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Functional Anatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791955/muscle-tendon-enthesis-unit
#1
Anthony S Tadros, Brady K Huang, Mini N Pathria
Injuries to the muscle-tendon-enthesis unit are common and a significant source of pain and loss of function. This article focuses on the important anatomical and biomechanical considerations for each component of the muscle-tendon-enthesis unit. We review normal and pathologic conditions affecting this unit, illustrating the imaging appearance of common disorders on magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound. Knowledge of the anatomy and biomechanics of these structures is crucial for the radiologist to make accurate diagnoses and provide clinically relevant assessments...
July 2018: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790970/balloon-occlusion-testing-to-assess-retinal-collateral-and-predict-visual-outcomes-in-the-management-of-a-fusiform-intraorbital-ophthalmic-artery-aneurysm-technical-note-and-literature-review
#2
Mithun G Sattur, Matthew E Welz, Bernard R Bendok, Jeffrey W Miller
BACKGROUND AND IMPORTANCE: Aneurysms of the ophthalmic artery (OA) within the orbit and optic canal are extremely rare. Given the peripheral location of these aneurysms and the fact that most are fusiform, parent artery occlusion is preferred for symptomatic aneurysms. However, the impact of OA occlusion on vision is not always innocuous. Balloon occlusion testing (BOT) of the OA has the potential to gauge the possibility of visual compromise, in addition to assessing collaterals. While BOT has been assessed for carotid artery occlusion, its role in OA occlusion has not been well defined...
May 22, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789957/thalamic-lesions-and-aphasia-or-neglect
#3
REVIEW
Shinichiro Maeshima, Aiko Osawa
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: When the thalamus is damaged, not only are there neurological symptoms such as sensory impairment, hemianopia, or motor control disorders, but there are also various neuropsychological symptoms. We discuss the basic anatomy and function of the thalamus followed by a discussion of thalamic aphasia and hemineglect. RECENT FINDINGS: Subcortical lesions in patients with hemineglect involved the anatomical network directly linked to the superior temporal gyrus...
May 23, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789815/challenging-case-robot-assisted-laparoscopic-prostatectomy-after-prior-suprapubic-open-prostatectomy
#4
Shirin Razdan, Sanjay Razdan
Introduction: Given the ubiquity of robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) for treatment of localized prostate cancer, more surgeons are encountering challenging cases, either secondary to difficult anatomy, prior abdominal surgery, or prior radiation therapy. Our case is of RALP in a patient after prior suprapubic prostatectomy. Case Presentation: A 61-year-old otherwise healthy Hispanic gentleman presented for consultation after being found to have Gleason 4 + 4 = 8 prostate cancer on transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy by an outside provider in July 2017...
2018: Journal of Endourology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786142/the-bone-marrow-is-not-only-a-primary-lymphoid-organ-the-critical-role-for-t-lymphocyte-migration-and-housing-of-long-term-memory-plasma-cells
#5
REVIEW
Reinhard Pabst
In immunology and anatomy textbooks the bone marrow is described as a typical "primary lymphoid organ" producing lymphoid cells independent of antigens. The hematopoietic bone marrow is largely age-dependent organ with great anatomical and functional differences among various species. There are estimates that about 12 % of all lymphoid cells in the human body are found in the bone marrow at any given time (2 % in the peripheral blood). Enormous numbers of T lymphocytes migrate to the bone marrow and partly return later to the blood...
May 22, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784581/how-to-make-a-tongue-cellular-and-molecular-regulation-of-muscle-and-connective-tissue-formation-during-mammalian-tongue-development
#6
REVIEW
Martyn T Cobourne, Sachiko Iseki, Anahid A Birjandi, Hadeel Adel Al-Lami, Christel Thauvin-Robinet, Guilherme M Xavier, Karen J Liu
The vertebrate tongue is a complex muscular organ situated in the oral cavity and involved in multiple functions including mastication, taste sensation, articulation and the maintenance of oral health. Although the gross embryological contributions to tongue formation have been known for many years, it is only relatively recently that the molecular pathways regulating these processes have begun to be discovered. In particular, there is now evidence that the Hedgehog, TGF-Beta, Wnt and Notch signaling pathways all play an important role in mediating appropriate signaling interactions between the epithelial, cranial neural crest and mesodermal cell populations that are required to form the tongue...
