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Drosophila nurse cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466741/rap1-negatively-regulates-the-hippo-pathway-to-polarize-directional-protrusions-in-collective-cell-migration
#1
Yu-Chiuan Chang, Jhen-Wei Wu, Yi-Chi Hsieh, Tzu-Han Huang, Zih-Min Liao, Yi-Shan Huang, James A Mondo, Denise Montell, Anna C-C Jang
In collective cell migration, directional protrusions orient cells in response to external cues, which requires coordinated polarity among the migrating cohort. However, the molecular mechanism has not been well defined. Drosophila border cells (BCs) migrate collectively and invade via the confined space between nurse cells, offering an in vivo model to examine how group polarity is organized. Here, we show that the front/back polarity of BCs requires Rap1, hyperactivation of which disrupts cluster polarity and induces misoriented protrusions and loss of asymmetry in the actin network...
February 20, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367451/-pleiotropic-functions-of-the%C3%A2-chromodomain-containing-protein-hat-trick-during-oogenesis-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#2
Ankita Singh, Debdeep Dutta, Maimuna Sali Paul, Dipti Verma, Mousumi Mutsuddi, Ashim Mukherjee
Chromatin-remodeling proteins play a profound role in the transcriptional regulation of gene expression during development. Here, we have shown that the chromodomain-containing protein Hat-trick is predominantly expressed within ----the oocyte nucleus, specifically within the heterochromatinized karyosome and that a mild expression is observed in follicle cells. Co-localization of Hat-trick with Heterochromatin Protein 1 and a Synaptonemal Complex component- C(3)G along with the diffused karyosome after hat-trick down-regulation shows the role of this protein in heterochromatin clustering and karyosome maintenance...
January 24, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358235/transcriptional-and-chromatin-changes-accompanying-de-novo-formation-of-transgenic-pirna-clusters
#3
Natalia Akulenko, Sergei Ryazansky, Valeriya Morgunova, Pavel A Komarov, Ivan Olovnikov, Chantal Vaury, Silke Jensen, Alla Kalmykova
Expression of transposable elements in the germline is controlled by Piwi-interacting (pi) RNAs produced by genomic loci termed piRNA clusters and associated with Rhino, a heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) homolog. Previously, we have shown that transgenes containing a fragment of the I retrotransposon form de novo piRNA clusters in the Drosophila germline providing suppression of I -element activity. We noted that identical transgenes located in different genomic sites vary considerably in piRNA production and classified them as "strong" and "weak" piRNA clusters...
April 2018: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295819/the-abc-transporter-eato-promotes-cell-clearance-in-the-drosophila-melanogaster-ovary
#4
Clarissa S Santoso, Tracy L Meehan, Jeanne S Peterson, Tiara M Cedano, Christopher V Turlo, Kimberly McCall
The clearance of dead cells is a fundamental process in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Genetic studies in Drosophila melanogaster , Caenorhabditis elegans , and mammals have identified two evolutionarily conserved signaling pathways that act redundantly to regulate this engulfment process: the ced-1/-6/-7 and ced-2/-5/-12 pathways. Of these engulfment genes, only the ced-7/ABCA1 ortholog remains to be identified in D. melanogaster Homology searches have revealed a family of putative ced-7/ABCA1 homologs encoding ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in D...
March 2, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205681/meroistic-oogenesis-of-drosophila-in-section-in-situ
#5
Alexandra L Mattei, Mariana F Wolfner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 4, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056490/nucleus-positioning-within-drosophila-egg-chamber
#6
REVIEW
Fred Bernard, Jean-Antoine Lepesant, Antoine Guichet
Both types of Drosophila egg chamber germ cells, i.e. oocyte and nurse cells, have to control their nucleus positions in order to produce a viable gamete. Interestingly, while actin microfilaments are crucial to position the nuclei in nurse cells, these are the microtubules that are important for oocyte nucleus to migrate and adopt the correct position. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms underlying these positioning processes in the two cell types with respect to the organization and dynamics of the actin and microtubule skeleton...
