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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777819/7-tesla-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-caudal-anterior-cingulate-and-posterior-cingulate-cortex-atrophy-in-patients-with-trigeminal-neuralgia
#1
Hyeong Cheol Moon, Chan-A Park, Yeong-Jae Jeon, Soon Tae You, Hyun Man Baek, Youn Joo Lee, Chul Beom Cho, Chae Joon Cheong, Young Seok Park
The cingulate cortex (CC) is a brain region that plays a key role in pain processing, but CC abnormalities are not unclear in patients with trigeminal neuralgia (TN). The purpose of this study was to determine the central causal mechanisms of TN and the surrounding brain structure in healthy controls and patients with TN using 7 Tesla (T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Whole-brain parcellation in gray matter volume and thickness was assessed in 15 patients with TN and 16 healthy controls matched for sex, age, and regional variability using T1-weighted imaging...
May 16, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776894/amyloid-pet-in-neurodegenerative-diseases-with-dementia
#2
V Camacho, A Gómez-Grande, P Sopena, D García-Solís, M Gómez Río, C Lorenzo, S Rubí, J Arbizu
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative condition characterized by progressive cognitive decline and memory loss, and is the most common form of dementia. Amyloid plaques with neurofibrillary tangles are a neuropathological hallmark of AD that produces synaptic dysfunction and culminates later in neuronal loss. Amyloid PET is a useful, available and non-invasive technique that provides in vivo information about the cortical amyloid burden. In the latest revised criteria for the diagnosis of AD biomarkers were defined and integrated: pathological and diagnostic biomarkers (increased retention on fibrillar amyloid PET or decreased Aβ1-42 and increased T-Tau or P-Tau in CSF) and neurodegeneration or topographical biomarkers (temporoparietal hypometabolism on 18 F-FDG PET and temporal atrophy on MRI)...
May 15, 2018: Revista Española de Medicina Nuclear e Imagen Molecular
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769373/the-cortical-damage-early-relapses-and-onset-of-the-progressive-phase-in-multiple-sclerosis
#3
Antonio Scalfari, Chiara Romualdi, Richard S Nicholas, Miriam Mattoscio, Roberta Magliozzi, Aldo Morra, Salvatore Monaco, Paolo A Muraro, Massimiliano Calabrese
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship among cortical radiologic changes, the number of early relapses (ERs), and the long-term course of multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: In this cohort study, we assessed the number of cortical lesions (CLs) and white matter (WM) lesions and the cortical thickness (Cth) at clinical onset and after 7.9 mean years among 219 patients with relapsing remitting (RR) MS with 1 (Low-ER), 2 (Mid-ER), and ≥3 (High-ER) ERs during the first 2 years...
May 16, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769041/cortical-atrophy-and-hypofibrinogenemia-due-to-fgg-and-tbcd-mutations-in-a-single-family-a-case-report
#4
Joshi Stephen, Sheela Nampoothiri, K P Vinayan, Dhanya Yesodharan, Preetha Remesh, William A Gahl, May Christine V Malicdan
BACKGROUND: Blended phenotypes or co-occurrence of independent phenotypically distinct conditions are extremely rare and are due to coincidence of multiple pathogenic mutations, especially due to consanguinity. Hereditary fibrinogen deficiencies result from mutations in the genes FGA, FGB, and FGG, encoding the three different polypeptide chains that comprise fibrinogen. Neurodevelopmental abnormalities have not been associated with fibrinogen deficiencies. In this study, we report an unusual patient with a combination of two independently inherited genetic conditions; fibrinogen deficiency and early onset cortical atrophy...
