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Sucrase-isomaltase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28568243/rethinking-the-starch-digestion-hypothesis-for-amy1-copy-number-variation-in-humans
#1
EDITORIAL
Catalina I Fernández, Andrea S Wiley
Alpha-amylase exists across taxonomic kingdoms with a deep evolutionary history of gene duplications that resulted in several α-amylase paralogs. Copy number variation (CNV) in the salivary α-amylase gene (AMY1) exists in many taxa, but among primates, humans appear to have higher average AMY1 copies than nonhuman primates. Additionally, AMY1 CNV in humans has been associated with starch content of diets, and one known function of α-amylase is its involvement in starch digestion. Thus high AMY1 CNV is considered to result from selection favoring more efficient starch digestion in the Homo lineage...
June 1, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522605/structure-function-analysis-of-human-sucrase-isomaltase-identifies-key-residues-required-for-catalytic-activity
#2
Birthe Gericke, Natalie Schecker, Mahdi Amiri, Hassan Y Naim
Sucrase-isomaltase (SI) is an intestinal membrane-associated α-glucosidase that breaks down di- and oligosaccharides to absorbable monosaccharides. SI has two homologous functional subunits (sucrase and isomaltase) that both belong to the glycoside hydrolase family 31 (GH31) and differ in substrate specificity. All GH31 enzymes share a consensus sequence harboring an aspartic acid residue as a catalytic nucleophile. Moreover, crystallographic structural analysis of isomaltase predicts that another aspartic acid residue functions as a proton donor in hydrolysis...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443839/phenolic-compounds-increase-the-transcription-of-mouse-intestinal-maltase-glucoamylase-and-sucrase-isomaltase
#3
Meric Simsek, Roberto Quezada-Calvillo, Buford L Nichols, Bruce R Hamaker
Diverse natural phenolic compounds show inhibition activity of intestinal α-glucosidases, which may constitute the molecular basis for their ability to control systemic glycemia. Additionally, phenolics can modify mRNA expression for proteins involved in nutritional, metabolic or immune processes. To explore the possibility that phenolics can regulate the mRNA expression, enzymatic activity, and protein synthesis/processing of intestinal Maltase-Glucoamylase (MGAM) and Sucrase-Isomaltase (SI), small intestinal explants from Balb/c mice were cultured for 24 h in the presence or absence of gallic acid, caffeic acid, and (+)-catechin at 0...
May 24, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423120/primary-cultures-of-mouse-small-intestinal-epithelial-cells-using-the-dissociating-enzyme-type-i-collagenase-and-hyaluronidase
#4
H J Ren, C L Zhang, R D Liu, N Li, X G Li, H K Xue, Y Guo, Z Q Wang, J Cui, L Ming
The epithelium is a highly dynamic system, which plays a crucial role in the homeostasis of the intestinal tract. However, studies on the physiological and pathophysiological functions of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) have been hampered due to lack of normal epithelial cell models. In the present study, we established a reproducible method for primary culture of mouse IECs, which were isolated from the viable small intestinal crypts of murine fetuses (on embryonic day 19), using type I collagenase and hyaluronidase in a short span of time (≤20 min)...
April 13, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402256/a-potential-anti-tumor-effect-of-leukotriene-c4-through-the-induction-of-15-hydroxyprostaglandin-dehydrogenase-expression-in-colon-cancer-cells
#5
Lubna M Mehdawi, Shakti Ranjan Satapathy, Annika Gustafsson, Kent Lundholm, Maria Alvarado-Kristensson, Anita Sjölander
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Cyclooxygenase-2, which plays a key role in the biosynthesis of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), is often up-regulated in CRC and in other types of cancer. PGE2 induces angiogenesis and tumor cell survival, proliferation and migration. The tumor suppressor 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) is a key enzyme in PGE2 catabolism, converting it into its inactive metabolite 15-keto-PGE2, and is often down-regulated in cancer...
May 23, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339792/interference-of-age-and-supplementation-of-direct-fed-microbial-and-essential-oil-in-the-activity-of-digestive-enzymes-and-expression-of-genes-related-to-transport-and-digestion-of-carbohydrates-and-proteins-in-the-small-intestine-of-broilers
#6
M F Fernandez-Alarcon, N Trottier, J P Steibel, R Lunedo, D M B Campos, A M Santana, J M Pizauro, R L Furlan, L R Furlan
The objectives of this study were to describe alterations that age and dietary inclusion of direct-fed microbial (DFM) Bacillus subtilis (BS) and a specific essential oil (EO) blend (carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, cineol, and pepper extract) causes in the activity of digestive enzymes (maltase: MALT; aminopeptidase-N: APN; intestinal alkaline phosphate: IAP) and expression patterns of genes related to transport (oligopeptide transporter gene: SLC15A1; Na+-dependent glucose and galactose transporter gene: SLC5A1; Na+-independent glucose, galactose, and fructose transporter gene: SLC2A2; ATPase, Na+/K+ transporting gene: ATP1A1) and digestion (aminopeptidase-N gene: ANPEP; maltase-glucoamylase gene: MGAM; Sucrase-isomaltase gene: SI) of carbohydrates and proteins in the small intestine of broilers...
