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Humberto Rocha, Joana Dias, Tiago Ventura, Brígida Ferreira, Maria do Carmo Lopes
PURPOSE: The inverse planning of an intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment requires decisions regarding the angles used for radiation incidence, even when arcs are used. The possibility of improving the quality of treatment plans by an optimized selection of the beam angle incidences-beam angle optimization (BAO)-is seldom done in clinical practice. The inclusion of noncoplanar beam incidences in an automated optimization routine is even more unusual. However, for some tumor sites, the advantage of considering noncoplanar beam incidences is well known...
October 2016: Medical Physics
Saswat Mohapatra, Abhijit Saha, Prasenjit Mondal, Batakrishna Jana, Subhajit Ghosh, Atanu Biswas, Surajit Ghosh
Microtubule dynamics play a crucial role in cancer cell division. Various drugs are developed to target microtubule. Although a few of them show potential in treatment of cancer, but success rate is limited due to their poor bioavailability and lack of specificity. Thus, development of highly bioavailable and target specific anticancer drug is extremely necessary. To address these key issues, here, a combination of approaches such as development of a dodecapeptide-docetaxel nanoassembly targeted to tubulin and MUC1 (mucin 1, cell surface associated glycoprotein) targeting oligonucleotide aptamer conjugated liposome for delivering peptide-docetaxel nanoassembly into the breast cancer cell have been demonstrated...
October 26, 2016: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Lisa N McAuliffe, Kieran N Kilcawley, Jeremiah J Sheehan, Paul L H McSweeney
Liposome-encapsulated ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was incorporated into a model miniature Gouda-type cheese (20 g) in order to assess its effect on rennet gelation, starter viability, pH, and moisture content. EDTA was encapsulated within 2 different food-grade proliposome preparations, Pro-Lipo Duo and Pro-Lipo C (50% and 40% unsaturated soybean phospholipids and 50% and 60% aqueous medium, respectively), using the following high-shear technologies: Ultra-Turrax (5000 rpm), 2-stage homogenization (345 bar), or microfluidization (690 bar)...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Food Science
Muhammad Ajaz Hussain, Muhammad Umer Ashraf, Gulzar Muhammad, Muhammad Nawaz Tahir, Syed Nasir Abbas Bukhari
The review summarizes the efforts to fabricate inclusion complexes of different therapeutic agents based on a versatile material . is a macrocyclic nano-basket which is the marvelous host with distinct hydrophobic three dimensional cavities to entrap and encapsulate biologically active guest drugs. and its derivatives are used as carriers (host-guest) for anti-cancer, anti-convulsant, anti-hypertensive, anthelmentic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and anti-psychotic drugs, etc. They are the important biocompatible materials to improve solubility and chemical reactivity, and decrease cytotoxicity of poorly soluble drugs...
September 28, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Bing Yang, Xin Ming, Hajer Abdelkafi, Valerie Pons, Aurelien Michau, Daniel Gillet, Jean-Christophe Cintrat, Julien Barbier, Rudy Juliano
Retro-1 is a small molecule that displays two important biological activities: First, it blocks the actions of certain toxins by altering their intracellular trafficking. Second, it enhances the activity of oligonucleotides by releasing them from entrapment in endosomes. This raises the question of whether the two actions involve the same cellular target. Herein we report the effects of several Retro-1 analogues on both toxins and oligonucleotides. We found analogues that affect toxins but not oligonucleotides and vice-versa, while Retro-1 is the only compound that affects both...
October 25, 2016: ChemMedChem
Shalev Gihaz, Diána Weiser, Adi Dror, Péter Sátorhelyi, Moran Jerabek-Willemsen, László Poppe, Ayelet Fishman
Two ternary sol-gel matrices, an octyltriethoxysilane-based aliphatic matrix and a phenyltriethoxysilane (PTEOS)-based aromatic matrix, were used to immobilize a methanol-stable variant of lipase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus T6 for the synthesis of biodiesel from waste oil. Superior thermal stability of the mutant versus the wildtype in methanol was confirmed by intrinsic protein fluorescence measurements. The influence of skim milk and soluble E. coli lysate proteins as bulking and stabilizing agents in conjunction with sol-gel entrapment were investigated...
