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Dimitri Fayolle, Michele Fiore, Pasquale Stano, Peter Strazewski
Giant lipid vesicles (GVs) are emerging models for investigating the properties and reactivity of cell-like microcompartments, providing useful information about plausible protocellular structures in primitive times, as well as for the modern synthetic biology goal of constructing the first artificial cell from its reconstituted and partly modified components. Here we explore a novel methodology of GV purification by microfiltration under reduced pressure, operated by a simple apparatus. The method has been characterized in terms of flow rate, amount of lipid loss, quality of recovered GVs, and size distribution...
2018: PloS One
Minsu Kim, Kangwon Lee, Ji Eon Kwon, Won Gun Koh
In this study, we developed an enzyme-based miniaturized fluorescence biosensor to detect paraoxon, one of the most well-known neurotoxic organophosphorus compounds (OPs). The biosensor was fabricated with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel microarrays that entrapped acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and quantum dots (QDs) as fluorescence reporters. Metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF) was utilized to amplify the fluorescence signal, which was achieved by decorating QDs on the surface of silica-coated silver nanoparticles (Ag@Silica)...
February 16, 2018: Biofabrication
Vanka Ravisankar, Gowthamarajan Kuppusamy, Praveen Kumar Simhadri, Uday Krishna Baruah, Veera Venkata Satyanarayana Reddy Karri, Vimal Pandey, Phanithi Prakash Babu
Cerebral malaria (CM) is a fatal neurological complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection that affects children (below five years old) in sub-Saharan Africa and adults in South-East Asia each year having the fatality rate of 10-25%. The survivors of CM also have high risk of long term neurological or cognitive deficits. The objective of the present investigation was to develop optimized nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) of artemether (ARM) for enhanced anti-malarial efficacy of ARM.NLCs of ARM were prepared by a combination of high speed homogenization (HSH) and probe sonication techniques...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Microencapsulation
Elena A Morozova, Vitalia V Kulikova, Serena Faggiano, Samanta Raboni, Edi Gabellieri, Patrizia Cioni, Natalia V Anufrieva, Svetlana V Revtovich, Tatyana Demidkina, Andrea Mozzarelli
Methionine γ-lyase is a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate dependent tetramer that catalyzes the α,γ-elimination of methionine in ammonia, methanethiol and α-ketobutyrate. MGL catalytic power has been exploited as a therapeutic strategy to reduce the viability of cancer cells or bacteria. In order to obtain a stable enzyme to be delivered at the site of action, MGL can be encapsulated in a variety of matrices. As a reference encapsulation strategy we have prepared MGL nanoporous wet silica gels. Immobilized MGL gels were characterized with regards to activity, stability, absorption, circular dichroism and fluorescence properties and compared with soluble MGL...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Dequan Sun, Hashmath I Hussain, Zhifeng Yi, James E Rookes, Lingxue Kong, David M Cahill
An intracellular glutathione (GSH) responsive phytochemical delivery system based on thiol gated mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) was developed and tested on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. In the present study, monodispersed MSNs with particle diameters of ~20 nm and pore sizes of ~2.87 nm were synthesized and modified. Abscisic acid (ABA), a key phytohormone, was entrapped in the mesopores of MSNs and then the pore entrances of MSNs were covered with decanethiol gatekeepers through GSH-cleavable disulfide linkages...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Neha Singh, Abhay Sachdev, P Gopinath
Nanoscale drug delivery systems have emerged as promising alternatives to overcome the problems associated with by conventional chemotherapy for cancer treatment such as poor drug stability and bio-distribution. Herein, we report a single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) based drug delivery system functionalized with polysaccharides such as alginate (ALG) and chitosan (CHI), which can be loaded with an anticancer drug curcumin (CUR). Modification of SWCNTs renders high drug loading efficiency and sustained drug release, imperative for drug activity...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Ngoc Xuan Dat Mai, Duckshin Park, Juyeon Yoon, Jaehyun Hur
A series of hydrogen-based TiO2 photocatalysts were prepared by the simple entrapment of TiO2 nanoparticles in different hydrogel matrices using gelation processes. The hydrogels, namely, agarose, alginate, and chitosan, were used as matrices for TiO2 immobilization. Morphological differences were characterized for the three different hybrid gel photocatalysts. The rate of methylene blue (MB) photodegradation increased with increasing initial TiO2 dosage in all samples. The structural properties of the hydrogels significantly affected the diffusion of MB and altered the photocatalytic activities...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Laura Alemanno, Isabella Massimi, Vanessa Klaus, Maria Luisa Guarino, Teresa Maltese, Luigi Frati, Dominick J Angiolillo, Fabio M Pulcinelli
Platelet multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4) plays a modulating role on platelet activation. Platelet function and thrombus formation are impaired in MRP4 knockout mice models, and, among aspirin-treated patients, high on-aspirin residual platelet reactivity (HARPR) positively correlates with MRP4 levels. To better understand the effects of MRP4 on platelet function, the aim of this investigation was to assess the impact of cilostazol-induced inhibition of MRP4-mediated transport and assess aspirin-induced antiplatelet effects and rates of HARPR in human subjects...
