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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471551/bilateral-striatal-necrosis-after-sydenham-s-chorea-in-a-7-year-old-boy-a-2-year-follow-up
#1
C Canavese, C Davico, M Casabianca, C Olivieri, S Mancini, G Migliore, A Versace, A Tocchet, B Vitiello
Child bilateral striatal necrosis (BSN) is a rare and etiologically heterogeneous condition. An association with group A streptococcus (GAS) infection was previously reported in two cases of BSN in infancy and early childhood. We here report on a 7-year-old boy who developed chorea and dystonia 20 days after symptomatic recovery from Sydenham's chorea. Repeated brain magnetic resonance imaging scans, obtained before, soon after the onset of the post-Sydenham symptoms, and 1 year later were consistent with an evolution from bilateral striatal microbleeding to necrosis, and consequently reduced basal ganglia volume and enlargement of the frontal horns...
February 22, 2018: Neuropediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471389/the-effect-of-paternal-factors-on-perinatal-and-paediatric-outcomes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
Nan B Oldereid, Ulla-Britt Wennerholm, Anja Pinborg, Anne Loft, Hannele Laivuori, Max Petzold, Liv Bente Romundstad, Viveca Söderström-Anttila, Christina Bergh
BACKGROUND: Maternal factors, including increasing childbearing age and various life-style factors, are associated with poorer short- and long-term outcomes for children, whereas knowledge of paternal parameters is limited. Recently, increasing paternal age has been associated with adverse obstetric outcomes, birth defects, autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia in children. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: The aim of this systematic review is to describe the influence of paternal factors on adverse short- and long-term child outcomes...
February 15, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471348/sexual-dimorphism-of-resting-state-network-connectivity-in-healthy-ageing
#3
Sharna D Jamadar, Francesco Sforazzini, Parnesh Raniga, Nicholas J Ferris, Bryan Paton, Michael J Bailey, Amy Brodtmann, Paul A Yates, Geoffrey A Donnan, Stephanie A Ward, Robyn L Woods, Elsdon Storey, John J McNeil, Gary F Egan
Objectives: The onset of many illnesses is confounded with age and sex. Increasing age is a risk factor for the development of many illnesses, and sexual dimorphism influences brain anatomy, function, and cognition. Here, we examine frequency-specific connectivity in resting-state networks in a large sample (n = 406) of healthy aged adults. Method: We quantify frequency-specific connectivity in three resting-state networks known to be implicated in age-related decline: the default mode, dorsal attention, and salience networks, using multiband functional magnetic resonance imaging...
February 17, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471213/cerebellar-gray-matter-explains-bimanual-coordination-performance-in-children-and-older-adults
#4
Matthieu P Boisgontier, Boris Cheval, Peter van Ruitenbeek, Koen Cuypers, Inge Leunissen, Stefan Sunaert, Raf Meesen, Hamed Zivari Adab, Olivier Renaud, Stephan P Swinnen
The cerebellum appears to undergo late maturation in children and early decline at older age. Whether these age-related changes affect bimanual coordination performance remains unclear at best. Here, we identified the ages at which bimanual coordination performance stops improving and starts declining. In an independent cohort, we defined brain regions of interest involved in bimanual coordination using functional magnetic resonance imaging. We used these regions of interest to investigate the extent to which the gray matter of cerebellar and other brain regions explains bimanual coordination performance from 10- to 80-year-olds...
February 2, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471131/aerobic-and-strength-training-induce-changes-in-oxidative-stress-parameters-and-elicit-modifications-of-various-cellular-components-in-skeletal-muscle-of-aged-rats
#5
Thais Ceresér Vilela, Pauline Souza Effting, Giulia Dos Santos Pedroso, Hemelin Farias, Lara Paganini, Helen Sorato Rebelo, Renata Tiescoski Nesi, Vanessa Moraes de Andrade, Ricardo Aurino de Pinho
Skeletal muscle aging is associated with loss of mass, function, and strength-a condition known as sarcopenia. It has been reported that sarcopenia can be attenuated by physical exercise. Therefore, we investigated whether 2 different physical exercise protocols could modulate and induce changes in oxidative and inflammatory parameters, as well as in BDNF and DNA repair enzyme levels in skeletal muscle tissue of aged rats. Aging Wistar rats performed treadmill or strength training for 50 min 3 to 4 times a week for 8 weeks...
