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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691990/altered-functional-connectivity-strength-and-its-correlations-with-cognitive-function-in-subjects-with-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis-at-rest
#1
Ran-Ran Li, Hai-Long Lyu, Feng Liu, Nan Lian, Ren-Rong Wu, Jing-Ping Zhao, Wen-Bin Guo
AIMS: Evidence of altered structural and functional connectivity in the frontal-occipital network is associated with cognitive deficits in patients with schizophrenia. However, the altered patterns of functional connectivity strength (FCS) in individuals with ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis remain unknown. In this study, whole-brain FCS was assessed to examine the altered patterns of FCS in UHR subjects. METHODS: A total of 34 UHR subjects and 37 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled to undergo resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging...
April 24, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691937/testing-associations-between-cannabis-use-and-subcortical-volumes-in-two-large-population-based-samples
#2
Nathan A Gillespie, Michael C Neale, Timothy C Bates, Lisa T Eyler, Christine Fennema-Notestine, Jasmin Vassileva, Michael J Lyons, Elizabeth C Prom-Wormley, Katie L McMahon, Paul M Thompson, Greig de Zubicaray, Ian B Hickie, John J McGrath, Lachlan T Strike, Miguel E Rentería, Matthew S Panizzon, Nicholas G Martin, Carol E Franz, William S Kremen, Margaret J Wright
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Disentangling the putative impact of cannabis on brain morphology from other comorbid substance use is critical. After controlling for the effects of nicotine, alcohol and multi-substance use, this study aimed to determine whether frequent cannabis use is associated with significantly smaller subcortical grey matter volumes. DESIGN: Exploratory analyses using mixed linear models, one per region of interest (ROI), were performed whereby individual differences in volume (outcome) at seven subcortical ROIs were regressed onto cannabis and comorbid substance use (predictors)...
April 24, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691835/rufinamide-add-on-therapy-for-refractory-epilepsy
#3
REVIEW
Mariangela Panebianco, Hemanshu Prabhakar, Anthony G Marson
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a central nervous system disorder (neurological disorder). Epileptic seizures are the result of excessive and abnormal cortical nerve cell electrical activity in the brain. Despite the development of more than 10 new antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) since the early 2000s, approximately a third of people with epilepsy remain resistant to pharmacotherapy, often requiring treatment with a combination of AEDs. In this review, we summarised the current evidence regarding rufinamide, a novel anticonvulsant medication, which, as a triazole derivative, is structurally unrelated to any other currently used anticonvulsant medication, when used as an add-on treatment for refractory epilepsy...
April 25, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691468/large-scale-brain-network-associated-with-creative-insight-combined-voxel-based-morphometry-and-resting-state-functional-connectivity-analyses
#4
Takeshi Ogawa, Takatsugu Aihara, Takeaki Shimokawa, Okito Yamashita
Creative insight occurs with an "Aha!" experience when solving a difficult problem. Here, we investigated large-scale networks associated with insight problem solving. We recruited 232 healthy participants aged 21-69 years old. Participants completed a magnetic resonance imaging study (MRI; structural imaging and a 10 min resting-state functional MRI) and an insight test battery (ITB) consisting of written questionnaires (matchstick arithmetic task, remote associates test, and insight problem solving task)...
April 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691439/reversal-of-memory-and-neuropsychiatric-symptoms-and-reduced-tau-pathology-by-selenium-in-3xtg-ad-mice
#5
Ann Van der Jeugd, Arnaldo Parra-Damas, Raquel Baeta-Corral, Carlos M Soto-Faguás, Tariq Ahmed, Frank M LaFerla, Lydia Giménez-Llort, Rudi D'Hooge, Carlos A Saura
Accumulation of amyloid-β plaques and tau contribute to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but it is unclear whether targeting tau pathology by antioxidants independently of amyloid-β causes beneficial effects on memory and neuropsychiatric symptoms. Selenium, an essential antioxidant element reduced in the aging brain, prevents development of neuropathology in AD transgenic mice at early disease stages. The therapeutic potential of selenium for ameliorating or reversing neuropsychiatric and cognitive behavioral symptoms at late AD stages is largely unknown...
