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Drosophila nurse cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752139/targeted-downregulation-of-s36-protein-unearths-its-cardinal-role-in-chorion-biogenesis-and-architecture-during-drosophila-melanogaster-oogenesis
#1
Athanassios D Velentzas, Panagiotis D Velentzas, Niki E Sagioglou, Eumorphia G Konstantakou, Athanasios K Anagnostopoulos, Maria M Tsioka, Vassiliki E Mpakou, Zoe Kollia, Christos Consoulas, Lukas H Margaritis, Issidora S Papassideri, George Th Tsangaris, Evangelia Sarantopoulou, Alkiviadis-Constantinos Cefalas, Dimitrios J Stravopodis
Drosophila chorion represents a model biological system for the in vivo study of gene activity, epithelial development, extracellular-matrix assembly and morphogenetic-patterning control. It is produced during the late stages of oogenesis by epithelial follicle cells and develops into a highly organized multi-layered structure that exhibits regional specialization and radial complexity. Among the six major proteins involved in chorion's formation, the s36 and s38 ones are synthesized first and regulated in a cell type-specific and developmental stage-dependent manner...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686122/control-of-non-apoptotic-nurse-cell-death-by-engulfment-genes-in-drosophila
#2
Allison K Timmons, Albert A Mondragon, Tracy L Meehan, Kimberly McCall
Programmed cell death occurs as a normal part of oocyte development in Drosophila. For each egg that is formed, 15 germline-derived nurse cells transfer their cytoplasmic contents into the oocyte and die. Disruption of apoptosis or autophagy only partially inhibits the death of the nurse cells, indicating that other mechanisms significantly contribute to nurse cell death. Recently, we demonstrated that the surrounding stretch follicle cells non-autonomously promote nurse cell death during late oogenesis and that phagocytosis genes including draper, ced-12, and the JNK pathway are crucial for this process...
September 29, 2016: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27578180/splice-variants-of-the-swr1-type-nucleosome-remodeling-factor-domino-have-distinct-functions-during-drosophila-melanogaster-oogenesis
#3
Kenneth Börner, Peter B Becker
SWR1-type nucleosome remodeling factors replace histone H2A by variants to endow chromatin locally with specialized functionality. In Drosophila melanogaster a single H2A variant, H2A.V, combines functions of mammalian H2A.Z and H2A.X in transcription regulation and the DNA damage response. A major role in H2A.V incorporation for the only SWR1-like enzyme in flies, Domino, is assumed but not well documented in vivo. It is also unclear whether the two alternatively spliced isoforms, DOM-A and DOM-B, have redundant or specialized functions...
September 1, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27535426/fascin-regulates-nuclear-actin-during-drosophila-oogenesis
#4
Daniel J Kelpsch, Christopher M Groen, Tiffany N Fagan, Sweta Sudhir, Tina L Tootle
Drosophila oogenesis provides a developmental system with which to study nuclear actin. During Stages 5-9, nuclear actin levels are high in the oocyte and exhibit variation within the nurse cells. Cofilin and Profilin, which regulate the nuclear import and export of actin, also localize to the nuclei. Expression of GFP-tagged Actin results in nuclear actin rod formation. These findings indicate that nuclear actin must be tightly regulated during oogenesis. One factor mediating this regulation is Fascin. Overexpression of Fascin enhances nuclear GFP-Actin rod formation, and Fascin colocalizes with the rods...
October 1, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27512034/microtubule-microtubule-sliding-by-kinesin-1-is-essential-for-normal-cytoplasmic-streaming-in-drosophila-oocytes
#5
Wen Lu, Michael Winding, Margot Lakonishok, Jill Wildonger, Vladimir I Gelfand
Cytoplasmic streaming in Drosophila oocytes is a microtubule-based bulk cytoplasmic movement. Streaming efficiently circulates and localizes mRNAs and proteins deposited by the nurse cells across the oocyte. This movement is driven by kinesin-1, a major microtubule motor. Recently, we have shown that kinesin-1 heavy chain (KHC) can transport one microtubule on another microtubule, thus driving microtubule-microtubule sliding in multiple cell types. To study the role of microtubule sliding in oocyte cytoplasmic streaming, we used a Khc mutant that is deficient in microtubule sliding but able to transport a majority of cargoes...
