevalence rates, characteristics, and clinical presentation of cerebral AVMs in the HHT population. METHODS To identify studies on AVM prevalence and characteristics in the HHT population, 4 databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus and Web of Science) were searched by a reference librarian with over 30 years experience in systematic reviews and meta-analysis...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
Christian Kärgel, Claudia Massau, Simone Weiß, Martin Walter, Viola Borchardt, Tillmann H C Krueger, Gilian Tenbergen, Jonas Kneer, Matthias Wittfoth, Alexander Pohl, Hannah Gerwinn, Jorge Ponseti, Till Amelung, Klaus M Beier, Sebastian Mohnke, Henrik Walter, Boris Schiffer
Neurobehavioral models of pedophilia and child sexual offending suggest a pattern of temporal and in particular prefrontal disturbances leading to inappropriate behavioral control and subsequently an increased propensity to sexually offend against children. However, clear empirical evidence for such mechanisms is still missing. Using a go/nogo paradigm in combination with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we compared behavioral performance and neural response patterns among three groups of men matched for age and IQ: pedophiles with (N = 40) and without (N = 37) a history of hands-on sexual offences against children as well as healthy non-offending controls (N = 40)...
October 21, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Muhammad I Naseer, Adeel G Chaudhary, Mahmood Rasool, Gauthaman Kalamegam, Fai T Ashgan, Mourad Assidi, Farid Ahmed, Shakeel A Ansari, Syed Kashif Zaidi, Mohammed M Jan, Mohammad H Al-Qahtani
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is genetically complex but common brain disorder of the world affecting millions of people with almost of all age groups. Novel Copy number variations (CNVs) are considered as important reason for the numerous neurodevelopmental disorders along with intellectual disability and epilepsy. DNA array based studies contribute to explain a more severe clinical presentation of the disease but interoperation of many detected CNVs are still challenging. RESULTS: In order to study novel CNVs with epilepsy related genes in Saudi family with six affected and two normal individuals with several forms of epileptic seizures, intellectual disability (ID), and minor dysmorphism, we performed the high density whole genome Agilent sure print G3 Hmn CGH 2x 400 K array-CGH chips analysis...
October 17, 2016: BMC Genomics
A Kautzky-Willer, S Thurner, P Klimek
AIM: There is firm evidence of a relation between type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and increased risks of cancer at various sites, but it is still unclear how different antihyperglycaemic therapies modify site-specific cancer risks. The aim of this study was to provide a complete characterization of all possible associations between individual T2DM therapies, statin use and site-specific cancers in the Austrian population. METHODS: Medical claims data of 1 847 051 patients with hospital stays during 2006-2007 were used to estimate age- and sex-dependent co-occurrences of site-specific cancer diagnoses and treatment with specific glucose-lowering drugs and statins...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Internal Medicine
Joan Yw Liu, Cheryl Reeves, Beate Diehl, Antonietta Coppola, Aliya Al-Hajri, Chandrashekar Hoskote, Salim Al Mughairy, Mohamed Tachrount, Michael Groves, Zuzanna Michalak, Kevin Mills, Andrew W McEvoy, Anna Miserocchi, Sanjay M Sisodiya, Maria Thom
OBJECTIVE: This study reports on a novel brain pathology in young patients with Frontal Lobe Epilepsy that is distinct from Focal Cortical Dysplasia. METHODS: Surgical specimens from twenty young adults with frontal lobe epilepsy (mean age, 30 years) were investigated with histological/immunohistochemical markers for cortical laminar architecture, mammalian target of rapamycin pathway activation and inhibition, cellular autophagy, and synaptic vesicle-mediated trafficking as well as proteomics analysis...
October 20, 2016: Annals of Neurology
Eve Valera, Aaron Kucyi
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) in women experiencing intimate-partner violence (IPV) is common, and IPV afflicts 30 % of women worldwide. However, the neurobiology and related sequelae of these TBIs have never been systematically examined. Consequently, TBI treatments are typically absent and IPV interventions are inadequate. There has been a call for a comprehensive assessment of IPV-related TBIs and their relationship to aspects of women's cognitive and neural functioning. In response, we examined brain-network organization associated with TBI and its cognitive effects using clinical interviews and neuropsychological measures as well as structural and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) in women experiencing IPV-related TBI...
October 20, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
D D Correa, J C Root, M Kryza-Lacombe, M Mehta, S Karimi, M L Hensley, N Relkin
Women with ovarian cancer often undergo chemotherapy involving multiple agents. However, little is known about treatment-related central neurotoxicity in this population. The goal of this cross-sectional study was to assess brain structure and function and neurocognitive abilities in patients with ovarian cancer following first-line chemotherapy. Eighteen patients with ovarian, peritoneal and fallopian tube cancer and eighteen healthy controls matched for gender, age and education participated in the study...
October 20, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Uta Hanning, Andreas Roesler, Annette Peters, Klaus Berger, Bernhard T Baune
While MRI brain changes have been related to mortality during ageing, the role of inflammation in this relationship remains poorly understood. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the impact of MRI changes on all-cause mortality and the mediating role of cytokines. All-cause mortality was evaluated in 268 community dwelling elderly (age 65-83 years) in the MEMO study (Memory and Morbidity in Augsburg elderly). MRI markers of brain atrophy and cerebral small vessel disease (SVD), C-reactive protein (CRP) and a panel of cytokines in serum were assessed...
October 20, 2016: Age (2005-)
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