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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333012/cerebral-cortex-regions-selectively-vulnerable-to-radiation-dose-dependent-atrophy
#1
Tyler M Seibert, Roshan Karunamuni, Samar Kaifi, Jeffrey Burkeen, Michael Connor, Anitha Priya Krishnan, Nathan S White, Nikdokht Farid, Hauke Bartsch, Vyacheslav Murzin, Tanya T Nguyen, Vitali Moiseenko, James B Brewer, Carrie R McDonald, Anders M Dale, Jona A Hattangadi-Gluth
PURPOSE AND OBJECTIVES: Neurologic deficits after brain radiation therapy (RT) typically involve decline in higher-order cognitive functions such as attention and memory rather than sensory defects or paralysis. We sought to determine whether areas of the cortex critical to cognition are selectively vulnerable to radiation dose-dependent atrophy. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We measured change in cortical thickness in 54 primary brain tumor patients who underwent fractionated, partial brain RT...
April 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326033/subcortical-shape-changes-hippocampal-atrophy-and-cortical-thinning-in-future-alzheimer-s-disease-patients
#2
Andrea M Kälin, Min T M Park, M Mallar Chakravarty, Jason P Lerch, Lars Michels, Clemens Schroeder, Sarah D Broicher, Spyros Kollias, Roger M Nitsch, Anton F Gietl, Paul G Unschuld, Christoph Hock, Sandra E Leh
Efficacy of future treatments depends on biomarkers identifying patients with mild cognitive impairment at highest risk for transitioning to Alzheimer's disease. Here, we applied recently developed analysis techniques to investigate cross-sectional differences in subcortical shape and volume alterations in patients with stable mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (n = 23, age range 59-82, 47.8% female), future converters at baseline (n = 10, age range 66-84, 90% female) and at time of conversion (age range 68-87) compared to group-wise age and gender matched healthy control subjects (n = 23, age range 61-81, 47...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324681/morphometric-mri-features-are-associated-with-surgical-outcome-in-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-with-hippocampal-sclerosis
#3
Maria Teresa Fernandes Castilho Garcia, Larissa Botelho Gaça, Gabriel Barbosa Sandim, Idaiane Batista Assunção Leme, Henrique Carrete, Ricardo Silva Centeno, João Ricardo Sato, Elza Márcia Targas Yacubian
PURPOSE: Corticoamygdalohippocampectomy (CAH) improves seizure control, quality of life, and decreases mortality for refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS). One-third of patients continue having seizures, and it is pivotal to determine structural abnormalities that might influence the postoperative outcome. Studies indicate that nonhippocampal regions may play a role in the epileptogenic network in MTLE-HS and could generate seizures postoperatively...
March 1, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324197/the-spectrum-of-magnetic-resonance-findings-in-cerebrotendinous-xanthomatosis-redefinition-and-evidence-of-new-markers-of-disease-progression
#4
Andrea Mignarri, Maria Teresa Dotti, Antonio Federico, Nicola De Stefano, Marco Battaglini, Irene Grazzini, Paolo Galluzzi, Lucia Monti
Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is a metabolic disease characterized by systemic signs and neurological impairment, which can be prevented if chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) treatment is started early. Despite brain MRI represents an essential diagnostic tool, the spectrum of findings is worth to be reappraised, and follow-up data are needed. We performed clinical evaluation and brain MRI in 38 CTX patients. Sixteen of them who were untreated at baseline examination underwent clinical and MRI follow-up after long-term treatment with CDCA...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320161/circulating-autoantibodies-against-the-nr2-peptide-of-the-nmda-receptor-are-associated-with-subclinical-brain-damage-in-hypertensive-patients-with-other-pre-existing-conditions-for-vascular-risk
#5
S González-García, A González-Quevedo, Z Hernandez-Diaz, L Alvarez Camino, M Peña-Sanchez, A Cordero-Eiriz, M Brown, J A Gaya, M Betancourt-Losa, I Fernandez-Almirall, M C Menendez-Sainz, R Fernandez-Carriera