August 23, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27412523/relating-proton-pumps-with-gap-junctions-colocalization-of-ductin-the-channel-forming-subunit-c-of-v-atpase-with-subunit-a-and-with-innexins-2-and-3-during-drosophila-oogenesis
#6
Julia Lautemann, Johannes Bohrmann
BACKGROUND: Ion-transport mechanisms and gap junctions are known to cooperate in creating bioelectric phenomena, like pH gradients, voltage gradients and ion fluxes within single cells, tissues, organs, and whole organisms. Such phenomena have been shown to play regulatory roles in a variety of developmental and regenerative processes. Using Drosophila oogenesis as a model system, we aim at characterizing in detail the mechanisms underlying bioelectric phenomena in order to reveal their regulatory functions...
July 13, 2016: BMC Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27198229/the-enok-acetyltransferase-complex-interacts-with-elg1-and-negatively-regulates-pcna-unloading-to-promote-the-g1-s-transition
#7
Fu Huang, Anita Saraf, Laurence Florens, Thomas Kusch, Selene K Swanson, Leanne T Szerszen, Ge Li, Arnob Dutta, Michael P Washburn, Susan M Abmayr, Jerry L Workman
KAT6 histone acetyltransferases (HATs) are highly conserved in eukaryotes and are involved in cell cycle regulation. However, information regarding their roles in regulating cell cycle progression is limited. Here, we report the identification of subunits of the Drosophila Enok complex and demonstrate that all subunits are important for its HAT activity. We further report a novel interaction between the Enok complex and the Elg1 proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-unloader complex. Depletion of Enok in S2 cells resulted in a G1/S cell cycle block, and this block can be partially relieved by depleting Elg1...
May 15, 2016: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27172217/evolution-expression-and-function-of-nonneuronal-ligand-gated-chloride-channels-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#8
Emily J Remnant, Adam Williams, Chris Lumb, Ying Ting Yang, Janice Chan, Sebastian Duchêne, Phillip J Daborn, Philip Batterham, Trent Perry
Ligand-gated chloride channels have established roles in inhibitory neurotransmission in the nervous systems of vertebrates and invertebrates. Paradoxically, expression databases in Drosophila melanogaster have revealed that three uncharacterized ligand-gated chloride channel subunits, CG7589, CG6927, and CG11340, are highly expressed in nonneuronal tissues. Furthermore, subunit copy number varies between insects, with some orders containing one ortholog, whereas other lineages exhibit copy number increases...
2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27166813/a-mechanism-for-cytoplasmic-streaming-kinesin-driven-alignment-of-microtubules-and-fast-fluid-flows
#9
Corey E Monteith, Matthew E Brunner, Inna Djagaeva, Anthony M Bielecki, Joshua M Deutsch, William M Saxton
The transport of cytoplasmic components can be profoundly affected by hydrodynamics. Cytoplasmic streaming in Drosophila oocytes offers a striking example. Forces on fluid from kinesin-1 are initially directed by a disordered meshwork of microtubules, generating minor slow cytoplasmic flows. Subsequently, to mix incoming nurse cell cytoplasm with ooplasm, a subcortical layer of microtubules forms parallel arrays that support long-range, fast flows. To analyze the streaming mechanism, we combined observations of microtubule and organelle motions with detailed mathematical modeling...
May 10, 2016: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27122602/dynamic-myosin-activation-promotes-collective-morphology-and-migration-by-locally-balancing-oppositional-forces-from-surrounding-tissue
#10
George Aranjuez, Ashley Burtscher, Ketki Sawant, Pralay Majumder, Jocelyn A McDonald
Migrating cells need to overcome physical constraints from the local microenvironment to navigate their way through tissues. Cells that move collectively have the additional challenge of negotiating complex environments in vivo while maintaining cohesion of the group as a whole. The mechanisms by which collectives maintain a migratory morphology while resisting physical constraints from the surrounding tissue are poorly understood. Drosophila border cells represent a genetic model of collective migration within a cell-dense tissue...
