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Liver progenitor

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330992/localized-hepatic-lobular-regeneration-by-central-vein-associated-lineage-restricted-progenitors
#1
Jonathan M Tsai, Pang Wei Koh, Ania Stefanska, Liujing Xing, Graham G Walmsley, Nicolas Poux, Irving L Weissman, Yuval Rinkevich
The regeneration of organ morphology and function following tissue loss is critical to restore normal physiology, yet few cases are documented in mammalian postnatal life. Partial hepatectomy of the adult mammalian liver activates compensatory hepatocyte hypertrophy and cell division across remaining lobes, resulting in restitution of organ mass but with permanent alteration of architecture. Here, we identify a time window in early postnatal life wherein partial amputation culminates in a localized regeneration instead of global hypertrophy and proliferation...
March 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328977/jmjd3-aids-in-reprogramming-of-bone-marrow-progenitor-cells-to-hepatic-phenotype-through-epigenetic-activation-of-hepatic-transcription-factors
#2
Veena Kochat, Zaffar Equbal, Prakash Baligar, Vikash Kumar, Madhulika Srivastava, Asok Mukhopadhyay
The strictly regulated unidirectional differentiation program in some somatic stem/progenitor cells has been found to be modified in the ectopic site (tissue) undergoing regeneration. In these cases, the lineage barrier is crossed by either heterotypic cell fusion or direct differentiation. Though studies have shown the role of coordinated genetic and epigenetic mechanisms in cellular development and differentiation, how the lineage fate of adult bone marrow progenitor cells (BMPCs) is reprogrammed during liver regeneration and whether this lineage switch is stably maintained are not clearly understood...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324272/lusutrombopag-increases-hematocytes-in-a-compensated-liver-cirrhosis-patient
#3
Akira Sakamaki, Takayuki Watanabe, Satoshi Abe, Kenya Kamimura, Atsunori Tsuchiya, Masaaki Takamura, Hirokazu Kawai, Satoshi Yamagiwa, Shuji Terai
A 56-year-old Japanese man with liver cirrhosis (LC) due to hepatitis C virus was admitted to our hospital for radiofrequency ablation of residual tumor following lusutrombopag administration. Laboratory tests revealed thrombocytopenia and leukopenia. The patient's LC was managed, and he was classified as Child-Pugh A. After admission, lusutrombopag was administered for 7 days. The platelet count increased to over 50,000/mm(3) after 7-14 days and returned to previous levels 50 days after administration. Leukocyte and erythrocyte counts also increased in response to the treatment and stayed elevated for over 120 days...
March 21, 2017: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320463/hyaluronan-coating-improves-liver-engraftment-of-transplanted-human-biliary-tree-stem-progenitor-cells
#4
Lorenzo Nevi, Guido Carpino, Daniele Costantini, Vincenzo Cardinale, Olga Riccioni, Sabina Di Matteo, Fabio Melandro, Pasquale Bartolomeo Berloco, Lola Reid, Eugenio Gaudio, Domenico Alvaro
BACKGROUND: Cell therapy of liver diseases with human biliary tree stem cells (hBTSCs) is biased by low engraftment efficiency. Coating the hBTSCs with hyaluronans (HAs), the primary constituents of all stem cell niches, could facilitate cell survival, proliferation, and, specifically, liver engraftment given that HAs are cleared selectively by the liver. METHODS: We developed a fast and easy method to coat hBTSCs with HA and assessed the effects of HA-coating on cell properties in vitro and in vivo...
March 20, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293379/clinical-features-histology-and-histogenesis-of-combined-hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma
#5
REVIEW
Shweta Gera, Mark Ettel, Gabriel Acosta-Gonzalez, Ruliang Xu
Combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma (CHC) is a rare tumor with poor prognosis, with incidence ranging from 1.0%-4.7% of all primary hepatic tumors. This entity will be soon renamed as hepato-cholangiocarcinoma. The known risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have been implicated for CHC including viral hepatitis and cirrhosis. It is difficult to diagnose this tumor pre-operatively. The predominant histologic component within the tumor largely determines the predominant radiographic features making it a difficult distinction...