February 23, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267073/improved-starch-digestion-of-sucrase-deficient-shrews-treated-with-oral-glucoamylase-enzyme-supplements
#7
Buford L Nichols, Stephen E Avery, Roberto Quezada-Calvillo, Shadi B Kilani, Amy Hui-Mei Lin, Douglas G Burrin, Benjamin E Hodges, Shaji K Chacko, Antone R Opekun, Marwa El Hindawy, Bruce R Hamaker, Sen-Ichi Oda
Although named because of its sucrose hydrolytic activity, this mucosal enzyme plays a leading role in starch digestion because of its maltase and glucoamylase activities. Sucrase deficient mutant shrews, Suncus murinus, were used as a model to investigate starch digestion in patients with Congenital Sucrase-isomaltase Deficiency (CSID). BACKGROUND: Starch digestion is much more complex than sucrose digestion. Six enzyme activities, two α-amylases (Amy) and four mucosal α-glucosidases (maltases), including maltase-glucoamylase (Mgam) and sucrase-isomaltase (Si) subunit activities, are needed to digest starch to absorbable free glucose...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103775/interaction-of-antipsychotic-drugs-with-sucrase-kinetics-and-structural-study
#8
Narges Jafari, Helia Dehganpour, Nava Ghavanini, Hamidreza Mollasalehi, Dariush Minai-Tehrani
BACKGROUND: In patients with the Congenital Sucrase-Isomaltase Deficiency (CSID), who lack intestinal sucrase-isomaltase enzyme, a suspension of yeast sucrase is applied as a drug to compensate the enzyme deficiency. While antipsychotic drugs are used for the treatment of schizophrenia, administering multiple drugs at the same time may counteract each other. METHODS: In this study, the interaction between trifluoperazine and haloperidol as antipsychotic drugs on oral drug yeast sucrase was investigated...
2017: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062276/molecular-pathogenicity-of-novel-sucrase-isomaltase-mutations-found-in-congenital-sucrase-isomaltase-deficiency-patients
#9
Birthe Gericke, Mahdi Amiri, C Ronald Scott, Hassan Y Naim
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency (CSID) is a genetic disorder associated with mutations in the sucrase-isomaltase (SI) gene. The diagnosis of congenital diarrheal disorders like CSID is difficult due to unspecific symptoms and usually requires invasive biopsy sampling of the intestine. Sequencing of the SI gene and molecular analysis of the resulting potentially pathogenic SI protein variants may facilitate a diagnosis in the future. This study aimed to categorize SI mutations based on their functional consequences...
January 3, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042022/ghrelin-modulates-gene-and-protein-expression-of-digestive-enzymes-in-the-intestine-and-hepatopancreas-of-goldfish-carassius-auratus-via-the-ghs-r1a-possible-roles-of-plc-pkc-and-ac-pka-intracellular-signaling-pathways
#10
Ayelén Melisa Blanco, Juan Ignacio Bertucci, Aída Sánchez-Bretaño, María Jesús Delgado, Ana Isabel Valenciano, Suraj Unniappan
Ghrelin, a multifunctional gut-brain hormone, is involved in the regulation of gastric functions in mammals. This study aimed to determine whether ghrelin modulates digestive enzymes in goldfish (Carassius auratus). Immunofluorescence microscopy found colocalization of ghrelin, GHS-R1a and the digestive enzymes sucrase-isomaltase, aminopeptidase A, trypsin and lipoprotein lipase in intestinal and hepatopancreatic cells. In vitro ghrelin treatment in intestinal and hepatopancreas explant culture led to a concentration- and time-dependent modulation (mainly stimulatory) of most of the digestive enzymes tested...
February 15, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935584/ketogenesis-contributes-to-intestinal-cell-differentiation
#11
Qingding Wang, Yuning Zhou, Piotr Rychahou, Teresa W-M Fan, Andrew N Lane, Heidi L Weiss, B Mark Evers
The intestinal epithelium undergoes a continual process of proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Previously, we have shown that the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway has a critical role in intestinal homeostasis. However, the downstream targets mediating the effects of mTOR in intestinal cells are not known. Here, we show that the ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB), an endogenous inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs) induces intestinal cell differentiation as noted by the increased expression of differentiation markers (Mucin2 (MUC2), lysozyme, IAP, sucrase-isomaltase, KRT20, villin, Caudal-related homeobox transcription factor 2 (CDX2) and p21(Waf1))...