February 19, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471100/dynamic-fmri-networks-predict-success-in-a-behavioral-weight-loss-program-among-older-adults
#6
Fatemeh Mokhtari, W Jack Rejeski, Yingying Zhu, Guorong Wu, Sean L Simpson, Jonathan H Burdette, Paul J Laurienti
More than one-third of adults in the United States are obese, with a higher prevalence among older adults. Obesity among older adults is a major cause of physical dysfunction, hypertension, diabetes, and coronary heart diseases. Many people who engage in lifestyle weight loss interventions fail to reach targeted goals for weight loss, and most will regain what was lost within 1-2 years following cessation of treatment. This variability in treatment efficacy suggests that there are important phenotypes predictive of success with intentional weight loss that could lead to tailored treatment regimen, an idea that is consistent with the concept of precision-based medicine...
February 19, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471055/brain-insulin-signalling-glucose-metabolism-and-females-reproductive-aging-a-dangerous-triad-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
REVIEW
A I Duarte, M S Santos, C R Oliveira, P I Moreira
Alzheimer's disease (AD) constitutes a major socioeconomic challenge due to its disabling features and the rise in prevalence (especially among (peri)menopausal women and type 2 diabetes patients). The precise etiopathogenesis of AD remains poorly understood. Importantly, its neurodegenerative perspective has been challenged towards a more "systemic" view. Amyloid-β (Aβ) and hyperphosphorylated Tau protein (P-Tau) (the main AD neuropathological features) affect and are affected by peripheral and brain insulin signalling dysfunction, leading to glucose dysmetabolism, synaptic loss and AD-related cognitive deficits...
February 19, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471052/revisiting-rabies-virus-neutralizing-antibodies-through-infecting-balb-c-mice-with-live-rabies-virus
#8
Yunlong Qin, Todd G Smith, Felix Jackson, Nadia F Gallardo-Romero, Clint N Morgan, Victoria Olson, Christina L Hutson, Xianfu Wu
This study investigates the production of rabies virus (RABV) neutralizing antibody after virus infection through a mouse model. The BALB/c mice from different age groups (three, five, seven week old) were intramuscularly inoculated with live rabies virus (TX coyote 323R). Without pre-exposure or post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), we found there is a decreased fatality with increased age of animals, the mortalities are 60%, 50%, and 30%, respectively. Interestingly, through assay of rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT), direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) and quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR), the results showed that all the animals that succumbed to rabies challenge, except one, developed circulating neutralizing antibodies, and all the healthy animals, except two, did not generate virus neutralizing antibodies (VNA)...
February 19, 2018: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470677/a-critical-view-of-the-quest-for-brain-structural-markers-of-albert-einstein-s-special-talents-a-pot-of-gold-under-the-rainbow
#9
Jorge A Colombo
Assertions regarding attempts to link glial and macrostructural brain events with cognitive performance regarding Albert Einstein, are critically reviewed. One basic problem arises from attempting to draw causal relationships regarding complex, delicately interactive functional processes involving finely tuned molecular and connectivity phenomena expressed in cognitive performance, based on highly variable brain structural events of a single, aged, formalin fixed brain. Data weaknesses and logical flaws are considered...