February 15, 2018: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
María Merino, Sara Zalba, María J Garrido
Liposomal formulations entrapping a vast number of molecules have improved cancer therapies overcoming certain pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic limitations, many of which are associated with tumor characteristics. In this context, immunoliposomes represent a new strategy that has been widely investigated in preclinical cancer models with promising results, although few have reached the stage of clinical trials. This contrasts with the emerging clinical application of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). This formulation allows the conjugation of different mAbs or antibody derivatives, such as monovalent variable fragments Fab', to the polymers covering the surface of liposomes...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Tahir Rasheed, Muhammad Bilal, Hafiz M N Iqbal, Hongbo Hu, Wei Wang, Xuehong Zhang
Owing to the ever-increasing environmental and health impacts associated with the discharge of dye-based effluents, effective remediation of industrial waste has become a top priority for the industrialists and environmental fraternity, around the world. In this context, plant-based peroxidases represent a suitable bio-remediating agent for the effective treatment of original dyes or dye-based colored wastewater effluents. In the present study, horseradish peroxidase was entrapped on a polyacrylamide gel and investigated its potential for the degradation and detoxification of an azo dye, methyl orange...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Irfan Ahmad Bhat, Mir Ishfaq Nazir, Irshad Ahmad, Gireesh-Babu Pathakota, T I Chanu, Mukunda Goswami, J K Sundaray, Rupam Sharma
Chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs) have been proven considerable delivery agents due to their remarkable physicochemical properties. Present study reports the fabrication of CNPs by ionic gelation process and their characterization by different approaches. The constructed nanoparticles were successfully conjugated with eurycomanone with significant entrapment efficiency. Particle size of chitosan and chitosan conjugated eurycomanone nanoparticles were 126.2 nm and 130 nm respectively. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the particles were spherical in shape and well dispersed...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Loganathan Rangasamy, Venkatesh Chelvam, Ananda Kumar Kanduluru, Madduri Srinivasarao, Achini N Bandara, Fei You, Esteban Orellana, Andrea L Kasinski, Philip S Low
Although peptides, antibodies/antibody fragments, siRNAs, antisense DNAs, enzymes and aptamers are all under development as possible therapeutic agents, the breadth of their applications has been severely compromised by their inability to reach intracellular targets. Thus, while macromolecules can often enter cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis, their missions frequently fail due to an inability to escape their entrapping endosomes. In this paper, we describe a general method for promoting release of any biologic material from any entrapping endosome...
February 15, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Ediana P Rebitski, Pilar Aranda, Margarita Darder, Raffaele Carraro, Eduardo Ruiz-Hitzky
Metformin hydrochloride is an extensively used antidiabetic drug that according to the results reported here is able to spontaneously intercalate layered silicates like the montmorillonite clay mineral following an ion-exchange mechanism. The adsorption isotherm from water solutions shows a great affinity of metformin towards the clay mineral, which can retain about thrice the exchange capacity of the clay. The adsorbed excess was easily removed by washing with water, leading to an intercalation compound that contains 93 meq of metformin per 100 g of montmorillonite, matching the CEC value of this clay...