Arterial hypertension (HT) and other vascular pre-existing conditions (PEC) generate asymptomatic brain damage which increases the occurrence of stroke and cognitive decline. The aim of this work was to explore if serum antibodies against the NR2 subunit of the NMDA receptor (NR2Ab) could predict subclinical brain damage (SBD) in hypertensive patients with PEC. Forty seven neurologically asymptomatic hypertensive subjects were classified according to the number of PEC (retinopathy, overweight/obesity, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia)...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318355/dementia-incidence-and-predictors-in-cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy-patients-without-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#6
Li Xiong, Gregoire Boulouis, Andreas Charidimou, Duangnapa Roongpiboonsopit, Michael J Jessel, Marco Pasi, Yael D Reijmer, Panagiotis Fotiadis, Alison Ayres, Emily Merrill, Kristin Schwab, Deborah Blacker, M Edip Gurol, Steven M Greenberg, Anand Viswanathan
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a common cause of cognitive impairment in older individuals. This study aimed to investigate predictors of dementia in CAA patients without intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). A total of 158 non-demented patients from the Stroke Service or the Memory Clinic who met the modified Boston Criteria for probable CAA were included. At baseline, neuroimaging markers, including lobar microbleeds (cerebral microbleeds (CMBs)), white matter hyperintensities (WMH), cortical superficial siderosis (cSS), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-visible centrum semiovale perivascular spaces (CSO-PVS), lacunes, and medial temporal atrophy (MTA) were assessed...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304286/family-history-of-alzheimer-s-disease-is-associated-with-impaired-perceptual-discrimination-of-novel-objects
#7
Emily J Mason, Erin P Hussey, Robert J Molitor, Philip C Ko, Manus J Donahue, Brandon A Ally
Early detection may be the key to developing therapies that will combat Alzheimer's disease (AD). It has been consistently demonstrated that one of the main pathologies of AD, tau, is present in the brain decades before a clinical diagnosis. Tau pathology follows a stereotypical route through the medial temporal lobe beginning in the entorhinal and perirhinal cortices. If early pathology leads to very subtle changes in behavior, it may be possible to detect these changes in subjects years before a clinical diagnosis can currently be made...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303917/reduced-regional-grey-matter-volumes-in-pediatric-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#8
Mona F Philby, Paul M Macey, Richard A Ma, Rajesh Kumar, David Gozal, Leila Kheirandish-Gozal
Pediatric OSA is associated with cognitive risk. Since adult OSA manifests MRI evidence of brain injury, and animal models lead to regional neuronal losses, pediatric OSA patients may also be affected. We assessed the presence of neuronal injury, measured as regional grey matter volume, in 16 OSA children (8 male, 8.1 ± 2.2 years, AHI:11.1 ± 5.9 events/hr), and 200 control subjects (84 male, 8.2 ± 2.0 years), 191 of whom were from the NIH-Pediatric MRI database. High resolution T1-weighted whole-brain images were assessed between groups with voxel-based morphometry, using ANCOVA (covariates, age and gender; family-wise error correction, P < 0...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303446/expression-of-human-cytomegalovirus-components-in-the-brain-tissues-of-patients-with-rasmussen-s-encephalitis
#9
Yao Zhang, Yisong Wang, Sichang Chen, Shuai Chen, Yuguang Guan, Changqing Liu, Tianfu Li, Guoming Luan, Jing An
Rasmussen's encephalitis (RE) is a rare and severe progressive epileptic syndrome with unknown etiology. Infection by viruses, including human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), has been speculated to be a potential trigger for RE. However, no viral antigens have been detected in the brains of patients with RE; thus, a possible clinical linkage between viral infections and RE has not been firmly established. In this study, we evaluated the expression of HCMV pp65 antigen in brain sections from 26 patients with RE and 20 non-RE patients by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, and assessed the associations between HCMV infection and clinical parameters...