May 16, 2018: BMC Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761121/poly-gp-neurofilament-and-grey-matter-deficits-in-c9orf72-expansion-carriers
#5
Lieke H H Meeter, Tania F Gendron, Ana C Sias, Lize C Jiskoot, Silvia P Russo, Laura Donker Kaat, Janne M Papma, Jessica L Panman, Emma L van der Ende, Elise G Dopper, Sanne Franzen, Caroline Graff, Adam L Boxer, Howard J Rosen, Raquel Sanchez-Valle, Daniela Galimberti, Yolande A L Pijnenburg, Luisa Benussi, Roberta Ghidoni, Barbara Borroni, Robert Laforce, Marta Del Campo, Charlotte E Teunissen, Rick van Minkelen, Julio C Rojas, Giovanni Coppola, Dan H Geschwind, Rosa Rademakers, Anna M Karydas, Linn Öijerstedt, Elio Scarpini, Giuliano Binetti, Alessandro Padovani, David M Cash, Katrina M Dick, Martina Bocchetta, Bruce L Miller, Jonathan D Rohrer, Leonard Petrucelli, John C van Swieten, Suzee E Lee
Objective: To evaluate poly(GP), a dipeptide repeat protein, and neurofilament light chain (NfL) as biomarkers in presymptomatic C9orf72 repeat expansion carriers and patients with C9orf72- associated frontotemporal dementia. Additionally, to investigate the relationship of poly(GP) with indicators of neurodegeneration as measured by NfL and grey matter volume. Methods: We measured poly(GP) and NfL levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 25 presymptomatic C9orf72 expansion carriers, 64 symptomatic expansion carriers with dementia, and 12 noncarriers...
May 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758293/tle1-a-key-player-in-neurogenesis-a-new-candidate-gene-for-autosomal-recessive-postnatal-microcephaly
#6
Mara Cavallin, Camille Maillard, Marie Hully, Marion Philbert, Nathalie Boddaert, Madeline Louise Reilly, Patrick Nitschké, Amandine Bery, Nadia Bahi-Buisson
Postnatal microcephaly comprises a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders of varying severity, characterized by normal head size at birth, followed by a postnatal deceleration in head circumference of greater than 3 standard deviations (SD) below the mean. Many postnatal microcephaly syndromes are caused by mutations in genes known to be important for the regulation of gene expression in the developing forebrain. We studied a consanguineous Pakistani family with postnatal microcephaly, orofacial dyskinesia, spastic quadriplegia and, on MRI, cortical atrophy with myelination delay, suggestive of a FOXG1-like presentation...
May 11, 2018: European Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751744/a-case-of-raine-syndrome-presenting-with-facial-dysmorphy-and-review-of-literature
#7
Jayesh Sheth, Riddhi Bhavsar, Ajit Gandhi, Frenny Sheth, Dhairya Pancholi
BACKGROUND: Raine syndrome (RS) - an extremely rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder, is caused by a biallelic mutation in the FAM20C gene. Some of the most common clinical features include generalized osteosclerosis with a periosteal bone formation, dysmorphic face, and thoracic hypoplasia. Many cases have also been reported with oro-dental abnormalities, and developmental delay. Most of the cases result in neonatal death. However, a few non-lethal RS cases have been reported where patients survive till adulthood and exhibits a heterogeneous clinical phenotype...
May 11, 2018: BMC Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747584/differentiation-of-neuropsychological-features-between-posterior-cortical-atrophy-and-early-onset-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
Jieying Li, Liyong Wu, Yi Tang, Aihong Zhou, Fen Wang, Yi Xing, Jianping Jia
BACKGROUND: Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a group of clinical syndromes characterized by visuospatial and visuoperceptual impairment, with memory relatively preserved. Although PCA is pathologically almost identical to Alzheimer's disease (AD), they have different cognitive features. Those differences have only rarely been reported in any Chinese population. The purpose of the study is to establish neuropsychological tests that distinguish the clinical features of PCA from early onset AD (EOAD)...