October 19, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975408/genome-wide-analysis-of-su-var-3-9-distribution-in-chromosomes-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#7
Daniil A Maksimov, Petr P Laktionov, Olga V Posukh, Stepan N Belyakin, Dmitry E Koryakov
Histone modifications represent one of the key factors contributing to proper genome regulation. One of histone modifications involved in gene silencing is methylation of H3K9 residue. Present in the chromosomes across different eukaryotes, this epigenetic mark is controlled by SU(VAR)3-9 and its orthologs. Despite SU(VAR)3-9 was discovered over two decades ago, little is known about the details of its chromosomal distribution pattern. To fill in this gap, we used DamID-seq approach and obtained high-resolution genome-wide profiles for SU(VAR)3-9 in two somatic (salivary glands and brain ganglia) and two germline (ovarian nurse cells and testes) tissues of Drosophila melanogaster...
October 3, 2017: Chromosoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841917/effects-of-wolbachia-on-ovarian-apoptosis-in-culex-quinquefasciatus-say-1823-during-the-previtellogenic-and-vitellogenic-periods
#8
Fabio Almeida, Lincoln Suesdek
BACKGROUND: Apoptosis is programmed cell death that ordinarily occurs in ovarian follicular cells in various organisms. In the best-studied holometabolous insect, Drosophila, this kind of cell death occurs in all three cell types found in the follicles, sometimes leading to follicular atresia and egg degeneration. On the other hand, egg development, quantity and viability in the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus are disturbed by the infection with the endosymbiont Wolbachia. Considering that Wolbachia alters reproductive traits, we hypothesised that such infection would also alter the apoptosis in the ovarian cells of this mosquito...
August 25, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760927/multiple-cis-acting-signals-some-weak-by-necessity-collectively-direct-robust-transport-of-oskar-mrna-to-the-oocyte
#9
Young Hee Ryu, Andrew Kenny, Youme Gim, Mark Snee, Paul M Macdonald
Localization of mRNAs can involve multiple steps, each with its own cis-acting localization signals and transport factors. How is the transition between different steps orchestrated? We show that the initial step in localization of Drosophila oskar mRNA - transport from nurse cells to the oocyte - relies on multiple cis-acting signals. Some of these are binding sites for the translational control factor Bruno, suggesting that Bruno plays an additional role in mRNA transport. Although transport of oskar mRNA is essential and robust, the localization activity of individual transport signals is weak...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522430/the-drosophila-lin54-homolog-mip120-controls-two-aspects-of-oogenesis
#10
Mei-Hsin Cheng, Laura Andrejka, Paul J Vorster, Albert Hinman, Joseph S Lipsick
The conserved multi-protein MuvB core associates with the Myb oncoproteins and with the RB-E2F-DP tumor suppressor proteins in complexes that regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Drosophila Mip120, a homolog of LIN54, is a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein within the MuvB core. A mutant of Drosophilamip120 was previously shown to cause female and male sterility. We now show that Mip120 regulates two different aspects of oogenesis. First, in the absence of the Mip120 protein, egg chambers arrest during the transition from stage 7 to 8 with a failure of the normal program of chromosomal dynamics in the ovarian nurse cells...
July 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302666/mtorc1-signalling-mediates-pi3k-dependent-large-lipid-droplet-accumulation-in-drosophila-ovarian-nurse-cells
#11
Lawrence B Mensah, Deborah C I Goberdhan, Clive Wilson
Insulin and insulin-like growth factor signalling (IIS), which is primarily mediated by the PI3-kinase (PI3K)/PTEN/Akt kinase signalling cassette, is a highly evolutionarily conserved pathway involved in co-ordinating growth, development, ageing and nutrient homeostasis with dietary intake. It controls transcriptional regulators, in addition to promoting signalling by mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1), which stimulates biosynthesis of proteins and other macromolecules, and drives organismal growth...