February 28, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287574/isolation-and-enrichment-of-liver-progenitor-subsets-identified-by-a-novel-surface-marker-combination
#6
Henrike Julich-Haertel, Marina Tiwari, Christina Mehrfeld, Elmar Krause, Miroslaw Kornek, Veronika Lukacs-Kornek
During chronic liver injuries, progenitor cells expand in a process called ductular reaction, which also entails the appearance of inflammatory cellular infiltrate and epithelial cell activation. The progenitor cell population during such inflammatory reactions has mostly been investigated using single surface markers, either by histological analysis or by flow cytometry-based techniques. However, novel surface markers identified various functionally distinct subsets within the liver progenitor/stem cell compartment...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276299/immunohistochemical-analysis-of-the-stem-cell-marker-lgr5-in-pediatric-liver-disease
#7
Zahida Khan, Anne Orr, George K Michalopoulos, Sarangarajan Ranganathan
Aims In regenerating liver, hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) are recruited in response to injury; however, few highly specific human HPC markers exist for the hepatocyte lineage. Leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5 (LGR5), a Wnt-associated stem cell marker, has been extensively studied in intestinal stem cells, but little is known about its expression in human liver. We hypothesized that LGR5+ HPCs are induced in the regenerative response to pediatric liver injury. Methods and results Immunohistochemistry was used to characterize LGR5 expression in pediatric liver explants (n = 36)...
January 2017: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274311/-exogenous-hbx-promotes-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-of-hepatic-progenitor-cells-in-kunming-mice
#8
Xi Chen, Ting Wang, Junxiong Cheng, Jiayi Huang
Objective To construct an animal model in which hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) directly affect hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs), and investigate the potential mechanisms underlying epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of HPCs. Methods Kunming mice were given 2 mL/L carbon tetrachloride (CCL4) in oil solution by gavage twice a week. Four weeks later, HPCs transfected with recombinant lentiviral vectors stably expressing HBx gene as well as empty vectors were separately injected into the mice via the portal vein, and at the same time, the mice underwent a partial hepatectomy...
March 2017: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271994/nkx2-5-marks-angioblasts-that-contribute-to-hemogenic-endothelium-of-the-endocardium-and-dorsal-aorta
#9
Lyad Zamir, Reena Singh, Elisha Nathan, Ralph Patrick, Oren Yifa, Yfat Yahalom-Ronen, Alaa A Arraf, Thomas M Schultheiss, Shengbao Suo, Jing-Dong Jackie Han, Guangdun Peng, Naihe Jing, Yuliang Wang, Nathan Palpant, Patrick Pl Tam, Richard P Harvey, Eldad Tzahor
Novel regenerative therapies may stem from deeper understanding of the mechanisms governing cardiovascular lineage diversification. Using enhancer mapping and live imaging in avian embryos, and genetic lineage tracing in mice, we investigated the spatio-temporal dynamics of cardiovascular progenitor populations. We show that expression of the cardiac transcription factor Nkx2.5 marks a mesodermal population outside of the cardiac crescent in the extraembryonic and lateral plate mesoderm, with characteristics of hemogenic angioblasts...
March 8, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261592/pathology-of-intrahepatic-cholangiocarcinoma
#10
REVIEW
Sandrine Vijgen, Benoit Terris, Laura Rubbia-Brandt
Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCC) is a primary carcinoma of the liver with increasing significance and major pathogenic, clinical and therapeutic challenges. Classically, it arises from malignant transformation of cholangiocytes bordering small portal bile duct (BD) to second-order segmental large BDs. It has three major macroscopic growth pattern [mass-forming (MF), periductal infiltrative (PI), and intraductal growth (IG)] and histologically is a desmoplastic stroma-rich adenocarcinoma with cholangiocyte differentiation...
