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Entrapment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683102/solid-lipid-particles-as-drug-carriers-effects-of-particle-preparation-methods-and-lipid-excipients-on-particle-characteristics
#1
Cintia Kieffer Gamboa, Ranoda Samir, Chengyu Wu, Huiling Mu
BACKGROUND: Oral delivery of biopharmaceuticals is limited by the absorption barriers in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) such as low permeability across the biological membranes and the enzymatic degradation by proteases. In this study, lipid based drug delivery systems were proposed to overcome these obstacles. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of particle preparation methods and excipients on the characteristics of solid lipid microparticles (SLM) and solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN)...
April 20, 2018: Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682957/upconversion-composite-nanoparticles-for-tumor-hypoxia-modulation-and-enhanced-nir-triggered-photodynamic-therapy
#2
Tongxu Gu, Liang Cheng, Fei Gong, Jun Xu, Xiang Li, Gaorong Han, Zhuang Liu
The efficacy of conventional photodynamic therapy (PDT) is markedly suppressed by limited penetration depth of light in biological tissues and oxygen depletion in the hypoxic tumor microenvironment. Herein, mesoporous silica nanospheres with fine CaF2: Yb, Er upconversion nanocrystals entrapped in their porous structure are synthesized via a thermal decomposition method. After subsequently coating with a thin MnO2 layer and loading with a photosensitizer, Chlorin e6 (Ce6), a new type of nanoscale PDT platform is obtained...
April 23, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682876/soybean-lecithin-mediated-nanoporous-plga-microspheres-with-highly-entrapped-and-controlled-released-bmp-2-as-a-stem-cell-platform
#3
Daixu Wei, Ruirui Qiao, Jinwei Dao, Jing Su, Chengmin Jiang, Xichang Wang, Mingyuan Gao, Jian Zhong
Injectable polymer microsphere-based stem cell delivery systems have a severe problem that they do not offer a desirable environment for stem cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation because it is difficult to entrap a large number of hydrophilic functional protein molecules into the core of hydrophobic polymer microspheres. In this work, soybean lecithin (SL) is applied to entrap hydrophilic bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2) into nanoporous poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)-based microspheres by a two-step method: SL/BMP-2 complexes preparation and PLGA/SL/BMP-2 microsphere preparation...
April 22, 2018: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682359/optical-coherence-tomographic-study-of-a-chronically-retained-coronary-guidewire
#4
Natasha Corballis, Sreekumar Sulfi, Alisdair Ryding
Guidewire entrapment is a rare complication of coronary intervention, and management depends on the individual circumstances. This is a case of an urgent percutaneous coronary angioplasty in which a guidewire became entrapped behind a bare metal stent with subsequent fracture of the core filament, which could not be retrieved. Using optical coherence tomography, our case demonstrates extensive tissue coverage of the retained guidewire at twelve months. Five-year follow-up suggests that retained guidewires can be managed without long-term anticoagulation, even when there is substantial intra-aortic material...
2018: Case Reports in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682041/pseudo-primary-abscess-of-the-cavum-septum-pellucidum-due-to-pus-entrapment-a-rare-case-report
#5
Ahmed Ansari, Ashok Gandhi, R S Mittal, Achal Sharma
The cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) is defined as a crevice-like space of variable width between the left and right transparent septum. In this report, a rare case of pseudo primary abscess formed in the CSP due to ventriculitis is presented.
April 2018: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680672/targeting-of-folate-conjugated-liposomes-with-co-entrapped-drugs-to-prostate-cancer-cells-via-prostate-specific-membrane-antigen-psma
#6
Yogita Patil, Hilary Shmeeda, Yasmine Amitay, Patricia Ohana, Saran Kumar, Alberto Gabizon
Folate-targeted liposomes (FTL) were tested as drug delivery vehicles to PSMA-positive cancer cells. We used FL with co-entrapped mitomycin C lipophilic prodrug (MLP) and doxorubicin (DOX), and the LNCaP prostate cancer cell line which expresses PSMA but is negative for folate receptor. A major increase in cell drug levels was observed when LNCaP cells were incubated with FTL as compared to non-targeted liposomes (NTL). MLP was activated to mitomycin C, and intracellular and nuclear fluorescence of DOX was detected, indicating FTL processing and drug bioavailability...
April 19, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680565/macondo-oil-in-northern-gulf-of-mexico-waters-part-1-assessments-and-forensic-methods-for-deepwater-horizon-offshore-water-samples
#7
James R Payne, William B Driskell
Forensic chemistry assessments documented the presence of Macondo (MC252) oil from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill in offshore water samples collected under Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) protocols. In ocean depths, oiled water was sampled, observed, photographed, and tracked in dissolved oxygen (DO) and fluorometry profiles. Chemical analyses, sensor records, and observations confirmed the shifting, rising oil plume above the wellhead while smaller, less buoyant droplets were entrapped in a layer at ~1000-1400 m and advected up to 412 km southwest...