June 15, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27017624/multiple-roles-for-egalitarian-in-polarization-of-the-drosophila-egg-chamber
#11
Paulomi Sanghavi, Guojun Liu, Rajalakshmi Veeranan-Karmegam, Caryn Navarro, Graydon B Gonsalvez
The Drosophila egg chamber provides a useful model for examining mechanisms by which cell fates are specified and maintained in the context of a complex tissue. The egg chamber is also an excellent model for understanding the mechanism by which cytoskeletal filaments are organized and the critical interplay between cytoskeletal organization, polarity establishment, and cell fate specification. Previous work has shown that Egalitarian (Egl) is required for specification and maintenance of oocyte fate. Mutants in egl either completely fail to specify an oocyte, or if specified, the oocyte eventually reverts back to nurse cell fate...
May 2016: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26947065/localized-translation-of-gurken-tgf-%C3%AE-mrna-during-axis-specification-is-controlled-by-access-to-orb-cpeb-on-processing-bodies
#12
Alexander Davidson, Richard M Parton, Catherine Rabouille, Timothy T Weil, Ilan Davis
In Drosophila oocytes, gurken/TGF-α mRNA is essential for establishing the future embryonic axes. gurken remains translationally silent during transport from its point of synthesis in nurse cells to its final destination in the oocyte, where it associates with the edge of processing bodies. Here we show that, in nurse cells, gurken is kept translationally silent by the lack of sufficient Orb/CPEB, its translational activator. Processing bodies in nurse cells have a similar protein complement and ultrastructure to those in the oocyte, but they markedly less Orb and do not associate with gurken mRNA...
March 15, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26917595/mouse-oocytes-differentiate-through-organelle-enrichment-from-sister-cyst-germ-cells
#13
Lei Lei, Allan C Spradling
Oocytes differentiate in diverse species by receiving organelles and cytoplasm from sister germ cells while joined in germline cysts or syncytia. Mouse primordial germ cells form germline cysts, but the role of cysts in oogenesis is unknown. We find that mouse germ cells receive organelles from neighboring cyst cells and build a Balbiani body to become oocytes, whereas nurselike germ cells die. Organelle movement, Balbiani body formation, and oocyte fate determination are selectively blocked by low levels of microtubule-dependent transport inhibitors...
April 1, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26884181/phagocytosis-genes-nonautonomously-promote-developmental-cell-death-in-the-drosophila-ovary
#14
Allison K Timmons, Albert A Mondragon, Claire E Schenkel, Alla Yalonetskaya, Jeffrey D Taylor, Katherine E Moynihan, Jon Iker Etchegaray, Tracy L Meehan, Kimberly McCall
Programmed cell death (PCD) is usually considered a cell-autonomous suicide program, synonymous with apoptosis. Recent research has revealed that PCD is complex, with at least a dozen cell death modalities. Here, we demonstrate that the large-scale nonapoptotic developmental PCD in the Drosophila ovary occurs by an alternative cell death program where the surrounding follicle cells nonautonomously promote death of the germ line. The phagocytic machinery of the follicle cells, including Draper, cell death abnormality (Ced)-12, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), is essential for the death and removal of germ-line-derived nurse cells during late oogenesis...
March 1, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26651869/pulsed-electric-field-increases-reproduction
#15
Dimitris J Panagopoulos
Purpose To study the effect of pulsed electric field - applied in corona discharge photography - on Drosophila melanogaster reproduction, possible induction of DNA fragmentation, and morphological alterations in the gonads. Materials and methods Animals were exposed to different field intensities (100, 200, 300, and 400 kV/m) during the first 2-5 days of their adult lives, and the effect on reproductive capacity was assessed. DNA fragmentation during early- and mid-oogenesis was investigated by application of the TUNEL (Terminal deoxynucleotide transferase dUTP Nick End Labeling) assay...