May 18, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781993/murine-salivary-functional-assessment-via-pilocarpine-stimulation-following-fractionated-radiation
#7
Jomy J Varghese, Isaac L Schmale, Mollie Eva Hansen, Shawn D Newlands, Danielle S W Benoit, Catherine E Ovitt
Hyposalivation is commonly observed in the autoimmune reaction of Sjögren's syndrome or following radiation injury to the major salivary glands. In these cases, questions remain regarding disease pathogenesis and effective interventions. An optimized technique that allows functional assessment of the salivary glands is invaluable for investigating exocrine gland biology, dysfunction, and therapeutics. Here, we present a step by step approach to performing pilocarpine stimulated saliva secretion, including tracheostomy and the dissection of the three major murine salivary glands...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781818/lower-extremity-megaprostheses-in-orthopaedic-oncology
#8
Santiago A Lozano Calderón, Joseph Kuechle, Kevin A Raskin, Francis J Hornicek
The megaprosthesis is designed to reproduce the form and function of a removed or lost large segment of bone and accompanying soft tissues. Slow but substantial improvements in the design and surgical implementation of these devices have advanced the capacity to restore patients' functional abilities. The essential challenges include identifying the ideal materials, bonding these materials to bone and soft tissues, reproducing functional anatomy, and adapting to the growing skeleton. Failure of these devices can result from soft-tissue insufficiency, aseptic loosening, structural failures, infection, and tumor recurrence...
May 17, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779874/a-gabaergic-feedback-shapes-dopaminergic-input-on-the-drosophila-mushroom-body-to-promote-appetitive-long-term-memory
#9
Alice Pavlowsky, Johann Schor, Pierre-Yves Plaçais, Thomas Preat
Memory consolidation is a crucial step for long-term memory (LTM) storage. However, we still lack a clear picture of how memory consolidation is regulated at the neuronal circuit level. Here, we took advantage of the well-described anatomy of the Drosophila olfactory memory center, the mushroom body (MB), to address this question in the context of appetitive LTM. The MB lobes, which are made by the fascicled axons of the MB intrinsic neurons, are organized into discrete anatomical modules, each covered by the terminals of a defined type of dopaminergic neuron (DAN) and the dendrites of a corresponding type of MB output neuron (MBON)...
May 9, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779594/disorders-of-the-diaphragm
#10
REVIEW
F Dennis McCool, Kamran Manzoor, Taro Minami
Pathologic processes that involve the central nervous system, phrenic nerve, neuromuscular junction, and skeletal muscle can impair diaphragm function. When these processes are of sufficient severity to cause diaphragm dysfunction, respiratory failure may be a consequence. This article reviews basic diaphragm anatomy and physiology and then discusses diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to disorders that result in unilateral or bilateral diaphragm dysfunction. This discussion provides a context in which disorders of the diaphragm and their implications on respiratory function can be better appreciated...
June 2018: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778671/international-study-of-comparative-health-effectiveness-with-medical-and-invasive-approaches-ischemia-trial-rationale-and-design
#11
David J Maron, Judith S Hochman, Sean M O'Brien, Harmony R Reynolds, William E Boden, Gregg W Stone, Sripal Bangalore, John A Spertus, Daniel B Mark, Karen P Alexander, Leslee Shaw, Jeffrey S Berger, T Bruce Ferguson, David O Williams, Robert A Harrington, Yves Rosenberg
BACKGROUND: Prior trials comparing a strategy of optimal medical therapy with or without revascularization have not shown that revascularization reduces cardiovascular events in patients with stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD). However, those trials only included participants in whom coronary anatomy was known prior to randomization and did not include sufficient numbers of participants with significant ischemia. It remains unknown whether a routine invasive approach offers incremental value over a conservative approach with catheterization reserved for failure of medical therapy in patients with moderate or severe ischemia...
April 21, 2018: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778635/a-critical-appraisal-of-11-th-century-treatise-by-ibn-sina-avicenna-on-the-anatomy-of-the-vascular-system-comparison-with-modern-anatomic-descriptions
#12
P Mazengenya, R Bhikha
Ibn Sina (also known as Avicenna in the West) was the most famous physician and medical scientist of the medieval era. His book, the Canon of Medicine comprised a vast collection of medical information ranging from basic medical sciences to specialised medical fields. Herein, we present an analysis of the cardiovascular system, particularly giving an in-depth comparison of the structural and functional anatomy of the arteries and veins of the body as described by Avicenna in the Canon of Medicine and comparing them to modern extant anatomical literature...
May 16, 2018: Morphologie: Bulletin de L'Association des Anatomistes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776472/spherical-versus-elliptical-prosthetic-humeral-heads-a-comparison-of-anatomic-fit
#13
C Scott Humphrey, Andrea L Gale
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to quantify the influence of prosthetic humeral head shape, as well as the number of available prosthetic head sizes, on replicating the normal humeral head anatomy during shoulder reconstructive surgery. METHODS: Computer modeling software was used to create virtual sets of both spherical and elliptical prosthetic heads, which were virtually implanted into 3-dimensional computed tomography scan-based models of 79 proximal humeri...