March 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872184/functional-variants-in-the-sucrase-isomaltase-gene-associate-with-increased-risk-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#12
Maria Henström, Lena Diekmann, Ferdinando Bonfiglio, Fatemeh Hadizadeh, Eva-Maria Kuech, Maren von Köckritz-Blickwede, Louise B Thingholm, Tenghao Zheng, Ghazaleh Assadi, Claudia Dierks, Martin Heine, Ute Philipp, Ottmar Distl, Mary E Money, Meriem Belheouane, Femke-Anouska Heinsen, Joseph Rafter, Gerardo Nardone, Rosario Cuomo, Paolo Usai-Satta, Francesca Galeazzi, Matteo Neri, Susanna Walter, Magnus Simrén, Pontus Karling, Bodil Ohlsson, Peter T Schmidt, Greger Lindberg, Aldona Dlugosz, Lars Agreus, Anna Andreasson, Emeran Mayer, John F Baines, Lars Engstrand, Piero Portincasa, Massimo Bellini, Vincenzo Stanghellini, Giovanni Barbara, Lin Chang, Michael Camilleri, Andre Franke, Hassan Y Naim, Mauro D'Amato
OBJECTIVE: IBS is a common gut disorder of uncertain pathogenesis. Among other factors, genetics and certain foods are proposed to contribute. Congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency (CSID) is a rare genetic form of disaccharide malabsorption characterised by diarrhoea, abdominal pain and bloating, which are features common to IBS. We tested sucrase-isomaltase (SI) gene variants for their potential relevance in IBS. DESIGN: We sequenced SI exons in seven familial cases, and screened four CSID mutations (p...
November 21, 2016: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865621/menaquinone-4-vitamin-k2-up-regulates-expression-of-human-intestinal-alkaline-phosphatase-in-caco-2-cells
#13
Seiko Noda, Asako Yamada, Rieko Tanabe, Kanae Nakaoka, Takayuki Hosoi, Masae Goseki-Sone
Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) hydrolyzes several monophosphate esters into inorganic acid and alcohol. In humans, 4 kinds of ALP isozymes have been identified: tissue-nonspecific ALP, intestinal ALP, placental ALP, and germ cell ALP. Intestinal ALP is expressed at a high concentration in the brush border membrane of intestinal epithelial cells and is known to be affected by several kinds of nutrients, such as lipids, but the physiological function of intestinal ALP has remained elusive. Vitamin K is an essential cofactor for the posttranslational carboxylation of glutamate residues into γ-carboxy glutamate...
November 2016: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749612/congenital-sucrase-isomaltase-deficiency-a-novel-compound-heterozygous-mutation-causing-aberrant-protein-localization
#14
Yael Haberman, Ayelet Di Segni, Nurit Loberman-Nachum, Ortal Barel, Vered Kunik, Eran Eyal, Nitzan Kol, Goni Hout-Siloni, Brigitte Kochavi, Camila Avivi, Michael Schvimer, Gideon Rechavi, Yair Anikster, Iris Barshack, Batia Weiss
OBJECTIVES: Congenital diarrheal disorders is a group of inherited enteropathies presenting in early life and requiring parenteral nutrition. In most cases, genetics may be the key for precise diagnosis. We present an infant girl with chronic congenital diarrhea that resolved after introduction of fructose-based formula but had no identified mutation in the SLC5A1 gene. Using whole exome sequencing (WES) we identified other mutations that better dictated dietary adjustments. METHODS: WES of the patient and her parents was performed...
May 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27173889/pigs-that-are-divergent-in-feed-efficiency-differ-in-intestinal-enzyme-and-nutrient-transporter-gene-expression-nutrient-digestibility-and-microbial-activity
#15
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
S Vigors, T Sweeney, C J O'Shea, A K Kelly, J V O'Doherty
Feed efficiency is an important trait in the future sustainability of pig production, however, the mechanisms involved are not fully elucidated. The objective of this study was to examine nutrient digestibility, organ weights, select bacterial populations, volatile fatty acids (VFA's), enzyme and intestinal nutrient transporter gene expression in a pig population divergent in feed efficiency. Male pigs (n=75; initial BW 22.4 kg SEM 2.03 kg) were fed a standard finishing diet for 43 days before slaughter to evaluate feed intake and growth for the purpose of calculating residual feed intake (RFI)...