2016: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26424451/drosophila-e-cadherin-is-required-for-the-maintenance-of-ring-canals-anchoring-to-mechanically-withstand-tissue-growth
#16
Nicolas Loyer, Irina Kolotuev, Mathieu Pinot, Roland Le Borgne
Intercellular bridges called "ring canals" (RCs) resulting from incomplete cytokinesis play an essential role in intercellular communication in somatic and germinal tissues. During Drosophila oogenesis, RCs connect the maturing oocyte to nurse cells supporting its growth. Despite numerous genetic screens aimed at identifying genes involved in RC biogenesis and maturation, how RCs anchor to the plasma membrane (PM) throughout development remains unexplained. In this study, we report that the clathrin adaptor protein 1 (AP-1) complex, although dispensable for the biogenesis of RCs, is required for the maintenance of the anchorage of RCs to the PM to withstand the increased membrane tension associated with the exponential tissue growth at the onset of vitellogenesis...
October 13, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26324439/detection-of-cell-death-and-phagocytosis-in-the-drosophila-ovary
#17
Tracy L Meehan, Alla Yalonetskaya, Tony F Joudi, Kimberly McCall
Billions of cells die and are cleared throughout the development and homeostasis of an organism. Either improper death or clearance can lead to serious illnesses. In the adult Drosophila ovary, germline cells can die by programmed cell death (PCD) at three distinct stages; here we focus on cell death that occurs in mid- and late oogenesis. In mid-oogenesis, the germline of egg chambers can undergo apoptosis in response to nutrient deprivation. In late oogenesis, the nurse cells are eliminated through a developmentally regulated, non-apoptotic cell death...
2015: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26068215/specific-localization-of-the-drosophila-telomere-transposon-proteins-and-rnas-give-insight-in-their-behavior-control-and-telomere-biology-in-this-organism
#18
Elisenda López-Panadès, Elizabeth R Gavis, Elena Casacuberta
Drosophila telomeres constitute a remarkable exception to the telomerase mechanism. Although maintaining the same cytological and functional properties as telomerase maintain telomeres, Drosophila telomeres embed the telomere retrotransposons whose specific and highly regulated terminal transposition maintains the appropriate telomere length in this organism. Nevertheless, our current understanding of how the mechanism of the retrotransposon telomere works and which features are shared with the telomerase system is very limited...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25882370/the-insulator-protein-suppressor-of-hairy-wing-is-required-for-proper-ring-canal-development-during-oogenesis-in-drosophila
#19
Shih-Jui Hsu, Maria P Plata, Ben Ernest, Saghi Asgarifar, Mariano Labrador
Chromatin insulators orchestrate gene transcription during embryo development and cell differentiation by stabilizing interactions between distant genomic sites. Mutations in genes encoding insulator proteins are generally lethal, making in vivo functional analyses of insulator proteins difficult. In Drosophila, however, mutations in the gene encoding the Suppressor of Hairy wing insulator protein [Su(Hw)] are viable and female sterile, providing an opportunity to study insulator function during oocyte development...
July 1, 2015: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25875645/a-mathematical-model-of-collective-cell-migration-in-a-three-dimensional-heterogeneous-environment
#20
David P Stonko, Lathiena Manning, Michelle Starz-Gaiano, Bradford E Peercy
Cell migration is essential in animal development, homeostasis, and disease progression, but many questions remain unanswered about how this process is controlled. While many kinds of individual cell movements have been characterized, less effort has been directed towards understanding how clusters of cells migrate collectively through heterogeneous, cellular environments. To explore this, we have focused on the migration of the border cells during Drosophila egg development. In this case, a cluster of different cell types coalesce and traverse as a group between large cells, called nurse cells, in the center of the egg chamber...
2015: PloS One
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