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Drosophila nurse cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522430/the-drosophila-lin54-homolog-mip120-controls-two-aspects-of-oogenesis
#1
Mei-Hsin Cheng, Laura Andrejka, Paul J Vorster, Albert Hinman, Joseph S Lipsick
The conserved multi-protein MuvB core associates with the Myb oncoproteins and with the RB-E2F-DP tumor suppressor proteins in complexes that regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Drosophila Mip120, a homolog of LIN54, is a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein within the MuvB core. A mutant of Drosophila mip120 was previously shown to cause female and male sterility. We now show that Mip120 regulates two different aspects of oogenesis. First, in the absence of the Mip120 protein, egg chambers arrest during the transition from stage 7 to 8 with a failure of the normal program of chromosomal dynamics in the ovarian nurse cells...
May 18, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302666/mtorc1-signalling-mediates-pi3k-dependent-large-lipid-droplet-accumulation-in-drosophila-ovarian-nurse-cells
#2
Lawrence B Mensah, Deborah C I Goberdhan, Clive Wilson
Insulin and insulin-like growth factor signalling (IIS), which is primarily mediated by the PI3-kinase (PI3K)/PTEN/Akt kinase signalling cassette, is a highly evolutionarily conserved pathway involved in co-ordinating growth, development, ageing and nutrient homeostasis with dietary intake. It controls transcriptional regulators, in addition to promoting signalling by mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1), which stimulates biosynthesis of proteins and other macromolecules, and drives organismal growth...
May 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193840/co-chaperone-hsp70-hsp90-organizing-protein-hop-is-required-for-transposon-silencing-and-piwi-interacting-rna-pirna-biogenesis
#3
Joseph A Karam, Rasesh Y Parikh, Dhananjaya Nayak, David Rosenkranz, Vamsi K Gangaraju
Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are 26-30-nucleotide germ line-specific small non-coding RNAs that have evolutionarily conserved function in mobile genetic element (transposons) silencing and maintenance of genome integrity. Drosophila Hsp70/90-organizing protein homolog (Hop), a co-chaperone, interacts with piRNA-binding protein Piwi and mediates silencing of phenotypic variations. However, it is not known whether Hop has a direct role in piRNA biogenesis and transposon silencing. Here, we show that knockdown of Hop in the germ line nurse cells (GLKD) of Drosophila ovaries leads to activation of transposons...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028052/an-rna-binding-atypical-tropomyosin-recruits-kinesin-1-dynamically-to-oskar-mrnps
#4
Imre Gáspár, Vasiliy Sysoev, Artem Komissarov, Anne Ephrussi
Localization and local translation of oskar mRNA at the posterior pole of the Drosophila oocyte directs abdominal patterning and germline formation in the embryo. The process requires recruitment and precise regulation of motor proteins to form transport-competent mRNPs. We show that the posterior-targeting kinesin-1 is loaded upon nuclear export of oskar mRNPs, prior to their dynein-dependent transport from the nurse cells into the oocyte. We demonstrate that kinesin-1 recruitment requires the DmTropomyosin1-I/C isoform, an atypical RNA-binding tropomyosin that binds directly to dimerizing oskar 3'UTRs...