February 15, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Yuka Taguchi, Toshiyuki Ishikawa, Katsumi Matsumoto, Yutaka Ogino, Hirooki Matsushita, Kohei Iguchi, Junya Hosoda
A 17-year-old woman was resuscitated from cardiac arrest due to ventricular fibrillation and was diagnosed with concealed long QT syndrome. She underwent subcutaneous implantable cardiac defibrillator (S-ICD) implantation at our hospital. The device electrogram immediately after implantation was normal. Four days after implantation, she received an inappropriate shock. The device interrogation revealed a continuous baseline shift and frequent oversensing for low amplitude signals, followed by a shock. A chest radiograph in the orthogonal view showed entrapped subcutaneous air surrounding the distal electrode...
February 14, 2018: International Heart Journal
Manju Lata Verma, Vartika Tripathi, Uma Singh, Zakia Rahman
We present a case of a 28-year-old woman second gravida with a full-term pregnancy who presented to us in active phase of labour with third degree uterovaginal prolapse complicated by entrapment of fetal head by dystocia of cervix and fetal distress. Patient was immediately shifted to the operation theatre and prompt delivery was conducted by giving Duhrssen's incision on the highly vascular, oedematous prolapsed cervix. The outcome was an alive and healthy male baby. Duhrssen's incision was stitched with minimal blood loss...
February 14, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Rania K Eid, Ebtessam A Essa, Gamal M El Maghraby
The fluidity of vesicular membrane affects vesicular transdermal drug delivery. Essential oils can be located in vesicular membrane imparting flexibility and influencing transdermal delivery. Accordingly, the objective was to investigate the effect of incorporation of essential oils in niosomes on felodipine transdermal delivery. Rigid niosomes comprising Span 60 with cholesterol (2:1, w/w) were used with clove, eucalyptus or lemon oils being incorporated in the vesicles at increasing concentrations. The vesicle size and shape was monitored using scanning electron microscopy...
February 14, 2018: Pharmaceutical Development and Technology
Ahmet Talha Uzumcu, Orhan Guney, Oguz Okay
We present mechanically strong and self-healable clay hydrogels containing 2 to 8 w/v% ds-DNA together with a synthetic biocompatible polymer, poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide). Clay nanoparticles in the hydrogels act like a chemical cross-linker and promote their elastic behavior while DNA contributes to their viscoelastic energy dissipation. The extent of mechanical hysteresis during cyclic tensile tests reveals that the strength of intermolecular bonds in DNA/clay hydrogels is in the range of the strength of hydrogen bonds...
February 14, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Qingqing Meng, Aiping Wang, Hongchen Hua, Ying Jiang, Yiyun Wang, Hongjie Mu, Zimei Wu, Kaoxiang Sun
Background: Safe and effective delivery of therapeutic drugs to the brain is important for successful therapy of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Purpose: To develop Huperzine A (HupA)-loaded, mucoadhesive and targeted polylactide-co-glycoside (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) with surface modification by lactoferrin (Lf)-conjugated N-trimethylated chitosan (TMC) (HupA Lf-TMC NPs) for efficient intranasal delivery of HupA to the brain for AD treatment. Methods: HupA Lf-TMC NPs were prepared using the emulsion-solvent evaporation method and optimized using the Box-Behnken design...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Seyed Mohammad Javad Razavi, Giancarlo G Bordonaro, Paolo Ferro, Jan Torgersen, Filippo Berto
The fatigue behavior and fracture mechanisms of additively manufactured Ti-6Al-4V specimens are investigated in this study. Three sets of testing samples were fabricated for the assessment of fatigue life. The first batch of samples was built by using Laser-Engineered Net Shaping (LENS) technology, a Direct Energy Deposition (DED) method. Internal voids and defects were induced in a second batch of samples by changing LENS machine processing parameters. Fatigue performance of these samples is compared to the wrought Ti-6Al-4V samples...
February 12, 2018: Materials
Gaurav Gupta, Shruti Sureka
OBJECTIVE: The current work was attempted to formulate and evaluate the topical sustained release delivery systems potential of bicontinuous cubic monoglyceride -water phases - 'cubosomes' containing Tretinoin with an opinion to sustain the release of drug in the acne treatment. METHODS: Tretinoin loaded cubosomes were prepared by bottom-up technique, by varying the concentration of lipid and surfactant and keeping the drug concentration constant, made a total of nine formulations of tretinoin as TCF...
February 13, 2018: Recent Patents on Drug Delivery & Formulation
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