February 22, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470536/metastatic-site-as-a-predictor-of-nivolumab-efficacy-in-patients-with-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-retrospective-multicenter-trial
#10
Motohiro Tamiya, Akihiro Tamiya, Takako Inoue, Madoka Kimura, Kei Kunimasa, Kenji Nakahama, Yoshihiko Taniguchi, Takayuki Shiroyama, Shun-Ichi Isa, Kazumi Nishino, Toru Kumagai, Hidekazu Suzuki, Tomonori Hirashima, Shinji Atagi, Fumio Imamura
PURPOSE: To conduct a retrospective multicenter trial to determine the significance of metastatic site as a predictor of nivolumab efficacy in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer. METHODS: This study was conducted across three medical centers in Japan. We retrospectively reviewed all patients who commenced nivolumab treatment at these centers between December 17, 2015 and July 31, 2016. Clinical data were collected, including age, sex, smoking status, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, and metastatic site (lymph nodes, liver, brain, bone, lungs [intrapulmonary metastasis], and malignant pleural effusion) at the time of commencing nivolumab treatment...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469782/rapidly-fatal-metastatic-cutaneous-angiosarcoma-initially-mimicking-a-furuncle-in-a-middle-aged-male
#11
Aaron S Cantor, Elizabeth Satter, Mark Douglas
Cutaneous angiosarcomas are rare but typically occur in three distinct clinical settings and are most commonly found on the scalp or face of elderly men. Positive prognostic factors include tumor size less than 5 cm, primary tumor location below the head, negative margins after excision, resectability, and younger age. Metastases drastically reduce survival and the most common metastatic site is lung. We present a 43-year-old man who had primary cutaneous angiosarcoma that initially mimicked a furuncle and eventuated in multiple metastases...
October 15, 2017: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469679/gabrielle-l%C3%A3-vy-and-the-roussy-l%C3%A3-vy-syndrome
#12
Peter J Koehler
In 1934, Gabrielle Lévy died at the age of 48. She became well known for an article she published on a hereditary polyneuropathy in cooperation with Gustav Roussy, resulting in the eponym Roussy-Lévy syndrome. Not much is known about this extraordinary neurologist/neuropathologist. Her family declared that she died from the disease she was studying. She was a pupil of Pierre Marie, with whom she worked at the Salpêtrière in Paris and wrote on war neurology. In cooperation with Marie, she published a number of articles on postencephalitic syndromes, which also became the subject of her 1922 thesis...
February 22, 2018: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469668/review-of-de-novo-cerebral-arteriovenous-malformation-haemorrhage-risk-treatment-approaches-and-outcomes
#13
Xianli Lv, Guihuai Wang
Objective A small number of patients has been reported to develop a completely new or de novo arteriovenous malformation (AVM) after brain surgery, haemorrhage, head trauma or ischaemic stroke. The natural history of these lesions is unknown. In this review, both ruptured and unruptured de novo AVMs and their treatments were reviewed. Methods Published literature in the PubMed database citing 'de novo cerebral arteriovenous malformation' was reviewed. Additional studies were identified through reference searches in each reviewed article...
January 1, 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469659/grading-of-oligodendroglial-tumors-of-the-brain-with-apparent-diffusion-coefficient-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-and-dynamic-susceptibility-contrast-imaging
#14
Muhammad Atif Naveed, Pradeep Goyal, Ajay Malhotra, Xiang Liu, Sonali Gupta, Manisha Mangla, Rajiv Mangla
Purpose We explored whether advanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques could grade oligodendrogliomas. Methods Forty patients (age 9-61 years) with oligodendroglial tumors were selected. There were 23 patients with World Health Organization grade II (group 1) and 17 patients with grade III (group 2) tumors. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were calculated by b values of 0 and 1000 s/mm2 . Dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) images were obtained during the first pass of a bolus of gadolinium-based contrast...
January 1, 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469186/serum-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-in-children-with-coeliac-disease
#15
Daphne Margoni, Kelly Michalakakou, Eleni Angeli, Panagiota Pervanidou, Christina Kanaka-Gantenbein, George Chrousos, Ioannis Papassotiriou, Eleftheria Roma
BACKGROUND: Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin that has a protective role in the nervous system and is involved in neural plasticity. It is abundant in the central nervous system, but is also expressed in the gastrointestinal tract. Coeliac disease (CD), characterized by intestinal inflammation, has some co-morbidity with neurologic and mental disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate circulating BDNF concentrations in patients with CD at diagnosis or on a Gluten Free Diet (GFD) for longer than one year and in healthy controls (HC)...