February 1, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752139/targeted-downregulation-of-s36-protein-unearths-its-cardinal-role-in-chorion-biogenesis-and-architecture-during-drosophila-melanogaster-oogenesis
#5
Athanassios D Velentzas, Panagiotis D Velentzas, Niki E Sagioglou, Eumorphia G Konstantakou, Athanasios K Anagnostopoulos, Maria M Tsioka, Vassiliki E Mpakou, Zoe Kollia, Christos Consoulas, Lukas H Margaritis, Issidora S Papassideri, George Th Tsangaris, Evangelia Sarantopoulou, Alkiviadis-Constantinos Cefalas, Dimitrios J Stravopodis
Drosophila chorion represents a model biological system for the in vivo study of gene activity, epithelial development, extracellular-matrix assembly and morphogenetic-patterning control. It is produced during the late stages of oogenesis by epithelial follicle cells and develops into a highly organized multi-layered structure that exhibits regional specialization and radial complexity. Among the six major proteins involved in chorion's formation, the s36 and s38 ones are synthesized first and regulated in a cell type-specific and developmental stage-dependent manner...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686122/control-of-non-apoptotic-nurse-cell-death-by-engulfment-genes-in-drosophila
#6
Allison K Timmons, Albert A Mondragon, Tracy L Meehan, Kimberly McCall
Programmed cell death occurs as a normal part of oocyte development in Drosophila. For each egg that is formed, 15 germline-derived nurse cells transfer their cytoplasmic contents into the oocyte and die. Disruption of apoptosis or autophagy only partially inhibits the death of the nurse cells, indicating that other mechanisms significantly contribute to nurse cell death. Recently, we demonstrated that the surrounding stretch follicle cells non-autonomously promote nurse cell death during late oogenesis and that phagocytosis genes including draper, ced-12, and the JNK pathway are crucial for this process...
April 3, 2017: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27578180/splice-variants-of-the-swr1-type-nucleosome-remodeling-factor-domino-have-distinct-functions-during-drosophila-melanogaster-oogenesis
#7
Kenneth Börner, Peter B Becker
SWR1-type nucleosome remodeling factors replace histone H2A by variants to endow chromatin locally with specialized functionality. In Drosophila melanogaster a single H2A variant, H2A.V, combines functions of mammalian H2A.Z and H2A.X in transcription regulation and the DNA damage response. A major role in H2A.V incorporation for the only SWR1-like enzyme in flies, Domino, is assumed but not well documented in vivo. It is also unclear whether the two alternatively spliced isoforms, DOM-A and DOM-B, have redundant or specialized functions...
September 1, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27535426/fascin-regulates-nuclear-actin-during-drosophila-oogenesis
#8
Daniel J Kelpsch, Christopher M Groen, Tiffany N Fagan, Sweta Sudhir, Tina L Tootle
Drosophila oogenesis provides a developmental system with which to study nuclear actin. During Stages 5-9, nuclear actin levels are high in the oocyte and exhibit variation within the nurse cells. Cofilin and Profilin, which regulate the nuclear import and export of actin, also localize to the nuclei. Expression of GFP-tagged Actin results in nuclear actin rod formation. These findings indicate that nuclear actin must be tightly regulated during oogenesis. One factor mediating this regulation is Fascin. Overexpression of Fascin enhances nuclear GFP-Actin rod formation, and Fascin colocalizes with the rods...
October 1, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27512034/microtubule-microtubule-sliding-by-kinesin-1-is-essential-for-normal-cytoplasmic-streaming-in-drosophila-oocytes
#9
Wen Lu, Michael Winding, Margot Lakonishok, Jill Wildonger, Vladimir I Gelfand
Cytoplasmic streaming in Drosophila oocytes is a microtubule-based bulk cytoplasmic movement. Streaming efficiently circulates and localizes mRNAs and proteins deposited by the nurse cells across the oocyte. This movement is driven by kinesin-1, a major microtubule motor. Recently, we have shown that kinesin-1 heavy chain (KHC) can transport one microtubule on another microtubule, thus driving microtubule-microtubule sliding in multiple cell types. To study the role of microtubule sliding in oocyte cytoplasmic streaming, we used a Khc mutant that is deficient in microtubule sliding but able to transport a majority of cargoes...
August 23, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27412523/relating-proton-pumps-with-gap-junctions-colocalization-of-ductin-the-channel-forming-subunit-c-of-v-atpase-with-subunit-a-and-with-innexins-2-and-3-during-drosophila-oogenesis
#10
Julia Lautemann, Johannes Bohrmann
BACKGROUND: Ion-transport mechanisms and gap junctions are known to cooperate in creating bioelectric phenomena, like pH gradients, voltage gradients and ion fluxes within single cells, tissues, organs, and whole organisms. Such phenomena have been shown to play regulatory roles in a variety of developmental and regenerative processes. Using Drosophila oogenesis as a model system, we aim at characterizing in detail the mechanisms underlying bioelectric phenomena in order to reveal their regulatory functions...