May 10, 2018: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743496/complex-housing-causes-a-robust-increase-in-dendritic-complexity-and-spine-density-of-medial-prefrontal-cortical-neurons
#9
Archana Ashokan, Jamien Wee Han Lim, Nicholas Hang, Rupshi Mitra
Prelimbic cortex and infralimbic cortex, parts of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, are critical brain regions for generating a flexible behavioral response to changing environmental contingencies. This includes the role of these brain structures in the extinction of learned fear, decision making and retrieval of remote memories. Dendritic structure of medial prefrontal cortex neurons retains significant structural plasticity in adulthood. This has been mainly demonstrated as dendritic atrophy and loss of dendritic spines due to chronic stress...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740392/anti-saccades-in-cerebellar-ataxias-reveal-a-contribution-of-the-cerebellum-in-executive-functions
#10
Elena Pretegiani, Pietro Piu, Francesca Rosini, Pamela Federighi, Valeria Serchi, Gemma Tumminelli, Maria Teresa Dotti, Antonio Federico, Alessandra Rufa
Objective: Increasing evidence suggests a cerebellar contribution to modulate cognitive aspects of motor behavior and executive functions. Supporting findings come from studies on patients with neurodegenerative diseases, in which however, given the extent of the disease, the specific role of the cerebellum, could not be clearly isolated. Anti-saccades are considered a sensitive tool to test executive functions. The anti-saccade underlying neural network, consisting of different cortical areas and their downstream connections including the lateral cerebellum, has been largely clarified...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736590/anatomical-predictors-of-cognitive-decline-after-subthalamic-stimulation-in-parkinson-s-disease
#11
Vincent Planche, Fanny Munsch, Bruno Pereira, Emmanuel de Schlichting, Tiphaine Vidal, Jerome Coste, Dominique Morand, Ingrid de Chazeron, Philippe Derost, Bérangère Debilly, Pierre-Michel Llorca, Jean-Jacques Lemaire, Ana Marques, Franck Durif
We investigated whether pre-operative MRI measures of focal brain atrophy could predict cognitive decline occurring after deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). For that purpose, we prospectively collected data of 42 consecutive patients with PD who underwent bilateral STN-DBS. Normalized brain structure volumes and cortical thicknesses were measured on pre-operative T1-weighted MRI. Patients were tested for their cognitive performances before surgery and 1 year after...
May 7, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730854/renal-involvement-in-antiphospholipid-syndrome
#12
REVIEW
Francisco Vileimar Andrade de Azevedo, Diego Germano Maia, Jozelio Freire de Carvalho, Carlos Ewerton Maia Rodrigues
This is a review of scientific publications on renal involvement in antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), with focus on clinical and histopathological findings and treatment. A search for English-language articles on renal involvement in APS covering the period 1980-2017 was conducted in Medline/PubMed and Scopus databases using the MeSH terms "antiphospholipid syndrome", "antiphospholipid antibodies", "glomerulonephritis" and "thrombotic microangiopathy" (TMA). APS nephropathy is primarily the result of thromboses in renal arteries or veins, intraparenchymatous arteries and glomerular capillaries...
May 5, 2018: Rheumatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730092/kolaviron-protects-the-brain-in-cuprizone-induced-model-of-experimental-multiple-sclerosis-via-enhancement-of-intrinsic-antioxidant-mechanisms-possible-therapeutic-applications
#13
Gabriel Olaiya Omotoso, Ileje Inelo Ukwubile, Leviticus Arietarhire, Fatima Sulaimon, Ismail Temitayo Gbadamosi
Multiple sclerosis is a demyelinating condition of the central nervous system which commonly affects young adults. Kolaviron, a biflavonoid isolate of Garcinia kola, has been used in experimental studies which explored its anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-genotoxic properties. This work was aimed at unraveling the possible ameliorative effect of kolaviron on cuprizone-induced demyelination in the prefrontal cortices of Wistar rats. A total of 28 adult male Wistar rats were divided into four groups A-D...
April 27, 2018: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720085/regional-myocardial-motion-in-patients-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-pilot-study
#14
Heng Ma, Jun Yang, Haizhu Xie, Jing Liu, Fang Wang, Xiao Xu, Wei Bai, Kai Lin
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a risk factor for cognitive impairment in the elderly. Manifestations of subclinical CVDs can be found in patients with cognitive impairment. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have different magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-derived regional myocardial motion indices compared with healthy controls. METHODS: Eleven MCI patients (age, 65.5 years ±5...