April 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680503/chitosan-tailored-lipidic-nanoconstructs-of-fusidic-acid-as-promising-vehicle-for-wound-infections-an-explorative-study
#8
Kanika Thakur, Gajanand Sharma, Bhupinder Singh, Sanjay Chhibber, A B Patil, Om Prakash Katare
The current research study intends to explore the combined potential of lipid nanoparticles and chitosan as an optimum therapy for the management of wound infections. Fusidic acid (FA), a steroidal antibiotic employed for treatment of primary and secondary topical infections was encapsulated within the nanoengineered lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles (FA-LPHNs). A number of variables like lipid/polymer ratio, lipid, surfactant and chitosan concentration, stirring speed were optimized to get the desired particle size and % entrapment efficiency...
April 19, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680410/influence-of-entrapment-on-prehospital-management-and-the-hospital-course-in-polytrauma-patients-a-retrospective-analysis-in-air-rescue
#9
Christian Macke, Marika Sarakintsis, Marcel Winkelmann, Philipp Mommsen, Mohamed Omar, Christian Schröter, Christian Krettek, Christian Zeckey
BACKGROUND: Entrapment is a challenging and crucial factor in the prehospital setting. Few studies have addressed whether entrapment has an influence on on-scene treatment or on the following hospital course. OBJECTIVES: Here we aimed to investigate the influence of entrapment on prehospital management and on the hospital course of polytrauma patients. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of consecutive patients with an Injury Severity Score ≥16 and aged 16-65 years that were admitted between 2005 and 2013 to a Level I trauma center...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680367/immobilization-of-azospira-sp-strain-i13-by-gel-entrapment-for-mitigation-of-n-2-o-from-biological-wastewater-treatment-plants-biokinetic-characterization-and-modeling
#10
Toshikazu Suenaga, Ryo Aoyagi, Nozomi Sakamoto, Shohei Riya, Hidenori Ohashi, Masaaki Hosomi, Hideaki Tokuyama, Akihiko Terada
Development of a strategy to mitigate nitrous oxide (N2 O) emitted from biological sources is important in the nexus of wastewater treatment and greenhouse gas emission. To this end, immobilization of N2 O-reducing bacteria as a biofilm has the potential to ameliorate oxygen (O2 ) inhibition of the metabolic activity of the bacteria. We demonstrated the effectiveness of calcium alginate gel entrapment of the nosZ clade II type N2 O-reducing bacterium, Azospira sp. strain I13, in reducing levels of N2 O, irrespective of the presence of O2 ...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679892/electric-field-driven-assembly-of-live-bacterial-cell-microarrays-for-rapid-phenotypic-assessment-and-cell-viability-testing
#11
Meenal Goel, Abhishek Verma, Shalini Gupta
Microarray technology to isolate living cells using external fields is a facile way to do phenotypic analysis at the cellular level. We have used alternating current dielectrophoresis (AC-DEP) to drive the assembly of live pathogenic Salmonella typhi (S.typhi) and Escherichia coli (E.coli) bacteria into miniaturized single cell microarrays. The effects of voltage and frequency were optimized to identify the conditions for maximum cell capture which gave an entrapment efficiency of 90% in 60 min. The chip was used for calibration-free estimation of cellular loads in binary mixtures and further applied for rapid and enhanced testing of cell viability in the presence of drug via impedance spectroscopy...
April 7, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679671/alginate-caseinate-composites-molecular-interactions-and-characterization-of-cross-linked-beads-for-the-delivery-of-anticandidals
#12
Rapee Khlibsuwan, Watcharee Khunkitti, Thaned Pongjanyakul
Polysaccharide-protein composites offer potential utility for the delivery of drugs. The objectives of this work were to investigate the molecular interactions between sodium alginate (SA) and sodium caseinate (SC) in dispersions and films and to characterize calcium alginate (CA) beads mixed with SC for the delivery of fluconazole (FZ) and clotrimazole (CZ). The results demonstrated that SA could interact with SC, which caused a viscosity synergism in the dispersions. Hydrogen bonding between the carboxyl or hydroxyl groups of SA and the amide groups of SC led to the formation of soluble complexes that could reinforce the CA beads prepared by calcium cross-linking...
April 18, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679328/high-throughput-formation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cell-spheroids-and-entrapment-in-alginate-hydrogels
#13
Charlotte E Vorwald, Steve S Ho, Jacklyn Whitehead, J Kent Leach
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a promising cell source for tissue repair and regeneration due to their multilineage capacity, potential for autologous use, and secretion of potent bioactive factors to catalyze the endogenous repair program. However, a major limitation to current cell-based tissue engineering approaches is the drastic loss of cells upon transplantation. The causation of this loss, whether due to apoptosis following a dramatic change in the microenvironment or migration away from the defect site, has yet to be determined...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678737/a-novel-purification-procedure-for-recombinant-human-serum-albumin-expressed-in-pichia-pastoris
#14
Shijie Li, Linlin Li, Zhuo Chen, Guangpu Xue, Longguang Jiang, Ke Zheng, Jincan Chen, Rui Li, Cai Yuan, Mingdong Huang
Plasma-derived human serum albumin (pHSA) has important applications in many clinical indications, including blood loss, serious burn, or hemorrhagic shock. The limited supply and potential infectious pathogen contamination of pHSA have stimulated the development of recombinant human serum albumin (rHSA). However, rHSA often entraps endogenous or exogenous impurities, including color pigments and polysaccharides. Therefore, the purification of rHSA to high purity remains the bottleneck in large-scale production of rHSA...