April 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691431/biological-insights-into-muscular-strength-genetic-findings-in-the-uk-biobank
#6
Emmi Tikkanen, Stefan Gustafsson, David Amar, Anna Shcherbina, Daryl Waggott, Euan A Ashley, Erik Ingelsson
We performed a large genome-wide association study to discover genetic variation associated with muscular strength, and to evaluate shared genetic aetiology with and causal effects of muscular strength on several health indicators. In our discovery analysis of 223,315 individuals, we identified 101 loci associated with grip strength (P <5 × 10-8 ). Of these, 64 were associated (P < 0.01 and consistent direction) also in the replication dataset (N = 111,610). eQTL analyses highlighted several genes known to play a role in neuro-developmental disorders or brain function, and the results from meta-analysis showed a significant enrichment of gene expression of brain-related transcripts...
April 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691328/genetic-ablation-of-all-cerebellins-reveals-synapse-organizer-functions-in-multiple-regions-throughout-the-brain
#7
Erica Seigneur, Thomas C Südhof
Cerebellins are synaptic organizer molecules that bind to presynaptic neurexins and postsynaptic receptors. Cerebellins are well studied in cerebellum, but three of the four cerebellins (Cbln1, Cbln2, and Cbln4) are also broadly expressed outside of the cerebellum, suggesting that they perform general functions throughout the brain. Here we generated male and female single, double, and triple constitutive KO mice of Cbln1, Cbln2, and Cbln4. We found that all constitutive cerebellin-deficient mice are viable and fertile, suggesting that cerebellins are not essential for survival...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691250/long-term-neuroprotective-effect-of-erythropoietin-on-executive-functions-in-very-preterm-children-epokids-protocol-of-a-prospective-follow-up-study
#8
Flavia Maria Wehrle, Ulrike Held, Ruth Tuura O'Gorman, Vera Disselhoff, Barbara Schnider, Jean-Claude Fauchère, Petra Hüppi, Beatrice Latal, Cornelia Franziska Hagmann
INTRODUCTION: Premature infants are particularly vulnerable to brain injuries with associated cognitive and behavioural deficits. The worldwide first randomised interventional multicentre trial investigating the neuroprotective effects of erythropoietin (entitled 'Does erythropoietin improve outcome in very preterm infants?' (NCT00413946)) included 450 very preterm infants in Switzerland. MRI at term equivalent age showed less white matter (WM) injury in the erythropoietin group compared with the placebo group...
April 24, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690919/lack-of-human-like-extracellular-sortilin-neuropathology-in-transgenic-alzheimer-s-disease-model-mice-and-macaques
#9
Feng-Qin Zhou, Juan Jiang, Chelsea M Griffith, Peter R Patrylo, Huaibin Cai, Yaping Chu, Xiao-Xin Yan
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder bearing multiple pathological hallmarks suggestive of complex cellular/molecular interplay during pathogenesis. Transgenic mice and nonhuman primates are used as disease models for mechanistic and translational research into AD; the extent to which these animal models recapitulate AD-type neuropathology is an issue of importance. Putative C-terminal fragments from sortilin, a member of the vacuolar protein sorting 10 protein (Vps10p) family, have recently been shown to deposit in the neuritic β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques in the human brain...
April 24, 2018: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690915/clinical-study-of-children-with-cryofibrinogenemia-a-retrospective-study-from-a-single-center
#10
Hsiao-Feng Chou, Yu-Hung Wu, Che-Sheng Ho, Yu-Hsuan Kao
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the demographic, clinical features, laboratory data, pathology and other survey in pediatric patients with cryofibrinogenemia. METHODS: A 12-year retrospective chart review identified eight pediatric patients at Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan. RESULTS: The female-to-male ratio was 3:1. The mean age at symptom onset and of diagnosis was 10.3 ± 4.6 years and 12.3 ± 4 years, respectively...