October 25, 2016: ChemSusChem
Sindhu Doppalapudi, Anjali Jain, Dhiraj Kumar Chopra, Wahid Khan
Psoralen in combination with ultraviolet A radiation (PUVA) is an FDA recommended therapy for clinical application in the management of severe recalcitrant psoriasis. Psoralen acts by intercalation of DNA and upon exposure to UV-A, it forms monoadducts which inturn induce apoptosis. Poor skin deposition, weak percutaneous permeability of psoralen and adverse effects of severe burning, blisters, pigmentation associated with conventional topical psoralen vehicles hinders the therapeutic efficacy and safety of topical PUVA...
October 21, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Dallas M Smuin, William L Hennrikus
BACKGROUND: The pucker sign, also called skin tenting, indicates significant displacement of the supracondylar fracture and can be a cause for alarm. The purpose of this study is to compare a cohort of patients with type III supracondylar fractures presenting with a pucker sign to a group without a pucker sign by evaluating neurovascular injury at presentation, need for open reduction, persistent neurovascular injury, range of motion, and carrying angle at final follow-up. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed for Gartland type III extension type supracondylar fractures...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
Heinrich Krobath, Tao Chen, Hue Sun Chan
Volumetric properties of proteins bear directly on their biological functions in hyperbaric environments and are useful in general as a biophysical probe. To gain insight into conformation-dependent protein volume, we developed an implicit-solvent atomic chain model that transparently embodies two physical origins of volume. First, a fundamental geometric term capturing the van der Waals volume of the protein and the particulate, finite-size nature of the water molecules, modeled together by the volume encased by the protein's molecular surface...
October 24, 2016: Biochemistry
Gheorghe Fundueanu, Marieta Constantin, Sanda Bucătariu, Iuliana Stoica
Double hydrophilic thermo-responsive pullulan-g-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (P-g-pNIPAM) copolymers with two different molecular weight of thermosensitive grafts were synthesized and used for preparation of indomethacin-loaded nanoparticles by dialysis and nanoprecipitation method. The polymers form aggregates in aqueous solution at a concentration of 10g/L, above their critical aggregation concentration (3.36g/L) and below the lower critical solution temperature (LCST). After indomethacin loading, nanoparticles with compact and uniform structure were formed below the LCST...
October 20, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Hugh S O'Neill, Caroline C Herron, Conn L Hastings, Roel Deckers, Adolfo Lopez Noriega, Helena M Kelly, Wim E Hennink, Ciarán O McDonnell, Fergal J O'Brien, Eduardo Ruiz-Hernández, Garry P Duffy
Lysolipid-based thermosensitive liposomes (LTSL) embedded in a chitosan-based thermoresponsive hydrogel matrix (denoted Lipogel) represents a novel approach for the spatiotemporal release of therapeutic agents. The entrapment of drug-loaded liposomes in an injectable hydrogel permits local liposome retention, thus providing a prolonged release in target tissues. Moreover, release can be controlled through the use of a minimally invasive external hyperthermic stimulus. Temporal control of release is particularly important for complex multi-step physiological processes, such as angiogenesis, in which different signals are required at different times in order to produce a robust vasculature...
October 20, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
Debabrata Dash
Despite the continuing developments of improved medical devices and increasing operator expertize, coronary chronic total occlusion (CTO) remains as one of the most challenging lesion subsets in interventional cardiology. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of CTO is a complex procedure carrying the risk of complications that are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality. The complications can be classified as coronary (such as coronary occlusion, perforation, device embolization, or entrapment); cardiac non-coronary (such as periprocedural myocardial infarction); extra cardiac (such as vascular access complications, systemic embolization, contrast-induced nephropathy, and radiation-induced injury)...
September 2016: Indian Heart Journal
M Puhka, M-E Nordberg, S Valkonen, A Rannikko, O Kallioniemi, P Siljander, T Af Hällström
Urinary extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a promising source of biomarkers, which can be obtained in a non-invasive manner. However, the yield of EVs from urine samples may be insufficient for various analyses due to the entrapment of EVs by the Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP) meshwork. Here, we developed a simple dilution protocol to increase the urinary EV yield by disrupting the interaction between THP filaments and EVs with the help of alkaline pH and lowered ionic concentration. The integrity of the EVs and THP was assessed by electron microscopy...