May 2, 2018: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718131/retraining-speech-production-and-fluency-in-non-fluent-agrammatic-primary-progressive-aphasia
#15
Maya L Henry, H Isabel Hubbard, Stephanie M Grasso, Maria Luisa Mandelli, Stephen M Wilson, Mithra T Sathishkumar, Julius Fridriksson, Wylin Daigle, Adam L Boxer, Bruce L Miller, Maria Luisa Gorno-Tempini
The non-fluent/agrammatic variant of primary progressive aphasia (nfvPPA) presents with a gradual decline in grammar and motor speech resulting from selective degeneration of speech-language regions in the brain. There has been considerable progress in identifying treatment approaches to remediate language deficits in other primary progressive aphasia variants; however, interventions for the core deficits in nfvPPA have yet to be systematically investigated. Further, the neural mechanisms that support behavioural restitution in the context of neurodegeneration are not well understood...
April 30, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716655/a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-cross-over-clinical-trial-of-donepezil-in-posterior-cortical-atrophy-due-to-underlying-alzheimer-s-disease-donipad-study
#16
Basil H Ridha, Sebastian Crutch, Dawn Cutler, Christopher Frost, William Knight, Suzie Barker, Norah Epie, Elizabeth K Warrington, Riitta Kukkastenvehmas, Jane Douglas, Martin N Rossor
BACKGROUND: The study investigated whether donepezil exerts symptomatic benefit in patients with posterior cortical atrophy (PCA), an atypical variant of Alzheimer's disease. METHODS: A single-centre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over clinical trial was performed to assess the efficacy of donepezil in patients with PCA. Each patient received either donepezil (5 mg once daily in the first 6 weeks and 10 mg once daily in the second 6 weeks) or placebo for 12 weeks...
May 1, 2018: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710718/the-progressive-acalculia-presentation-of-parietal-variant-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
Mario F Mendez, Negar Moheb, Randy E Desarzant, Edmond H Teng
BACKGROUND: Many patients with early-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD; age of onset <65 years) have non-amnestic presentations involving language (logopenic primary progressive aphasia, lvPPA), visuospatial abilities (posterior cortical atrophy, PCA), and even asymmetric symptoms consistent with corticobasal syndrome (CBS). An inferior parietal lobule variant of EOAD commonly presents with progressive difficulty with calculations. METHODS: We reviewed 276 EOAD patients for presentations with predominant acalculia...
April 28, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709504/the-pleiotropic-transcriptional-regulator-coup-tfi-plays-multiple-roles-in-neural-development-and-disease
#18
REVIEW
Michele Bertacchi, Josephine Parisot, Michèle Studer
Transcription factors are expressed in a dynamic fashion both in time and space during brain development, and exert their roles by activating a cascade of multiple target genes. This implies that understanding the precise function of a transcription factor becomes a challenging task. In this review, we will focus on COUP-TFI (or NR2F1), a nuclear receptor belonging to the superfamily of the steroid/thyroid hormone receptors, and considered to be one of the major transcriptional regulators orchestrating cortical arealization, cell-type specification and maturation...
April 27, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706882/cognitive-function-and-brain-atrophy-predict-non-pharmacological-efficacy-in-dementia-the-mihama-kiho-scan-project2
#19
Ken-Ichi Tabei, Masayuki Satoh, Jun-Ichi Ogawa, Tomoko Tokita, Noriko Nakaguchi, Koji Nakao, Hirotaka Kida, Hidekazu Tomimoto
We aimed to determine whether neuropsychological deficits and brain atrophy could predict the efficacy of non-pharmacological interventions. Forty-six participants with mild-to-moderate dementia were monitored for 6 months; 25 underwent an intervention involving physical exercise with music, and 21 performed cognitive stimulation tasks. Participants were categorized into improvement (IMP) and no-IMP subgroups. In the exercise-with-music group, the no-IMP subgroup performed worse than the IMP subgroup on the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test at baseline...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706150/neurosyphilis-mighty-imitator-forays-with-benign-presentation-and-unique-neuroimaging-findings
#20
Harmanpreet Tiwana, Aiesha Ahmed
Background: Common causes of temporal lobe hyper intensities are central nervous system infections like herpes simplex encephalitis, Lyme disease, limbic encephalitis and vascular pathology like Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy. Methods: Personal assessment, laboratory data analysis and neuroimaging for the patient who was admitted to a central Pennsylvania tertiary care referral centre were conducted. Results: A 52-year-old male presented with a 1-year history of diffuse dysesthesia in upper and lower extremities with associated intermittent headaches and neck stiffness...
April 30, 2018: Sexual Health
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