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M O'Sullivan, A Rap, C L Reddington, D V Spracklen, M Gloor, W Buermann
The global terrestrial carbon sink has increased since the start of this century at a time of growing carbon emissions from fossil fuel burning. Here we test the hypothesis that increases in atmospheric aerosols from fossil fuel burning enhanced the diffuse light fraction and the efficiency of plant carbon uptake. Using a combination of models, we estimate that at global scale changes in light regimes from fossil fuel aerosol emissions had only a small negative effect on the increase in terrestrial net primary production over the period 1998-2010...
August 16, 2016: Geophysical Research Letters
T F Spracklen, A A Vorster, L Ramma, S Dalvie, R S Ramesar
Ototoxicity is a disabling reaction to cisplatin chemotherapy. Much of the inter-individual variability in the development of hearing impairment among cisplatin-receiving patients has not been fully accounted for. In particular, little is known about the pharmacogenomics of cisplatin-induced ototoxicity. This study sought to investigate the role of variation in five candidate genes in a cohort of South African cancer patients. Five variants within the candidate genes were genotyped in 214 patients, of which SLC22A2 rs316019 and NFE2L2 rs6721961 associated with reduced rates of ototoxicity...
July 26, 2016: Pharmacogenomics Journal
Cassandra N Spracklen, Kelli K Ryckman, Jennifer G Robinson, Marcia L Stefanick, Gloria E Sarto, Stephen D Anton, Robert B Wallace
BACKGROUND: There is strong evidence that low and high birth weight due to in-utero programming results in elevated risk for adult diseases, though less research has been performed examining the influence of birth weight and physical disability later in life. METHODS: Baseline data from 76,055 postmenopausal women in the Women's Health Initiative, a large multi-ethnic cohort, were used to examine the association between self-reported birth weight category (<6 lbs, 6-7 lbs 15 oz, 8-9 lbs 15 oz, and ≥10 lbs) and the self-reported physical functioning score on the RAND 36-item Health Survey...
July 20, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Edward M Rogers, Andrew J Spracklen, Colleen G Bilancia, Kaelyn D Sumigray, S Colby Allred, Stephanie H Nowotarski, Kristina N Schaefer, Benjamin J Ritchie, Mark Peifer
Abelson family kinases (Abls) are key regulators of cell behavior and the cytoskeleton during development and in leukemia. Abl's SH3, SH2, and tyrosine kinase domains are joined via a linker to an F-actin-binding domain (FABD). Research on Abl's roles in cell culture led to several hypotheses for its mechanism of action: 1) Abl phosphorylates other proteins, modulating their activity, 2) Abl directly regulates the cytoskeleton via its cytoskeletal interaction domains, and/or 3) Abl is a scaffold for a signaling complex...
August 15, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Dominick V Spracklen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 17, 2016: Nature
B M Donovan, C N Spracklen, M L Schweizer, K K Ryckman, A F Saftlas
BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is of particular concern during pregnancy when not one, but two lives are at risk. Previous meta-analyses have suggested an association between IPV and adverse birth outcomes; however, many large studies have since been published, illustrating the need for updated pooled effect estimates. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationship between IPV during pregnancy and the risk of preterm birth (PTB), low-birthweight (LBW), and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants...
July 2016: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Cassandra N Spracklen, Kelli K Ryckman, Elizabeth W Triche, Audrey F Saftlas
OBJECTIVE: Physical activity (PA) is hypothesized to reduce the risk of preeclampsia, but few epidemiologic studies have simultaneously evaluated leisure time PA (LTPA), sedentary activity, occupational activity, and non-occupational, non-leisure time PA. Thus, we assessed the independent and combined effects of these different types of PA during pregnancy on preeclampsia and gestational hypertension risk. METHODS: Preeclamptic (n = 258), gestational hypertensive (n = 233), and normotensive (n = 182) women identified from Iowa live birth records (2002-2005) were participants in Study of Pregnancy Hypertension in Iowa...
