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Entrapment Syndromes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350678/ocular-morbidity-in-the-correction-of-orbital-hypertelorism-and-dystopia-a-15-year-experience
#1
Graeme E Glass, Kate A V Hon, Kemmy Schweibert, Richard Bowman, Barry M Jones, David J Dunaway, Jonathan A Britto
BACKGROUND: Complex surgery for appearance change is controversial. Correction of orbital hypertelorism risks diplopia and loss of stereopsis for aesthetic gain. The risk-to-benefit ratio remains ill-defined. The aim of this study was to define specific ocular morbidity following orbital translocation. METHODS: The authors compared stable preoperative and postoperative orthoptic indices (i.e., angle of strabismus, ocular motility, and acuity) for 23 consecutive patients who underwent orbital translocation between 2000 and 2015 and noted the requirement for corrective surgery...
April 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345147/nerve-conduction-velocity-and-cross-sectional-area-in-ulnar-neuropathy-at-the-elbow
#2
Simon Podnar, Gregor Omejec, Marko Bodor
INTRODUCTION: In the precise localization of ulnar neuropathy at the elbow (UNE) we have noted discrepancies between electrodiagnostic (EDx) and ultrasonographic (US) findings. We aimed to explore the relationship between the two methods. METHODS: In a group of prospectively recruited patients with UNE, four blinded examiners took a history and performed neurologic, EDx and US examinations. The relationship between ulnar nerve cross-sectional area (CSA) and motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV) was studied...
March 27, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339447/chronic-localized-back-pain-due-to-posterior-cutaneous-nerve-entrapment-syndrome-pocnes-a-new-diagnosis
#3
Oliver B Boelens, Robert C Maatman, Marc R Scheltinga, Kees van Laarhoven, Rudi M Roumen
Most patients with chronic back pain suffer from degenerative thoracolumbovertebral disease. However, the following case illustrates that a localized peripheral nerve entrapment must be considered in the differential diagnosis of chronic back pain. We report the case of a 26-year-old woman with continuous excruciating pain in the lower back area. Previous treatment for nephroptosis was to no avail. On physical examination the pain was present in a 2 x 2 cm area overlying the twelfth rib some 4 cm lateral to the spinal process...
March 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339446/pulsed-radiofrequency-ablation-of-pudendal-nerve-for-treatment-of-a-case-of-refractory-pelvic-pain
#4
Vadim Petrov-Kondratov, Avneesh Chhabra, Stephanie Jones
Pudendal neuralgia (PN) is a result of pudendal nerve entrapment or injury, also called "Alcock syndrome." Pain that develops is often chronic, and at times debilitating. If conservative measures fail, invasive treatment modalities can be considered. The goal of this case report is to add to a small body of literature that a pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) ablation can be effectively used to treat PN and to show that high resolution MR neurography imaging can be used to detect pudendal neuropathy. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of a 51-year-old woman with 5 years of worsening right groin and vulva pain...
March 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334999/rewiring-the-primary-somatosensory-cortex-in-carpal-tunnel-syndrome-with-acupuncture
#5
Yumi Maeda, Hyungjun Kim, Norman Kettner, Jieun Kim, Stephen Cina, Cristina Malatesta, Jessica Gerber, Claire McManus, Rebecca Ong-Sutherland, Pia Mezzacappa, Alexandra Libby, Ishtiaq Mawla, Leslie R Morse, Ted J Kaptchuk, Joseph Audette, Vitaly Napadow
Carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common entrapment neuropathy, affecting the median nerve at the wrist. Acupuncture is a minimally-invasive and conservative therapeutic option, and while rooted in a complex practice ritual, acupuncture overlaps significantly with many conventional peripherally-focused neuromodulatory therapies. However, the neurophysiological mechanisms by which acupuncture impacts accepted subjective/psychological and objective/physiological outcomes are not well understood. Eligible patients (n = 80, 65 female, age: 49...
March 2, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306692/carpal-tunnel-syndrome-grading-using-high-resolution-ultrasonography
#6
Hala R El Habashy, Reem A El Hadidy, Sandra M Ahmed, Basma B El Sayed, Aya S Ahmed
PURPOSE: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a common entrapment neuropathy of the wrist. The diagnosis of CTS has been a concern for physicians for a long time. The aim of this study is to evaluate the use of the median nerve (MN) cross-sectional area (CSA) in the wrist compared with the CSA in the forearm to grade the severity of CTS in Egyptian patients. METHODS: The CSAs of the MN in the wrist and forearm were measured in 72 wrists that were diagnosed with CTS via nerve conduction studies and 80 healthy wrists...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299393/-posttraumatic-nerve-entrapment-syndromes-in-the-upper-extremities
#7
A Wichelhaus, J Emmerich, T Mittlmeier
Nerve entrapment syndromes in the upper extremities are common clinical disease patterns, less often as direct results of accidents. The most frequent compression syndrome is the carpal tunnel syndrome followed by the cubital tunnel syndrome. If the cause of the compression cannot be eliminated by conservative treatment options, an operative therapy is necessary. As the prognosis becomes worse with the duration of the nerve compression, it is important to initiate therapy at an early stage.