February 2017: Hepatobiliary Surgery and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259688/hair-growth-cycle-is-arrested-in-scd1-deficiency-by-impaired-wnt3a-palmitoleoylation-and-retrieved-by-artificial-lipid-barrier
#11
Wilhelm Stoffel, Inga Schmidt-Soltau, Britta Jenke, Erika Binczek, Ina Hammels
Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) is the dominant member of the SCD-isozyme family, regarded as a major regulator of lipid and energy metabolism in liver and adipose tissue. SCD1-deficiency impairs the desaturation of de novo-synthesized palmitoyl- and stearoyl-CoA to palmitoleoyl- and oleoyl- CoA. Scd1-/- mice develop metabolic waste syndrome and skin lesions: epidermal barrier disruption, alopecia and degeneration of sebaceous glands. The unifying molecular link between the two divergent traits remains incompletely understood...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256363/variant-differentiation-patterns-in-primary-liver-carcinoma
#12
Christine Sempoux, Valérie Paradis, Romil Saxena
Hepatocellular carcinoma and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma are two distinct forms of primary liver carcinoma recognizable at the microscope by their architectural and cytological characteristics, as well as specific immunohistochemical profiles. This straightforward concept however, is increasing imperiled by the recognition of primary liver carcinomas that do not subscribe to a dichotomous paradigm of differentiation, and instead demonstrate biphenotypic differentiation, stem/progenitor cell like features or other variant patterns of differentiation...
February 8, 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247264/new-paradigms-in-management-of-alcoholic-hepatitis-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Sandeep Singh Sidhu, Omesh Goyal, Harsh Kishore, Simran Sidhu
Severe alcoholic hepatitis (SAH) is defined by modified Maddrey discriminant function ≥32 or Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) >21 and/or hepatic encephalopathy. It has a 3-month mortality rate ≥30-70 %. Patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis need combined, i.e., static (MELD score) and dynamic (Lille's score), prognostication. Systemic inflammation and poor regeneration are hallmarks of SAH, rather than intrahepatic inflammation. SAH is characterized by dysregulated and uncontrolled systemic inflammatory response followed by weak compensatory antiinflammatory response that leads to increased susceptibility to infection and multiple organ failure...
February 28, 2017: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245426/histopathological-evidence-for-the-existence-of-primary-liver-progenitor-cell-cancer-insight-from-cancer-stem-cell-pathobiology
#14
Cheng-Maw Ho, Shu-Li Ho, Chia-Tung Shun, Po-Huang Lee, Ya-Hui Chen, Chin-Sung Chien, Hui-Ling Chen, Rey-Heng Hu
BACKGROUND: Primary liver progenitor cell cancer is a rare disease entity. Current nomenclature of primary liver cancer with prominent progenitor features is not comprehensive. This study was aimed to investigate the existence of this type of primary liver cancer and characterize it immunohistopathologically based on the emerging understanding of cancer stem cell pathobiology. METHODS: Surgical specimens from a primary liver cancer were stained with antibodies against well-defined markers of progenitor cells, stemness, and differentiation toward hepatocytes or cholangiocytes...
January 2017: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219950/nutritional-modulation-of-mouse-and-human-liver-bud-growth-through-a-branched-amino-acid-metabolism
#15
Hiroyuki Koike, Ran-Ran Zhang, Yasuharu Ueno, Keisuke Sekine, Yun-Wen Zheng, Takanori Takebe, Hideki Taniguchi
Liver bud progenitors experience a transient amplification during early organ growth phase, yet the responsible mechanism was not fully understood. Collective evidence highlighted the specific requirements in stem cell metabolism for expanding organ progenitors during organogenesis and regeneration. Here, transcriptome analyses showed progenitors of mouse and human liver bud growth stage specifically expressed branched chain aminotransferase1 gene, a known breakdown enzyme of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) for energy generation...