March 2, 2017: Virologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302517/exercise-training-rescues-high-fat-diet-induced-neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthase-expression-in-the-hippocampus-and-cerebral-cortex-of-mice
#10
Yuki Tomiga, Saki Yoshimura, Ai Ito, Shihoko Nakashima, Kentaro Kawanaka, Yoshinari Uehara, Hiroaki Tanaka, Yasuki Higaki
Consumption of a high fat diet (HFD) and being overweight both induce functional deterioration and atrophy of the hippocampus. These alterations are associated with mental disorders such as depression and anxiety. Exercise combats obesity and enhances brain health. There is substantial evidence that neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is a key regulator of affective behavior, and that increased brain nNOS leads to anxiety while environmental enrichment (EE), which reduces brain nNOS, has anxiolytic effects...
March 13, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291592/white-matter-and-cortical-changes-in-atypical-parkinsonisms-a-multimodal-quantitative-mr-study
#11
Stefano Zanigni, Stefania Evangelisti, Claudia Testa, David N Manners, Giovanna Calandra-Buonaura, Maria Guarino, Anna Gabellini, Laura Ludovica Gramegna, Giulia Giannini, Luisa Sambati, Pietro Cortelli, Raffaele Lodi, Caterina Tonon
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate white matter and cortical changes in patients with parkinsonisms and healthy controls (HC), applying both hypothesis-free and regions of interest (ROI)-based advanced brain MR analyses. METHODS: Twenty-five patients with Progressive Supranuclear Palsy - Richardson's Syndrome (PSP-RS), nine with cerebellar and nine with parkinsonian Multiple System Atrophy variants (MSA-C and MSA-P), forty-seven with Parkinson's Disease (PD) and twenty-seven HC underwent a 1...
March 6, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288787/evolution-of-autobiographical-memory-impairments-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-frontotemporal-dementia-a-longitudinal-neuroimaging-study
#12
Muireann Irish, Ramon Landin-Romero, Annu Mothakunnel, Siddharth Ramanan, Sharpley Hsieh, John R Hodges, Olivier Piguet
Compromised autobiographical memory (ABM) retrieval is well established in dementia, attributable to degeneration of a core memory brain network. It remains unclear, however, how the progressive spread of atrophy with advancing disease severity impacts ABM retrieval across life epochs. To this end, we conducted a longitudinal study of recent and remote ABM in Alzheimer's disease (AD, n =11), and a frontotemporal lobar degeneration group (FTD, n =13) comprising 7 behavioral variant FTD and 6 semantic dementia patients, in comparison with 23 healthy older Controls...
March 10, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288010/functional-connectivity-is-reduced-in-early-stage-primary-progressive-aphasia-when-atrophy-is-not-prominent
#13
Borna Bonakdarpour, Emily J Rogalski, Allan Wang, Jaiashre Sridhar, M M Mesulam, Robert S Hurley
Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a clinical syndrome of language decline caused by neurodegenerative pathology. Although language impairments in PPA are typically localized via the morphometric assessment of atrophy, functional changes may accompany or even precede detectable structural alterations, in which case resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) could provide an alternative approach. The goal of this study was to determine whether language network RSFC is reduced in early-stage PPA when atrophy is not prominent...
March 10, 2017: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286328/two-distinct-classes-of-degenerative-change-are-independently-linked-to-clinical-progression-in-mild-cognitive-impairment
#14
Jean-Philippe Coutu, Emily R Lindemer, Ender Konukoglu, David H Salat
We previously demonstrated 2 statistically distinct factors of degeneration in Alzheimer's disease: one strongly related to white matter damage and age interpreted as "age- and vascular-related", and the other related to cortical atrophy thought to represent "neurodegenerative changes associated with Alzheimer's disease". Those factors are now replicated in a distinct cross-sectional data set of 364 participants from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative and their interpretation is improved using correlations with CSF biomarkers...
February 16, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285206/gender-dimorphism-of-brain-reward-system-volumes-in-alcoholism
#15
Kayle S Sawyer, Marlene Oscar-Berman, Olivier J Barthelemy, George M Papadimitriou, Gordon J Harris, Nikos Makris
The brain's reward network has been reported to be smaller in alcoholic men compared to nonalcoholic men, but little is known about the volumes of reward regions in alcoholic women. Morphometric analyses were performed on magnetic resonance brain scans of 60 long-term chronic alcoholics (ALC; 30 men) and 60 nonalcoholic controls (NC; 29 men). We derived volumes of total brain, and cortical and subcortical reward-related structures including the dorsolateral prefrontal (DLPFC), orbitofrontal, and cingulate cortices, and the temporal pole, insula, amygdala, hippocampus, nucleus accumbens septi (NAc), and ventral diencephalon (VDC)...