March 15, 2017: Der Unfallchirurg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298847/subjective-symptoms-of-carpal-tunnel-syndrome-correlate-more-with-psychological-factors-than-electrophysiological-severity
#8
Firosh Khan, Abdulkhader Shehna, Sivaramakrishnan Ramesh, Kakkassery Sankaran Sandhya, Reji Paul
AIM: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common entrapment neuropathy and is one of the most common requests for electrodiagnosis. We aimed to note the relationship of subjective symptom severity of CTS, with objective electrophysiological severity and psychological status of patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred and forty-four consecutive patients of CTS referred to neurophysiology laboratory of a tertiary care hospital over 1 year were prospectively studied...
January 2017: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295822/anterior-rectus-sheath-blocks-in-children-with-abdominal-wall-pain-due-to-anterior-cutaneous-nerve-entrapment-syndrome-a-prospective-case-series-of-85-children
#9
Murid Siawash, Frederique Mol, Walther Tjon-A-Ten, Christel Perquin, Percy van Eerten, Ernst van Heurn, Rudi Roumen, Marc Scheltinga
BACKGROUND: Chronic abdominal pain in children may be caused by the anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome. Local nerve blocks are recommended as an initial treatment in adults. Evidence on effectiveness and safety of such a treatment in children is lacking. AIM: Our aim was to study outcome and adverse events of anterior rectus sheath blocks in childhood anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome. METHODS: Patients <18 years of age receiving anterior rectus sheath blocks were prospectively followed...
March 10, 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291399/resection-and-primary-closure-of-edematous-glossoepiglottic-mucosa-in-a-dog-causing-laryngeal-obstruction
#10
Kevin J Schabbing, Jeffrey A Seaman
An approximately 22 mo old male neutered English bulldog was evaluated for acute onset of dyspnea with suspected brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome (BOAS). Laryngoscopic exam revealed diffuse, severe edema and static displacement of redundant glossoepiglottic (GE) mucosa causing complete obstruction of the larynx and epiglottic entrapment. Static displacement of the GE mucosa was observed and determined to be the overriding component of dyspnea in this patient with BOAS. Resection and primary closure with two separate, simple continuous sutures of the GE mucosa were performed...
March 14, 2017: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288688/postoperative-brachial-artery-entrapment-associated-with-pediatric-supracondylar-fracture-of-the-humerus-a-case-report
#11
David Latz, Jan Grassmann, Erik Schiffner, Sebastian Gehrmann, Mansur Duran, Joachim Windolf, Pascal Jungbluth
BACKGROUND: Severely displaced supracondylar fractures of the humerus in children are frequently associated with complications including neurovascular injuries, non-union, or compartment syndrome. In the current literature, no report exists about postoperative brachial artery entrapment in combination with an inconspicuous preoperative neurovascular examination. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of a 6-year-old white boy with a pulseless radial and ulnar artery after open reduction and internal fixation of a severely displaced supracondylar fracture of his right humerus (Gartland type III) using four K-wires...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220607/neurological-and-spinal-manifestations-of-the-ehlers-danlos-syndromes
#12
Fraser C Henderson, Claudiu Austin, Edward Benzel, Paolo Bolognese, Richard Ellenbogen, Clair A Francomano, Candace Ireton, Petra Klinge, Myles Koby, Donlin Long, Sunil Patel, Eric L Singman, Nicol C Voermans
The Ehlers-Danlos syndromes (EDS) are a heterogeneous group of heritable connective tissue disorders characterized by joint hypermobility, skin extensibility, and tissue fragility. This communication briefly reports upon the neurological manifestations that arise including the weakness of the ligaments of the craniocervical junction and spine, early disc degeneration, and the weakness of the epineurium and perineurium surrounding peripheral nerves. Entrapment, deformation, and biophysical deformative stresses exerted upon the nervous system may alter gene expression, neuronal function and phenotypic expression...
February 21, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part C, Seminars in Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217661/winged-scapula-caused-by-rhomboid-paralysis-a-case-report
#13
Maria Grazia Benedetti, Alessandro Zati, Silvia Bonfiglioli Stagni, Isabella Fusaro, Roberta Monesi, Roberto Rotini
Scapular winging secondary to dorsal scapular nerve (DSN) damage is an underestimated condition. It is often caused by entrapment of the nerve due to a hypertrophic middle scalene muscle, or by stretching of the DSN during traumatic movements. The condition has also been attributed to myofascial pain syndrome of the rhomboids with entrapment of the DSN. The non-specific symptomatology reported by patients is often incorrectly diagnosed, and this can result in a high level of disability of the upper limb. A clinical case of misdiagnosed dorsal scapula entrapment is presented...