October 19, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Hussein Kanso, María Begoña González García, Laura Fernández Llano, Su Ma, Roland Ludwig, Pablo Fanjul Bolado, David Hernández Santos
A new Screen-printed electrodes (SPE) integrated in one channel flow-cell was developed. The one channel flow-cell is attached and directly changeable with electrode. In the new flow-cell the injection is done through an "in-line luer injection port" which can be less aggressive than wall-jet flow cell for a biological recognition element immobilized on the surface of the electrode. The sample volume can be easily controlled by the operator through a syringe. In this novel thin layer flow-cell screen-printed electrodes, the working electrode was modified with graphene materials, and an enhancement of electroactive area to 388% over a standard electrode was found...
August 21, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
D Kerem, O Goffman, M Elasar, N Hadar, A Scheinin, T Lewis
Only recently included among the cetacean species thought to regularly occur in the Mediterranean, the rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis) is an obscure and enigmatic member of this ensemble. Preliminary genetic evidence strongly indicates an Atlantic origin, yet the Mediterranean distribution for this species is conspicuously detached from the Atlantic, with all authenticated records during the last three decades being east of the Sicilian Channel and most within the bounds of the Levantine Basin. These dolphins are apparently a small, relict population, probably the remnant of a larger one, contiguous with that in the Atlantic and nowadays entrapped in the easternmost and warmest province...
2016: Advances in Marine Biology
Zhan Zhou, Yuhui Zheng, Cheng Zhang Cheng, Jiajia Wen, Qianming Wang
Here we developed the first case of pyropheophorbide-a-loaded PEGylated-hybrid carbon nanohorns (CNH-Pyro) to study tumor targeting therapy. During incubation with living cells, CNH-Pyro exhibited very intense red emissions. The intracellular imaging results were carried out by flow cytometry based on four different kinds of cell lines (including three adherent cell lines and one suspension cell line). Compared with free pyropheophorbide-a, CNH-Pyro demonstrated enhanced photodynamic tumor ablation efficiency during in vitro experiments due to improved biocompatibility of the hybrid nanomaterial and the photothermal therapy effect derived from carbon-network structure...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Claure N Lunardi, Anderson J Gomes, Sandeep Palepu, P Thilanka Galwaduge, Elizabeth M C Hillman
Here we present the production, characterization and in-vivo assessment of cresyl violet-loaded biodegradable PLGA nano/microparticles (CV-NP and CV-MP). We demonstrate that the beneficial spectral characteristics of cresyl violet make it suitable as a tracer for particle-based drug delivery using both hyperspectral wide field and two-photon excited fluorescence microscopy. Particles were prepared using a cosolvent method, after which the physicochemical properties such as morphology, particle size, drug entrapment efficiency, drug loading and in vitro drug release behavior were measured in addition to spectroscopic properties, such as absorption, fluorescence and infrared spectra...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Glenn R Johnson, Heather R Luckarift
Effective entrapment of enzymes in solid phase materials is critical to their practical application. The entrapment generally stabilizes biological activity compared to soluble molecules and the material simplifies catalyst integration compared to other methods. A silica sol-gel process based upon biological mechanisms of inorganic material formation (biomineralization) supports protein immobilization reactions within minutes. The material has high protein binding capacity and the catalytic activity of the enzyme is retained...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Keith J Stine, Kenise Jefferson, Olga V Shulga
Nanoporous gold (NPG) is a material of emerging interest for immobilization of biomolecules, especially enzymes. The material provides a high surface area form of gold that is suitable for physisorption or for covalent modification by self-assembled monolayers. The material can be used as a high surface area electrode and with immobilized enzymes can be used for amperometric detection schemes. NPG can be prepared in a variety of formats from alloys containing between 20 and 50 % atomic composition of gold and less noble element(s) by dealloying procedures...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Adenike Okunlola, Amusa Sarafadeen Adebayo, Moji Christianah Adeyeye
Tropical starches from Dioscorea dumetorum (bitter) and Dioscorea oppositifolia (Chinese) yams were acetylated with acetic anhydride in pyridine medium and utilized as polymers for the delivery of repaglinide in microsphere formulations in comparison to ethyl cellulose. Acetylated starches of bitter and Chinese yams with degrees of substitution of 2.56 and 2.70 respectively were obtained. Acetylation was confirmed by FTIR, (1)H NMR spectroscopy. A 3(2) factorial experimental design was performed using polymer type and drug-polymer ratio as independent variables...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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