June 2016: Maternal and Child Health Journal
B D Spracklen, M Kalamandeen, D Galbraith, E Gloor, D V Spracklen
Protected areas (PAs) have been established to conserve tropical forests, but their effectiveness at reducing deforestation is uncertain. To explore this issue, we combined high resolution data of global forest loss over the period 2000-2012 with data on PAs. For each PA we quantified forest loss within the PA, in buffer zones 1, 5, 10 and 15 km outside the PA boundary as well as a 1 km buffer within the PA boundary. We analysed 3376 tropical and subtropical moist forest PAs in 56 countries over 4 continents...
2015: PloS One
Sebabrata Mukherjee, Alexander Spracklen, Debaditya Choudhury, Nathan Goldman, Patrik Öhberg, Erika Andersson, Robert R Thomson
We demonstrate the first experimental realization of a dispersionless state, in a photonic Lieb lattice formed by an array of optical waveguides. This engineered lattice supports three energy bands, including a perfectly flat middle band with an infinite effective mass. We analyze, both experimentally and theoretically, the evolution of well-prepared flat-band states, and show their remarkable robustness, even in the presence of disorder. The realization of flat-band states in photonic lattices opens an exciting door towards quantum simulation of flat-band models in a highly controllable environment...
June 19, 2015: Physical Review Letters
Caitlin J Smith, Audrey F Saftlas, Cassandra N Spracklen, Elizabeth W Triche, Andrew Bjonnes, Brendan Keating, Richa Saxena, Patrick J Breheny, Andrew T Dewan, Jennifer G Robinson, Josephine Hoh, Kelli K Ryckman
BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia is a hypertensive complication of pregnancy characterized by novel onset of hypertension after 20 weeks gestation, accompanied by proteinuria. Epidemiological evidence suggests that genetic susceptibility exists for preeclampsia; however, whether preeclampsia is the result of underlying genetic risk for essential hypertension has yet to be investigated. Based on the hypertensive state that is characteristic of preeclampsia, we aimed to determine if established genetic risk scores (GRSs) for hypertension and blood pressure are associated with preeclampsia...
January 2016: American Journal of Hypertension
Colette L Heald, Dominick V Spracklen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 27, 2015: Chemical Reviews
Helen I Myers, Cassandra N Spracklen, Kelli K Ryckman, Jeffrey C Murray
OBJECTIVES: Infants are at high risk of developing chronic, life-threatening disease as a result of hepatitis B virus infection. Universal vaccination of infants against hepatitis B virus, before discharge from the hospital after delivery is recommended as a measure to eradicate infection and associated mortality and morbidity. The purpose of this study was to determine rates of perinatal hepatitis B vaccine (Hep B) administration at a tertiary care center in Iowa and to assess the impact of maternal factors on Hep B uptake...
May 11, 2015: Vaccine
Audrey F Saftlas, Cassandra N Spracklen, Kelli K Ryckman, Colleen K Stockdale, Kerri Penrose, Kevin Ault, Linda M Rubenstein, Ligia A Pinto
Over the past decade, there has been heightened interest in determining if there is an increased risk of adverse reproductive outcomes among women who had a loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) to remove cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). The objective of this exploratory study was to determine if the treatment of CIN with a LEEP is associated with changes in cervical soluble immune markers. Cervical cytokine concentrations were measured in women treated with LEEP and a control group of women who had colposcopy only and did not undergo LEEP...
June 2015: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
K K Ryckman, C N Spracklen, C J Smith, J G Robinson, A F Saftlas
BACKGROUND: Lipid levels during pregnancy in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have been extensively studied; however, it remains unclear whether dyslipidaemia is a potential marker of preexisting insulin resistance. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between lipid measures throughout pregnancy and GDM. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched PubMed-MedLine and SCOPUS (inception until January 2014) and reference lists of relevant studies...