October 2016: Joints
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215511/popliteal-artery-entrapment-syndrome-in-children-experience-with-four-cases-of-acute-ischaemia-and-review-of-the-literature
#14
REVIEW
N Settembre, Z Bouziane, M A Bartoli, V Nabokov, M Venermo, P Feugier, S Malikov
OBJECTIVE: Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES) is an uncommon anatomical anomaly, frequently described in adults. The most common symptom is claudication. Acute limb ischaemia (ALI) in children is rare, but it may evolve and lead to limb loss or lifelong complications. Clinical and surgical experience of PAES in children is reported. Data from the literature are analysed in order to assess the severity of this disease and to identify the factors characterising the diagnosis and the outcome of treatment in paediatric patients...
February 16, 2017: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210413/orbital-adherence-syndrome-following-the-use-of-titanium-precontoured-orbital-mesh-for-the-reconstruction-of-posttraumatic-orbital-floor-defects
#15
Geraldine Hwee Ping Lee, Samuel Yew Ming Ho
Orbital blowout fractures are a common occurrence following orbital trauma. Depending on the size of the defect and the contents that have herniated or incarcerated, possible sequelae include enophthalmos, diplopia, dystopia, and entrapment. Surgical intervention aims to prevent or alleviate this through the use of a bone graft or an alloplastic implant to reconstitute the continuity of the orbit. However, in doing so, the implant itself may result in the unexpected adherence of the periorbita, resulting in orbital adherence syndrome...
March 2017: Craniomaxillofacial Trauma & Reconstruction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198531/superficial-brachial-artery-a-possible-cause-for-idiopathic-median-nerve-entrapment-neuropathy
#16
Pilani Nkomozepi, Nkosi Xhakaza, Elaine Swanepoel
Nerve entrapment syndromes occur because of anatomic constraints at specific locations in both upper and lower limbs. Anatomical locations prone to nerve entrapment syndromes include sites where a nerve courses through fibro-osseous or fibromuscular tunnels or penetrates a muscle. The median nerve (MN) can be entrapped by the ligament of Struthers; thickened biceps aponeurosis; between the superficial and deep heads of the pronator teres muscle and by a thickened proximal edge of flexor digitorum superficialis muscle...
February 15, 2017: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154344/importance-of-recognizing-carpal-tunnel-syndrome-for-neurosurgeons-a-review
#17
Masatoshi Yunoki, Takahiro Kanda, Kenta Suzuki, Atsuhito Uneda, Koji Hirashita, Kimihiro Yoshino
Idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a common complaint, reflecting entrapment neuropathy of the upper extremity. CTS produces symptoms similar to those of other conditions, such as cervical spondylosis or ischemic or neoplastic intracranial disease. Because of these overlaps, patients with CTS are often referred to a neurosurgeon. Surgical treatment of CTS was started recently in our department. Through this experience, we realized that neurosurgeons should have an increased awareness of this condition so they can knowledgeably assess patients with a differential diagnosis that includes CTS and cervical spinal and cerebral disease...
February 2, 2017: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144159/anterior-cutaneous-nerve-entrapment-syndrome-management-challenges
#18
REVIEW
Eleni Chrona, Georgia Kostopanagiotou, Dimitrios Damigos, Chrysanthi Batistaki
Anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome (ACNES) is a commonly underdiagnosed and undertreated chronic state of pain. This syndrome is characterized by the entrapment of the cutaneous branches of the lower thoracoabdominal intercostal nerves at the lateral border of the rectus abdominis muscle, which causes severe, often refractory, chronic pain. This narrative review aims to identify the possible therapeutic strategies for the management of the syndrome. Seventeen studies about ACNES therapy were reviewed; of them, 15 were case-control studies, case series, or case reports, and two were randomized controlled trials...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120084/use-of-high-resolution-ultrasonography-in-anterior-subcutaneous-transposition-of-the-ulnar-nerve-for-cubital-tunnel-syndrome
#19
Min Yang, Jichao Wang, Xiaosheng Yang, Wenxiang Zhong, Qiufeng Ma, Shiting Li, Wenchuan Zhang
OBJECTIVES: Cubital tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common form of ulnar nerve entrapment. In this study, ultrasonography (US) was used not only for diagnosis but also for operation. US findings could be used to establish the diagnosis of CTS and could demonstrate the pathological anatomy in the cubital tunnel region to guide anterior subcutaneous transposition of the ulnar nerve. METHODS: Sixty-two patients with clinical and electrophysiological evidence of ulnar nerve entrapment were included...
2017: Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075090/carpal-tunnel-syndrome-diagnosis-and-management
#20
Jennifer Wipperman, Kyle Goerl
Carpal tunnel syndrome, the most common entrapment neuropathy of the upper extremity, is caused by compression of the median nerve as it travels through the carpal tunnel. Classically, patients with the condition experience pain and paresthesias in the distribution of the median nerve, which includes the palmar aspect of the thumb, index and middle fingers, and radial half of the ring finger. Additional clues include positive physical examination findings, such as the flick sign, Phalen maneuver, and median nerve compression test...
December 15, 2016: American Family Physician
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