May 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193840/co-chaperone-hsp70-hsp90-organizing-protein-hop-is-required-for-transposon-silencing-and-piwi-interacting-rna-pirna-biogenesis
#12
Joseph A Karam, Rasesh Y Parikh, Dhananjaya Nayak, David Rosenkranz, Vamsi K Gangaraju
Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are 26-30-nucleotide germ line-specific small non-coding RNAs that have evolutionarily conserved function in mobile genetic element (transposons) silencing and maintenance of genome integrity. Drosophila Hsp70/90-organizing protein homolog (Hop), a co-chaperone, interacts with piRNA-binding protein Piwi and mediates silencing of phenotypic variations. However, it is not known whether Hop has a direct role in piRNA biogenesis and transposon silencing. Here, we show that knockdown of Hop in the germ line nurse cells (GLKD) of Drosophila ovaries leads to activation of transposons...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028052/an-rna-binding-atypical-tropomyosin-recruits-kinesin-1-dynamically-to-oskar-mrnps
#13
Imre Gáspár, Vasiliy Sysoev, Artem Komissarov, Anne Ephrussi
Localization and local translation of oskar mRNA at the posterior pole of the Drosophila oocyte directs abdominal patterning and germline formation in the embryo. The process requires recruitment and precise regulation of motor proteins to form transport-competent mRNPs. We show that the posterior-targeting kinesin-1 is loaded upon nuclear export of oskar mRNPs, prior to their dynein-dependent transport from the nurse cells into the oocyte. We demonstrate that kinesin-1 recruitment requires the DmTropomyosin1-I/C isoform, an atypical RNA-binding tropomyosin that binds directly to dimerizing oskar 3'UTRs...
February 1, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752139/targeted-downregulation-of-s36-protein-unearths-its-cardinal-role-in-chorion-biogenesis-and-architecture-during-drosophila-melanogaster-oogenesis
#14
Athanassios D Velentzas, Panagiotis D Velentzas, Niki E Sagioglou, Eumorphia G Konstantakou, Athanasios K Anagnostopoulos, Maria M Tsioka, Vassiliki E Mpakou, Zoe Kollia, Christos Consoulas, Lukas H Margaritis, Issidora S Papassideri, George Th Tsangaris, Evangelia Sarantopoulou, Alkiviadis-Constantinos Cefalas, Dimitrios J Stravopodis
Drosophila chorion represents a model biological system for the in vivo study of gene activity, epithelial development, extracellular-matrix assembly and morphogenetic-patterning control. It is produced during the late stages of oogenesis by epithelial follicle cells and develops into a highly organized multi-layered structure that exhibits regional specialization and radial complexity. Among the six major proteins involved in chorion's formation, the s36 and s38 ones are synthesized first and regulated in a cell type-specific and developmental stage-dependent manner...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686122/control-of-non-apoptotic-nurse-cell-death-by-engulfment-genes-in-drosophila
#15
Allison K Timmons, Albert A Mondragon, Tracy L Meehan, Kimberly McCall
Programmed cell death occurs as a normal part of oocyte development in Drosophila. For each egg that is formed, 15 germline-derived nurse cells transfer their cytoplasmic contents into the oocyte and die. Disruption of apoptosis or autophagy only partially inhibits the death of the nurse cells, indicating that other mechanisms significantly contribute to nurse cell death. Recently, we demonstrated that the surrounding stretch follicle cells non-autonomously promote nurse cell death during late oogenesis and that phagocytosis genes including draper, ced-12, and the JNK pathway are crucial for this process...