April 24, 2018: Pediatric Rheumatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690799/prediction-of-persistent-post-concussion-symptoms-following-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#11
Maryse C Cnossen, Joukje van der Naalt, Jacoba M Spikman, Daan Nieboer, John K Yue, Ethan A Winkler, Geoffrey Manley, Nicole von Steinbuechel, Suzanne Polinder, Ewout W Steyerberg, Hester Lingsma
Persistent post-concussion symptoms (PPCS) occur frequently after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). The identification of patients at risk for poor outcome remains challenging since valid prediction models are missing. The objectives of the current study were to assess the quality and clinical value of prediction models for PPCS , and to develop a new model based on the synthesis of existing models and addition of complaints at emergency department (ED). MTBI patients (Glasgow Coma Scale score 13-15) were prospectively recruited from three Dutch level I trauma centers between 2013-2015 in the UPFRONT study...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689747/forebrain-cellular-bioenergetics-in-neonatal-mice
#12
Hassib Narchi, Pramathan Thachillath, Abdul-Kader Souid
BACKGROUND: Hypoglycemia occurs frequently in the neonate and may result in neurologic dysfunction. Its impact on the kinetics of cellular respiration and bioenergetics in the neonatal brain remains to be explored. AIMS: Develop murine model to investigate the effects of hypoglycemia on neonatal brain bioenergetics. STUDY DESIGN: Forebrain fragments were excised from euthanized BALB/c pups aged <24 hours to 14 days. We measured cellular respiration (μM O2 min-1...
2018: Journal of Neonatal-perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689729/memory-loss-and-the-onset-of-alzheimer-s-disease-could-be-under-the-control-of-extracellular-heat-shock-proteins
#13
Nelson Arispe, Antonio De Maio
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a major contemporary and escalating malady in which amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides are the most likely causative agent. Aβ peptides spontaneously tend to aggregate in extracellular fluids following a progression from a monomeric state, through intermediate forms, ending in amyloid fibers and plaques. It is generally accepted now that the neurotoxic agents leading to cellular death, memory loss, and other AD characteristics are the Aβ intermediate aggregated states. However, Aβ peptides are continuously produced, released into the extracellular space, and rapidly cleared from healthy brains...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689728/effect-of-education-on-alzheimer-s-disease-related-neuroimaging-biomarkers-in-healthy-controls-and-participants-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease-a-cross-sectional-study
#14
Masataka Wada, Yoshihiro Noda, Shunichiro Shinagawa, Jun Ku Chung, Kyosuke Sawada, Kamiyu Ogyu, Ryosuke Tarumi, Sakiko Tsugawa, Takahiro Miyazaki, Bun Yamagata, Ariel Graff-Guerrero, Masaru Mimura, Shinichiro Nakajima
BACKGROUND: Cognitive reserve is the acquired capacity reflecting a functional brain adaptability/flexibility in the context of aging. Educational attainment is thought to be among the most important factors that contribute to cognitive reserve. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships among duration of education and Alzheimer's disease (AD) related neuroimaging biomarkers such as amyloid-β deposition, glucose metabolism, and brain volumes in each stage of AD...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689692/gender-similarities-in-somatic-depression-and-in-dsm-depression-secondary-symptom-profiles-within-the-context-of-severity-and-bereavement
#15
Angus H Thompson, Roger C Bland
BACKGROUND: Most population studies report higher rates of depression among women than men, and some researchers have observed gender differences in depression symptoms overall, or in sub-groupings (e.g. somatic depression). However, gender symptom differences have been inconsistent, prompting this investigation of gender differences in secondary DSM symptom profiles in the context of bereavement status, age, and depression severity. METHODS: Individuals with symptoms of core depression (flat affect or anhedonia) were selected from a large survey of adults in the Alberta, Canada workforce...