April 17, 2018: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678733/pharmacokinetics-of-lipid-drug-conjugates-loaded-into-liposomes
#15
REVIEW
Rea D Signorell, Paola Luciani, Davide Brambilla, Jean-Christophe Leroux
Drugs that are neither lipophilic nor suitable for encapsulation via remote loading procedures are generally characterized by low entrapment efficiencies and poor retention in liposomes. One approach to circumvent this problem consists in covalently linking a lipid to the drug molecule in order to permit its insertion into the vesicle membrane. The nature of the conjugated lipid and linker, as well as the composition of the liposomal bilayer were found to have a profound impact on the pharmacokinetic properties and biodistribution of the encapsulated drugs as well as on their biological activity...
April 17, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678429/intercostal-entrapment-of-clavicle-fracture-causing-a-pulseless-flaccid-upper-extremity
#16
Chase Kluemper, Tyler Koestner, Justin Cowart, Matt Higgins
Limb-threatening vascular compromise from an isolated closed clavicle fracture is exceedingly rare. We report a case of a posteriorly angulated, closed clavicle fracture segment causing right upper-extremity ischemia, numbness, and paresis caused by entrapment of the clavicle between the first and second ribs.
April 17, 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677833/convenient-colorimetric-detection-of-cholesterol-using-multi-enzyme-co-incorporated-organic-inorganic-hybrid-nanoflowers
#17
Minsoo Chung, Yoon Jung Jang, Moon Il Kim
We have developed a microscale well-plate colorimetric assay for the multiplexed detection of cholesterol in clinical human blood samples. This system utilizes a novel multi-enzyme incorporated organic-inorganic hybrid nanoflower which entrap both cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as the organic components with copper phosphate as the inorganic component to detect cholesterol levels in blood samples. The hybrid nanoflowers, synthesized via an extremely simple but rapid sonication-mediated method within 5 min at room temperature, enable an efficient one-pot two-enzyme cascade reaction...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677821/tailor-made-electrospun-multilayer-composite-polymer-electrolytes-for-high-performance-lithium-polymer-batteries
#18
Du-Hyun Lim, Anupriya K Haridas, Stelbin Peter Figerez, Prasanth Raghavan, Aleksandar Matic, Jou-Hyeon Ahn
A novel tailor-made multilayer composite polymer electrolyte, consisting of two outer layers of electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and one inner layer of poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc)/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)/poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) fibrous membrane, was prepared using continuous electrospinning. These membranes, which are made up of fibers with diameters in the nanometer range, were stacked in layers to produce interconnected pores that result in a high porosity. Gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) were prepared by entrapping a liquid electrolyte (1 M LiPF6 in ethylene carbonate/dimethyl carbonate) in the membranes...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677448/self-assembled-ph-responsive-polymeric-micelles-for-highly-efficient-non-cytotoxic-delivery-of-doxorubicin-chemotherapy-to-inhibit-macrophage-activation-in-vitro-investigation
#19
Zhi-Sheng Liao, Shan-You Huang, Jyun-Jie Huang, Jem-Kun Chen, Ai-Wei Lee, Juin-Yih Lai, Duu-Jong Lee, Chih-Chia Cheng
Self-assembled pH-responsive polymeric micelles, a combination of hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) segments and hydrogen bonding interactions within a biocompatible polyurethane substrate, can spontaneously self-assemble into highly controlled, nanosized micelles in aqueous solution. These newly-developed micelles exhibit excellent pH-responsive behavior and biocompatibility, highly controlled drug (doxorubicin; DOX) release behavior and high drug encapsulation stability in different aqueous environments, making the micelles highly attractive potential candidates for safer, more effective drug delivery in applications such as cancer chemotherapy...
April 20, 2018: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676437/nerve-entrapment-syndromes-in-dermatology-review-and-practical-approach-to-treatment
#20
REVIEW
Samuel Zagarella
A good understanding of cutaneous nerve entrapment syndromes is important for physicians to provide early and accurate diagnosis and treatment. These syndromes have traditionally been managed with analgesics, antidepressants or antiepileptic medication but this approach is often inadequate and causes frequent adverse medication effects. With early diagnosis and treatment, many nerve entrapment syndromes can be successfully managed with physical, non-pharmacological approaches including stretches, exercises and physiotherapy...
April 20, 2018: Australasian Journal of Dermatology
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