March 6, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284488/agnosic-vision-is-like-peripheral-vision-which-is-limited-by-crowding
#16
Francesca Strappini, Denis G Pelli, Enrico Di Pace, Marialuisa Martelli
Visual agnosia is a neuropsychological impairment of visual object recognition despite near-normal acuity and visual fields. A century of research has provided only a rudimentary account of the functional damage underlying this deficit. We find that the object-recognition ability of agnosic patients viewing an object directly is like that of normally-sighted observers viewing it indirectly, with peripheral vision. Thus, agnosic vision is like peripheral vision. We obtained 14 visual-object-recognition tests that are commonly used for diagnosis of visual agnosia...
February 1, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282807/radiological-pathological-correlation-in-alzheimer-s-disease-systematic-review-of-antemortem-magnetic-resonance-imaging-findings
#17
Caroline Dallaire-Théroux, Brandy L Callahan, Olivier Potvin, Stephan Saikali, Simon Duchesne
BACKGROUND: The standard method of ascertaining Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains postmortem assessment of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary degeneration. Vascular pathology, Lewy bodies, TDP-43, and hippocampal sclerosis are frequent comorbidities. There is therefore a need for biomarkers that can assess these etiologies and provide a diagnosis in vivo. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a systematic review of published radiological-pathological correlation studies to determine the relationship between antemortem magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neuropathological findings in AD...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281317/hippocampal-formation-alterations-differently-contribute-to-autobiographic-memory-deficits-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Dusan Hirjak, Robert C Wolf, Barbara Pfeifer, Ulrich Seidl, Anne K Thomann, Katharina M Kubera, Johannes Schröder, Klaus H Maier-Hein, Philipp A Thomann
BACKGROUND: Autobiographical memory (AM) is part of declarative memory and includes both semantic and episodic aspects. AM deficits are among the major complaints of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) even in early or preclinical stages. OBJECTIVES: Previous MRI studies AD patients have showed that deficits in semantic and episodic AM are associated with hippocampal alterations. However, the question which specific hippocampal subfields and adjacent extrahippocampal structures contribute to deficits of AM in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD patients has not been investigated so far...
March 9, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276464/robust-identification-of-alzheimer-s-disease-subtypes-based-on-cortical-atrophy-patterns
#19
Jong-Yun Park, Han Kyu Na, Sungsoo Kim, Hyunwook Kim, Hee Jin Kim, Sang Won Seo, Duk L Na, Cheol E Han, Joon-Kyung Seong
Accumulating evidence suggests that Alzheimer's disease (AD) is heterogenous and can be classified into several subtypes. Here, we propose a robust subtyping method for AD based on cortical atrophy patterns and graph theory. We calculated similarities between subjects in their atrophy patterns throughout the whole brain, and clustered subjects with similar atrophy patterns using the Louvain method for modular organization extraction. We applied our method to AD patients recruited at Samsung Medical Center and externally validated our method by using the AD Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) dataset...
March 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273767/impairment-of-social-cognition-in-multiple-sclerosis-amygdala-atrophy-is-the-main-predictor
#20
Sonia Batista, Otília C d'Almeida, Ana Afonso, Sandra Freitas, Carmo Macário, Lívia Sousa, Miguel Castelo-Branco, Isabel Santana, Luís Cunha
BACKGROUND: Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) frequently reveal social behavior disturbance. Nevertheless, little is known regarding the impact of MS on social cognition, particularly theory of mind (ToM), and its neural basis. OBJECTIVES: To explore how ToM is affected in MS and its neural correlates. METHODS: Enrolled 60 consecutive MS patients and 60 healthy controls (HC) matched on age, sex, and education. Participants underwent ToM testing (Eyes Test, Videos Test) and 3 T brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
December 1, 2016: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
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