July 13, 2016: BMC Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27198229/the-enok-acetyltransferase-complex-interacts-with-elg1-and-negatively-regulates-pcna-unloading-to-promote-the-g1-s-transition
#11
Fu Huang, Anita Saraf, Laurence Florens, Thomas Kusch, Selene K Swanson, Leanne T Szerszen, Ge Li, Arnob Dutta, Michael P Washburn, Susan M Abmayr, Jerry L Workman
KAT6 histone acetyltransferases (HATs) are highly conserved in eukaryotes and are involved in cell cycle regulation. However, information regarding their roles in regulating cell cycle progression is limited. Here, we report the identification of subunits of the Drosophila Enok complex and demonstrate that all subunits are important for its HAT activity. We further report a novel interaction between the Enok complex and the Elg1 proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-unloader complex. Depletion of Enok in S2 cells resulted in a G1/S cell cycle block, and this block can be partially relieved by depleting Elg1...
May 15, 2016: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27172217/evolution-expression-and-function-of-nonneuronal-ligand-gated-chloride-channels-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#12
Emily J Remnant, Adam Williams, Chris Lumb, Ying Ting Yang, Janice Chan, Sebastian Duchêne, Phillip J Daborn, Philip Batterham, Trent Perry
Ligand-gated chloride channels have established roles in inhibitory neurotransmission in the nervous systems of vertebrates and invertebrates. Paradoxically, expression databases in Drosophila melanogaster have revealed that three uncharacterized ligand-gated chloride channel subunits, CG7589, CG6927, and CG11340, are highly expressed in nonneuronal tissues. Furthermore, subunit copy number varies between insects, with some orders containing one ortholog, whereas other lineages exhibit copy number increases...
2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27166813/a-mechanism-for-cytoplasmic-streaming-kinesin-driven-alignment-of-microtubules-and-fast-fluid-flows
#13
Corey E Monteith, Matthew E Brunner, Inna Djagaeva, Anthony M Bielecki, Joshua M Deutsch, William M Saxton
The transport of cytoplasmic components can be profoundly affected by hydrodynamics. Cytoplasmic streaming in Drosophila oocytes offers a striking example. Forces on fluid from kinesin-1 are initially directed by a disordered meshwork of microtubules, generating minor slow cytoplasmic flows. Subsequently, to mix incoming nurse cell cytoplasm with ooplasm, a subcortical layer of microtubules forms parallel arrays that support long-range, fast flows. To analyze the streaming mechanism, we combined observations of microtubule and organelle motions with detailed mathematical modeling...
May 10, 2016: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27122602/dynamic-myosin-activation-promotes-collective-morphology-and-migration-by-locally-balancing-oppositional-forces-from-surrounding-tissue
#14
George Aranjuez, Ashley Burtscher, Ketki Sawant, Pralay Majumder, Jocelyn A McDonald
Migrating cells need to overcome physical constraints from the local microenvironment to navigate their way through tissues. Cells that move collectively have the additional challenge of negotiating complex environments in vivo while maintaining cohesion of the group as a whole. The mechanisms by which collectives maintain a migratory morphology while resisting physical constraints from the surrounding tissue are poorly understood. Drosophila border cells represent a genetic model of collective migration within a cell-dense tissue...
June 15, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27017624/multiple-roles-for-egalitarian-in-polarization-of-the-drosophila-egg-chamber
#15
Paulomi Sanghavi, Guojun Liu, Rajalakshmi Veeranan-Karmegam, Caryn Navarro, Graydon B Gonsalvez
The Drosophila egg chamber provides a useful model for examining mechanisms by which cell fates are specified and maintained in the context of a complex tissue. The egg chamber is also an excellent model for understanding the mechanism by which cytoskeletal filaments are organized and the critical interplay between cytoskeletal organization, polarity establishment, and cell fate specification. Previous work has shown that Egalitarian (Egl) is required for specification and maintenance of oocyte fate. Mutants in egl either completely fail to specify an oocyte, or if specified, the oocyte eventually reverts back to nurse cell fate...