April 2015: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Cassandra N Spracklen, Audrey F Saftlas, Elizabeth W Triche, Andrew Bjonnes, Brendan Keating, Richa Saxena, Patrick J Breheny, Andrew T Dewan, Jennifer G Robinson, Josephine Hoh, Kelli K Ryckman
BACKGROUND: Large epidemiologic studies support the role of dyslipidemia in preeclampsia; however, the etiology of preeclampsia or whether dyslipidemia plays a causal role remains unclear. We examined the association between the genetic predisposition to dyslipidemia and risk of preeclampsia using validated genetic markers of dyslipidemia. METHODS: Preeclampsia cases (n = 164) and normotensive controls (n = 110) were selected from live birth certificates to nulliparous Iowa women during the period August 2002 to May 2005...
July 2015: American Journal of Hypertension
Tyson D Fuller, Cassandra N Spracklen, Kelli K Ryckman, Lindsey A Knake, Tamara D Busch, Allison M Momany, Jeffrey C Murray, John M Dagle
BACKGROUND: In recent years, increasing numbers of preterm infants have been exposed to inhaled nitric oxide (iNO). This population has decreased methemoglobin (MetHb) reductase activity in their erythrocytes, which may increase the risk of MetHb toxicity. We sought to determine if genetic factors are associated with the observed variance in MetHb levels. METHODS: A population of 127 preterm infants was genotyped for five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CYB5A and CYB5R3 genes...
March 2015: Pediatric Research
Douglas S Hamilton, Lindsay A Lee, Kirsty J Pringle, Carly L Reddington, Dominick V Spracklen, Kenneth S Carslaw
Natural aerosols define a preindustrial baseline state from which the magnitude of anthropogenic aerosol effects on climate are calculated and are a major component of the large uncertainty in anthropogenic aerosol-cloud radiative forcing. This uncertainty would be reduced if aerosol environments unperturbed by air pollution could be studied in the present--day atmosphere, but the pervasiveness of air pollution makes identification of unperturbed regions difficult. Here, we use global model simulations to define unperturbed aerosol regions in terms of two measures that compare 1750 and 2000 conditions-the number of days with similar aerosol concentrations and the similarity of the aerosol response to perturbations in model processes and emissions...
December 30, 2014: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
H Whitehorn, M Sibanda, M Lacerda, T Spracklen, L Ramma, S Dalvie, R Ramesar
BACKGROUND: Cisplatin is administered as the first-line treatment of soft-tissue cancers. It has a reported cure rate of up to 85%, but is associated with a high incidence of ototoxicity, characterised by irreversible bilateral hearing loss and affecting 23 - 50% of adults who receive the drug. OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of cisplatin-induced ototoxicity at Groote Schuur Hospital (GSH), Cape Town, South Africa. METHODS: retrospective cross-sectional study of cisplatin-receiving cancer patients attending GSH between January 2006 and August 2011...
April 2014: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Cassandra N Spracklen, Robert B Wallace, Shawnita Sealy-Jefferson, Jennifer G Robinson, Jo L Freudenheim, Melissa F Wellons, Audrey F Saftlas, Linda G Snetselaar, JoAnn E Manson, Lifang Hou, Lihong Qi, Rowan T Chlebowski, Kelli K Ryckman
BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine the association between self-reported birth weight and incident cancer in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study cohort, a large multiethnic cohort of postmenopausal women. METHODS: 65,850 women reported their birth weight by category (<6 lbs, 6-7 lbs 15 oz, 8-9 lbs 15 oz, and ≥10 lbs). All self-reported, incident cancers were adjudicated by study staff. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate crude and adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) for associations between birth weight and: (1) all cancer sites combined, (2) gynecologic cancers, and (3) several site-specific cancer sites...
October 2014: Cancer Epidemiology
Andrew J Spracklen, Tiffany N Fagan, Kaylee E Lovander, Tina L Tootle
Dynamic remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton is required for both development and tissue homeostasis. While fixed image analysis has provided significant insight into such events, a complete understanding of cytoskeletal dynamics requires live imaging. Numerous tools for the live imaging of actin have been generated by fusing the actin-binding domain from an actin-interacting protein to a fluorescent protein. Here we comparatively assess the utility of three such tools--Utrophin, Lifeact, and F-tractin--for characterizing the actin remodeling events occurring within the germline-derived nurse cells during Drosophila mid-oogenesis or follicle development...
September 15, 2014: Developmental Biology
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