April 3, 2017: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27578180/splice-variants-of-the-swr1-type-nucleosome-remodeling-factor-domino-have-distinct-functions-during-drosophila-melanogaster-oogenesis
#16
Kenneth Börner, Peter B Becker
SWR1-type nucleosome remodeling factors replace histone H2A by variants to endow chromatin locally with specialized functionality. In Drosophila melanogaster a single H2A variant, H2A.V, combines functions of mammalian H2A.Z and H2A.X in transcription regulation and the DNA damage response. A major role in H2A.V incorporation for the only SWR1-like enzyme in flies, Domino, is assumed but not well documented in vivo. It is also unclear whether the two alternatively spliced isoforms, DOM-A and DOM-B, have redundant or specialized functions...
September 1, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27535426/fascin-regulates-nuclear-actin-during-drosophila-oogenesis
#17
Daniel J Kelpsch, Christopher M Groen, Tiffany N Fagan, Sweta Sudhir, Tina L Tootle
Drosophila oogenesis provides a developmental system with which to study nuclear actin. During Stages 5-9, nuclear actin levels are high in the oocyte and exhibit variation within the nurse cells. Cofilin and Profilin, which regulate the nuclear import and export of actin, also localize to the nuclei. Expression of GFP-tagged Actin results in nuclear actin rod formation. These findings indicate that nuclear actin must be tightly regulated during oogenesis. One factor mediating this regulation is Fascin. Overexpression of Fascin enhances nuclear GFP-Actin rod formation, and Fascin colocalizes with the rods...
October 1, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27512034/microtubule-microtubule-sliding-by-kinesin-1-is-essential-for-normal-cytoplasmic-streaming-in-drosophila-oocytes
#18
Wen Lu, Michael Winding, Margot Lakonishok, Jill Wildonger, Vladimir I Gelfand
Cytoplasmic streaming in Drosophila oocytes is a microtubule-based bulk cytoplasmic movement. Streaming efficiently circulates and localizes mRNAs and proteins deposited by the nurse cells across the oocyte. This movement is driven by kinesin-1, a major microtubule motor. Recently, we have shown that kinesin-1 heavy chain (KHC) can transport one microtubule on another microtubule, thus driving microtubule-microtubule sliding in multiple cell types. To study the role of microtubule sliding in oocyte cytoplasmic streaming, we used a Khc mutant that is deficient in microtubule sliding but able to transport a majority of cargoes...
August 23, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27412523/relating-proton-pumps-with-gap-junctions-colocalization-of-ductin-the-channel-forming-subunit-c-of-v-atpase-with-subunit-a-and-with-innexins-2-and-3-during-drosophila-oogenesis
#19
Julia Lautemann, Johannes Bohrmann
BACKGROUND: Ion-transport mechanisms and gap junctions are known to cooperate in creating bioelectric phenomena, like pH gradients, voltage gradients and ion fluxes within single cells, tissues, organs, and whole organisms. Such phenomena have been shown to play regulatory roles in a variety of developmental and regenerative processes. Using Drosophila oogenesis as a model system, we aim at characterizing in detail the mechanisms underlying bioelectric phenomena in order to reveal their regulatory functions...
July 13, 2016: BMC Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27198229/the-enok-acetyltransferase-complex-interacts-with-elg1-and-negatively-regulates-pcna-unloading-to-promote-the-g1-s-transition
#20
Fu Huang, Anita Saraf, Laurence Florens, Thomas Kusch, Selene K Swanson, Leanne T Szerszen, Ge Li, Arnob Dutta, Michael P Washburn, Susan M Abmayr, Jerry L Workman
KAT6 histone acetyltransferases (HATs) are highly conserved in eukaryotes and are involved in cell cycle regulation. However, information regarding their roles in regulating cell cycle progression is limited. Here, we report the identification of subunits of the Drosophila Enok complex and demonstrate that all subunits are important for its HAT activity. We further report a novel interaction between the Enok complex and the Elg1 proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-unloader complex. Depletion of Enok in S2 cells resulted in a G1/S cell cycle block, and this block can be partially relieved by depleting Elg1...
May 15, 2016: Genes & Development
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