May 2016: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26947065/localized-translation-of-gurken-tgf-%C3%AE-mrna-during-axis-specification-is-controlled-by-access-to-orb-cpeb-on-processing-bodies
#16
Alexander Davidson, Richard M Parton, Catherine Rabouille, Timothy T Weil, Ilan Davis
In Drosophila oocytes, gurken/TGF-α mRNA is essential for establishing the future embryonic axes. gurken remains translationally silent during transport from its point of synthesis in nurse cells to its final destination in the oocyte, where it associates with the edge of processing bodies. Here we show that, in nurse cells, gurken is kept translationally silent by the lack of sufficient Orb/CPEB, its translational activator. Processing bodies in nurse cells have a similar protein complement and ultrastructure to those in the oocyte, but they markedly less Orb and do not associate with gurken mRNA...
March 15, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26917595/mouse-oocytes-differentiate-through-organelle-enrichment-from-sister-cyst-germ-cells
#17
Lei Lei, Allan C Spradling
Oocytes differentiate in diverse species by receiving organelles and cytoplasm from sister germ cells while joined in germline cysts or syncytia. Mouse primordial germ cells form germline cysts, but the role of cysts in oogenesis is unknown. We find that mouse germ cells receive organelles from neighboring cyst cells and build a Balbiani body to become oocytes, whereas nurselike germ cells die. Organelle movement, Balbiani body formation, and oocyte fate determination are selectively blocked by low levels of microtubule-dependent transport inhibitors...
April 1, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26884181/phagocytosis-genes-nonautonomously-promote-developmental-cell-death-in-the-drosophila-ovary
#18
Allison K Timmons, Albert A Mondragon, Claire E Schenkel, Alla Yalonetskaya, Jeffrey D Taylor, Katherine E Moynihan, Jon Iker Etchegaray, Tracy L Meehan, Kimberly McCall
Programmed cell death (PCD) is usually considered a cell-autonomous suicide program, synonymous with apoptosis. Recent research has revealed that PCD is complex, with at least a dozen cell death modalities. Here, we demonstrate that the large-scale nonapoptotic developmental PCD in the Drosophila ovary occurs by an alternative cell death program where the surrounding follicle cells nonautonomously promote death of the germ line. The phagocytic machinery of the follicle cells, including Draper, cell death abnormality (Ced)-12, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), is essential for the death and removal of germ-line-derived nurse cells during late oogenesis...
March 1, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26651869/pulsed-electric-field-increases-reproduction
#19
Dimitris J Panagopoulos
Purpose To study the effect of pulsed electric field - applied in corona discharge photography - on Drosophila melanogaster reproduction, possible induction of DNA fragmentation, and morphological alterations in the gonads. Materials and methods Animals were exposed to different field intensities (100, 200, 300, and 400 kV/m) during the first 2-5 days of their adult lives, and the effect on reproductive capacity was assessed. DNA fragmentation during early- and mid-oogenesis was investigated by application of the TUNEL (Terminal deoxynucleotide transferase dUTP Nick End Labeling) assay...
2016: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26424451/drosophila-e-cadherin-is-required-for-the-maintenance-of-ring-canals-anchoring-to-mechanically-withstand-tissue-growth
#20
Nicolas Loyer, Irina Kolotuev, Mathieu Pinot, Roland Le Borgne
Intercellular bridges called "ring canals" (RCs) resulting from incomplete cytokinesis play an essential role in intercellular communication in somatic and germinal tissues. During Drosophila oogenesis, RCs connect the maturing oocyte to nurse cells supporting its growth. Despite numerous genetic screens aimed at identifying genes involved in RC biogenesis and maturation, how RCs anchor to the plasma membrane (PM) throughout development remains unexplained. In this study, we report that the clathrin adaptor protein 1 (AP-1) complex, although dispensable for the biogenesis of RCs, is required for the maintenance of the anchorage of RCs to the PM to withstand the increased membrane tension associated with the exponential tissue growth at the onset of vitellogenesis...
October 13, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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