February 22, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469177/haemodynamic-effects-of-levosimendan-in-advanced-but-stable-chronic-heart-failure
#16
Emil Najjar, Marcus Stålhberg, Camilla Hage, Erica Ottenblad, Aristomenis Manouras, Ida Haugen Löfman, Lars H Lund
AIMS: Levosimendan improves haemodynamics in acute decompensated heart failure (HF). However, it is increasingly used for repetitive or intermittent infusions in advanced but stable chronic HF, without clear indication, selection criteria, or effect. We tested the hypotheses that (1) levosimendan improves haemodynamics in stable chronic HF and (2) that the response is dependent on baseline clinical and haemodynamic factors. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-three patients [median age 56 (49-64) years, four (17%) women] with stable New York Heart Association (NYHA) III and IV HF received a single 24 h levosimendan infusion...
February 22, 2018: ESC Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468792/polyprenols-mitigate-cognitive-dysfunction-and-neuropathology-in-the-app-ps1-mouse
#17
Xu-Xu Zhuang, Xuan Zang, Guang-Yao Zheng, Nan Hua, Yi Sun, Yu-Hui Hu, Ling He
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a very common neurodegenerative disorder in the elderly and brings considerable financial and social problems worldwide. In this study, polyprenols were firstly evaluated the effects on the cognitive deficits and neuropathology in APP/PS1 mice model of AD. At 3 months old, the APP/PS1 mice were divided into model group; polyprenols low, middle, and high dosage group; and positive drug group. Age-matched wild-type mice were chosen in control group. The administration by oral gavage lasted 6 months...
February 22, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468773/a-comparison-of-manual-tracing-and-freesurfer-for-estimating-hippocampal-volume-over-the-adult-lifespan
#18
Mike F Schmidt, Judd M Storrs, Kevin B Freeman, Clifford R Jack, Stephen T Turner, Michael E Griswold, Thomas H Mosley
MRI has become an indispensable tool for brain volumetric studies, with the hippocampus an important region of interest. Automation of the MRI segmentation process has helped advance the field by facilitating the volumetric analysis of larger cohorts and more studies. FreeSurfer has emerged as the de facto standard tool for these analyses, but studies validating its output are all based on older versions. To characterize FreeSurfer's validity, we compare several versions of FreeSurfer software with traditional hand-tracing...
February 21, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468769/minimum-spanning-tree-analysis-of-the-human-connectome
#19
Edwin van Dellen, Iris E Sommer, Marc M Bohlken, Prejaas Tewarie, Laurijn Draaisma, Andrew Zalesky, Maria Di Biase, Jesse A Brown, Linda Douw, Willem M Otte, René C W Mandl, Cornelis J Stam
One of the challenges of brain network analysis is to directly compare network organization between subjects, irrespective of the number or strength of connections. In this study, we used minimum spanning tree (MST; a unique, acyclic subnetwork with a fixed number of connections) analysis to characterize the human brain network to create an empirical reference network. Such a reference network could be used as a null model of connections that form the backbone structure of the human brain. We analyzed the MST in three diffusion-weighted imaging datasets of healthy adults...
February 21, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468672/ca-v-3-2-drives-sustained-burst-firing-which-is-critical-for-absence-seizure-propagation-in-reticular-thalamic-neurons
#20
Stuart M Cain, John R Tyson, Hyun-Beom Choi, Rebecca Ko, Paulo J C Lin, Jeffrey M LeDue, Kim L Powell, Louis-Philippe Bernier, Ravi L Rungta, Yi Yang, Pieter R Cullis, Terence J O'Brien, Brian A MacVicar, Terrance P Snutch
OBJECTIVE: Genetic alterations have been identified in the CACNA1H gene, encoding the CaV 3.2 T-type calcium channel in patients with absence epilepsy, yet the precise mechanisms relating to seizure propagation and spike-wave-discharge (SWD) pacemaking remain unknown. Neurons of the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) express high levels of CaV 3.2 calcium channels, and we investigated whether a gain-of-function mutation in the Cacna1h gene in Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats from Strasbourg (GAERS) contributes to seizure propagation and pacemaking in the TRN...
February 21, 2018: Epilepsia
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