February 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689408/prenatal-exposure-to-oxidative-phosphorylation-xenobiotics-and-late-onset-parkinson-disease
#16
REVIEW
Eldris Iglesias, Alba Pesini, Nuria Garrido-Pérez, Patricia Meade, M Pilar Bayona-Bafaluy, Julio Montoya, Eduardo Ruiz-Pesini
Late-onset Parkinson disease is a multifactorial and multietiological disorder, age being one of the factors implicated. Genetic and/or environmental factors, such as pesticides, can also be involved. Up to 80% of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra are lost before motor features of the disorder begin to appear. In humans, these neurons are only formed a few weeks after fertilization. Therefore, prenatal exposure to pesticides or industrial chemicals during crucial steps of brain development might also alter their proliferation and differentiation...
April 21, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689375/interhemispheric-alpha-band-hypoconnectivity-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#17
Abigail Dickinson, Charlotte DiStefano, Yin-Ying Lin, Aaron Wolfe Scheffler, Damla Senturk, Shafali Spurling Jeste
Diverse genetic and environmental etiologies converge onto circuit level brain dysfunction in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), manifesting at a macroscopic level as aberrant neural connectivity. Previous studies have described atypical patterns of decreased short range and increased long range connectivity in ASD [1]. However, it remains unclear whether group level features of circuit dysfunction are consistently present across the range of cognitive function seen in the autism spectrum. The dynamics of neural oscillations in the alpha range (6-12 Hz) are exquisitely sensitive to healthy development of functional and structural connectivity...
April 21, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689374/body-mass-index-and-its-relation-to-neuropsychological-functioning-and-brain-volume-in-healthy-older-adults
#18
Marissa Ann Gogniat, Talia Loren Robinson, Catherine Mattocks Mewborn, Kharine Renee Jean, L Stephen Miller
Obesity is a growing concern worldwide because of its adverse health effects, including its negative impact on cognitive functioning. This concern is especially relevant for older adults, who are already likely to experience some cognitive decline and loss of brain volume due to aging [63,13]. However, there is some evidence that higher body mass index (BMI) may actually be protective in later life [8-11]. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to assess the relationship between BMI and neuropsychological functioning in older adults, and concurrently the relationship between BMI and brain volume...
April 21, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689135/intravenous-thrombolysis-in-unwitnessed-stroke-onset-mr-witness-trial-results
#19
Lee H Schwamm, Ona Wu, Shlee S Song, Lawrence L Latour, Andria L Ford, Amie W Hsia, Alona Muzikansky, Rebecca A Betensky, Albert J Yoo, Michael H Lev, Gregoire Boulouis, Arne Lauer, Pedro Cougo, William A Copen, Gordon J Harris, Steven Warach
OBJECTIVE: Most acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients with unwitnessed symptom onset are ineligible for intravenous thrombolysis due to timing alone. Lesion evolution on FLAIR MRI correlates with stroke duration, and quantitative mismatch of diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) with FLAIR (qDFM) might indicate stroke duration within guideline-recommended thrombolysis. We tested if intravenous thrombolysis ≤4.5 h from time of symptom discovery is safe in patients with qDFM in an open-label, phase 2a, prospective study (NCT01282242)...
April 24, 2018: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689120/acute-on-chronic-liver-failure-getting-ready-for-prime-time
#20
Jasmohan S Bajaj, Richard Moreau, Patrick S Kamath, Hugo E Vargas, Vicente Arroyo, K Rajender Reddy, Gyongyi Szabo, Puneeta Tandon, Jody Olson, Constantine Karvellas, Thierry Gustot, Jennifer C Lai, Florence Wong
Acute on chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a culmination of chronic liver disease and extra-hepatic organ failures, which is associated with a high short-term mortality and immense healthcare expenditure. There are varying definitions for organ failures and ACLF in Europe, North America and Asia. These differing definitions need to be reconciled to enhance progress in the field. The pathogenesis of ACLF is multi-factorial and related to interactions between the immuno-inflammatory system, microbiota and the precipitating factors...
April 24, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
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