February 20, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218627/gata4-dependent-organ-specific-endothelial-differentiation-controls-liver-development-and-embryonic-hematopoiesis
#16
Cyrill Géraud, Philipp-Sebastian Koch, Johanna Zierow, Kay Klapproth, Katrin Busch, Victor Olsavszky, Thomas Leibing, Alexandra Demory, Friederike Ulbrich, Miriam Diett, Sandhya Singh, Carsten Sticht, Katja Breitkopf-Heinlein, Karsten Richter, Sanna-Maria Karppinen, Taina Pihlajaniemi, Bernd Arnold, Hans-Reimer Rodewald, Hellmut G Augustin, Kai Schledzewski, Sergij Goerdt
Microvascular endothelial cells (ECs) are increasingly recognized as organ-specific gatekeepers of their microenvironment. Microvascular ECs instruct neighboring cells in their organ-specific vascular niches through angiocrine factors, which include secreted growth factors (angiokines), extracellular matrix molecules, and transmembrane proteins. However, the molecular regulators that drive organ-specific microvascular transcriptional programs and thereby regulate angiodiversity are largely elusive. In contrast to other ECs, which form a continuous cell layer, liver sinusoidal ECs (LSECs) constitute discontinuous, permeable microvessels...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218626/building-discontinuous-liver-sinusoidal-vessels
#17
Courtney T Griffin, Siqi Gao
Blood vessels have a unified mission to circulate blood throughout the body; however, they have additional diverse and specialized roles in various organs. For example, in the liver, discontinuous sinusoids, which are fenestrated capillaries with intercellular gaps and a fragmented basement membrane, facilitate delivery of macromolecules to highly metabolic hepatocytes. During embryonic development, discontinuous sinusoids also allow circulating hematopoietic progenitor and stem cells to populate the liver and promote blood cell differentiation...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214206/involvement-of-prolyl-isomerase-pin1-in-the-cell-cycle-progression-and-proliferation-of-hepatic-oval-cells
#18
Prabodh Risal, Nirajan Shrestha, Lokendra Chand, Karl G Sylvester, Yeon Jun Jeong
Liver regenerates remarkably after toxic injury or surgical resection. In the case of failure of resident hepatocytes to restore loss, repopulation is carried out by induction, proliferation, and differentiation of the progenitor cell. Although, some signaling pathways have been verified to contribute oval cell-mediated liver regeneration, role of Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase NIMA-interacting 1(Pin1) in the oval cells proliferation is unknown. In the present study, we evaluate the role of Pin1 in oval cells proliferation...
January 18, 2017: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213465/epithelial-morphogenesis-during-liver-development
#19
Naoki Tanimizu, Toshihiro Mitaka
Tissue stem/progenitor cells supply multiple types of epithelial cells that eventually acquire specialized functions during organ development. In addition, three-dimensional (3D) tissue structures need to be established for organs to perform their physiological functions. The liver contains two types of epithelial cells, namely, hepatocytes and cholangiocytes, which are derived from hepatoblasts, fetal liver stem/progenitor cells (LPCs), in mid-gestation. Hepatocytes performing many metabolic reactions form cord-like structures, whereas cholangiocytes, biliary epithelial cells, form tubular structures called intrahepatic bile ducts...
February 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210629/cellular-mechanisms-of-liver-regeneration-and-cell-based-therapies-of-liver-diseases
#20
REVIEW
Irina V Kholodenko, Konstantin N Yarygin
The emerging field of regenerative medicine offers innovative methods of cell therapy and tissue/organ engineering as a novel approach to liver disease treatment. The ultimate scientific foundation of both cell therapy of liver diseases and liver tissue and organ engineering is delivered by the in-depth studies of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of liver regeneration. The cellular mechanisms of the homeostatic and injury-induced liver regeneration are unique. Restoration of the mass of liver parenchyma is achieved by compensatory hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the differentiated parenchymal cells, hepatocytes, while expansion and differentiation of the resident stem/progenitor cells play a minor or negligible role...
2017: BioMed Research International
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