November 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27166598/acetonic-extract-from-the-feijoa-sellowiana-berg-fruit-exerts-antioxidant-properties-and-modulates-disaccharidases-activities-in-human-intestinal-epithelial-cells
#16
Fabio Turco, Ilaria Palumbo, Paolo Andreozzi, Giovanni Sarnelli, Francesca De Ruberto, Giuseppe Esposito, Adriana Basile, Rosario Cuomo
Feijoa sellowiana fruit has been shown to possess various biological activities, such as anti-bacterial and anti-cancer properties, in a variety of cellular models, but its activity on human intestinal epithelial cells has never been tested. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the acetonic extract of F. sellowiana fruits on the viability, membrane peroxidation, disaccharidases activities and proliferation of in vitro models of human intestinal epithelial cells. To obtain this goal, Caco-2 and HT-29 cells were exposed to the acetonic extract for 24 h...
August 2016: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27162343/taste-cell-expressed-%C3%AE-glucosidase-enzymes-contribute-to-gustatory-responses-to-disaccharides
#17
Sunil K Sukumaran, Karen K Yee, Shusuke Iwata, Ramana Kotha, Roberto Quezada-Calvillo, Buford L Nichols, Sankar Mohan, B Mario Pinto, Noriatsu Shigemura, Yuzo Ninomiya, Robert F Margolskee
The primary sweet sensor in mammalian taste cells for sugars and noncaloric sweeteners is the heteromeric combination of type 1 taste receptors 2 and 3 (T1R2+T1R3, encoded by Tas1r2 and Tas1r3 genes). However, in the absence of T1R2+T1R3 (e.g., in Tas1r3 KO mice), animals still respond to sugars, arguing for the presence of T1R-independent detection mechanism(s). Our previous findings that several glucose transporters (GLUTs), sodium glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1), and the ATP-gated K(+) (KATP) metabolic sensor are preferentially expressed in the same taste cells with T1R3 provides a potential explanation for the T1R-independent detection of sugars: sweet-responsive taste cells that respond to sugars and sweeteners may contain a T1R-dependent (T1R2+T1R3) sweet-sensing pathway for detecting sugars and noncaloric sweeteners, as well as a T1R-independent (GLUTs, SGLT1, KATP) pathway for detecting monosaccharides...
May 24, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27161454/inhibition-of-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-kinase-dna-methyltransferase-and-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-promotes-differentiation-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-into-enterocytes
#18
Nao Kodama, Takahiro Iwao, Tomoki Kabeya, Takashi Horikawa, Takuro Niwa, Yuki Kondo, Katsunori Nakamura, Tamihide Matsunaga
We previously reported that small-molecule compounds were effective in generating pharmacokinetically functional enterocytes from human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. In this study, to determine whether the compounds promote the differentiation of human iPS cells into enterocytes, we investigated the effects of a combination of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK), DNA methyltransferase (DNMT), and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β inhibitors on intestinal differentiation. Human iPS cells cultured on feeder cells were differentiated into endodermal cells by activin A...
June 2016: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26966071/modeling-of-drug-mediated-cyp3a4-induction-by-using-human-ips-cell-derived-enterocyte-like-cells
#19
Ryosuke Negoro, Kazuo Takayama, Yasuhito Nagamoto, Fuminori Sakurai, Masashi Tachibana, Hiroyuki Mizuguchi
Many drugs have potential to induce the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes, particularly cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), in small intestinal enterocytes. Therefore, a model that can accurately evaluate drug-mediated CYP3A4 induction is urgently needed. In this study, we overlaid Matrigel on the human induced pluripotent stem cells-derived enterocyte-like cells (hiPS-ELCs) to generate the mature hiPS-ELCs that could be applied to drug-mediated CYP3A4 induction test. By overlaying Matrigel in the maturation process of enterocyte-like cells, the gene expression levels of intestinal markers (VILLIN, sucrase-isomaltase, intestine-specific homeobox, caudal type homeobox 2, and intestinal fatty acid-binding protein) were enhanced suggesting that the enterocyte-like cells were maturated by Matrigel overlay...
April 15, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26879013/chromosomal-and-genetic-analysis-of-a-human-lung-adenocarcinoma-cell-line-om
#20
Yong-Wu Li, Lin Bai, Lyu-Xia Dai, Xu He, Xian-Ping Zhou
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer has become the leading cause of death in many regions. Carcinogenesis is caused by the stepwise accumulation of genetic and chromosomal changes. The aim of this study was to investigate the chromosome and gene alterations in the human lung adenocarcinoma cell line OM. METHODS: We used Giemsa banding and multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization focusing on the human lung adenocarcinoma cell line OM to analyze its chromosome alterations...
February 20, 2016: Chinese Medical Journal
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