June 2018: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775596/digital-museum-of-retinal-ganglion-cells-with-dense-anatomy-and-physiology
#14
J Alexander Bae, Shang Mu, Jinseop S Kim, Nicholas L Turner, Ignacio Tartavull, Nico Kemnitz, Chris S Jordan, Alex D Norton, William M Silversmith, Rachel Prentki, Marissa Sorek, Celia David, Devon L Jones, Doug Bland, Amy L R Sterling, Jungman Park, Kevin L Briggman, H Sebastian Seung
When 3D electron microscopy and calcium imaging are used to investigate the structure and function of neural circuits, the resulting datasets pose new challenges of visualization and interpretation. Here, we present a new kind of digital resource that encompasses almost 400 ganglion cells from a single patch of mouse retina. An online "museum" provides a 3D interactive view of each cell's anatomy, as well as graphs of its visual responses. The resource reveals two aspects of the retina's inner plexiform layer: an arbor segregation principle governing structure along the light axis and a density conservation principle governing structure in the tangential plane...
May 17, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773976/facing-the-challenges-of-neuropeptide-gene-knockouts-why-do-they-not-inhibit-reproduction-in-adult-teleost-fish
#15
REVIEW
Vance L Trudeau
Genetic manipulation of teleost endocrine systems started with transgenic overexpression of pituitary growth hormone. Such strategies enhance growth and reduce fertility, but the fish still breed. Genome editing using transcription activator-like effector nuclease in zebrafish and medaka has established the role of follicle stimulating hormone for gonadal development and luteinizing hormone for ovulation. Attempts to genetically manipulate the hypophysiotropic neuropeptidergic systems have been less successful...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770706/intestinal-transplants-review-of-normal-imaging-appearance-and-complications
#16
Bashir Hakim, Daniel T Myers, Todd R Williams, Shunji Nagai, John Bonnett
Intestinal transplant (IT) is one of the least common forms of organ transplant but is increasing both in volume of cases and number of centers performing intestinal transplants, with the busiest centers in North America and Europe. IT can be performed in isolation or as part of a multivisceral transplant (MVT). Intestinal failure either in the form of short gut syndrome or functional bowel problems is the primary indication for IT. The normal post-surgical anatomy can be variable due to both recipient anatomy in regard to amount of residual bowel and status of native vasculature as well as whether the transplant is isolated or part of an multivisceral transplant...
May 17, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768273/subcaudate-tractotomy-white-matter-anatomy-and-variability-a-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study
#17
Kartik D Bhatia, Luke A Henderson, Eugene Hsu, Mark Yim
BACKGROUND: Subcaudate tractotomy is a functional ablative procedure performed for treatment-resistant psychiatric disease, targeting the white matter tracts ventral to the head of the caudate nucleus. The white matter anatomy of this region has extensive interindividual variability, and this is thought to impact upon the treatment response to ablative and deep brain stimulation procedures. OBJECTIVE: We aim to assess in detail the white matter tract anatomy and topographic variability underlying subcaudate tractotomy...
May 16, 2018: Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766384/increased-functional-meg-connectivity-as-a-hallmark-of-mri-negative-focal-and-generalized-epilepsy
#18
Yiwen Li Hegner, Justus Marquetand, Adham Elshahabi, Silke Klamer, Holger Lerche, Christoph Braun, Niels K Focke
Epilepsy is one of the most prevalent neurological diseases with a high morbidity. Accumulating evidence has shown that epilepsy is an archetypical neural network disorder. Here we developed a non-invasive cortical functional connectivity analysis based on magnetoencephalography (MEG) to assess commonalities and differences in the network phenotype in different epilepsy syndromes (non-lesional/cryptogenic focal and idiopathic/genetic generalized epilepsy). Thirty-seven epilepsy patients with normal structural brain anatomy underwent a 30-min resting state MEG measurement with eyes closed...
May 15, 2018: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766127/grey-s-anatomy-effect-television-portrayal-of-patients-with-trauma-may-cultivate-unrealistic-patient-and-family-expectations-after-injury
#19
Rosemarie O Serrone, Jordan A Weinberg, Pamela W Goslar, Erin P Wilkinson, Terrell M Thompson, Jonathan L Dameworth, Shawna R Dempsey, Scott R Petersen
Background: Expectations of the healthcare experience may be influenced by television dramas set in the hospital workplace. It is our perception that the fictional television portrayal of hospitalization after injury in such dramas is misrepresentative. The purpose of this study was to compare trauma outcomes on television dramas versus reality. Methods: We screened 269 episodes of Grey's Anatomy , a popular medical drama. A television (TV) registry was constructed by collecting data for each fictional trauma portrayed in the television series...
2018: Trauma surgery & acute care open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765822/minimally-invasive-surgery-for-resection-of-parapharyngeal-space-tumors
#20
Irit Duek, Gill E Sviri, Salem Billan, Ziv Gil
Background  Surgical removal of parapharyngeal space tumors (PPST) poses challenges due to the complex anatomy of the region. PPSTs are routinely resected by a transcervical approach using blind finger dissection. Large PPSTs or those located high at the skull base, often require transmandibular or infratemporal fossa approaches, associated with considerable morbidity. Objective  Here, we describe an approach for PPST removal that comprises transcervical endoscopic, with or without transoral robotic technique...
June 2018: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part B, Skull Base
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