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Functional Anatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153235/imaging-of-the-pediatric-temporomandibular-joint
#1
REVIEW
Matthew R Hammer, Yassine Kanaan
Imaging of the temporomandibular joint in pediatric patients is a critical component in the evaluation and treatment of children with temporomandibular joint symptoms. MRI can provide detailed joint anatomy and identify inflammation, sometimes before symptom onset. Ultrasound scan is a convenient emerging modality to evaluate the joint and guide therapeutic injections. Radiography and computed tomography offer osseous detail to recognize early morphologic changes of the mandibular condyle and provide operative planning...
February 2018: Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152182/selective-regimes-and-functional-anatomy-in-the-mustelid-forelimb-diversification-toward-specializations-for-climbing-digging-and-swimming
#2
Brandon M Kilbourne
Anatomical traits associated with locomotion often exhibit specializations for ecological niche, suggesting that locomotor specializations may constitute selective regimes acting on limb skeletal traits. To test this, I sampled 42 species of Mustelidae, encompassing climbing, digging, and swimming specialists, and determined whether trait variation reflects locomotor specialization by performing a principal components analysis on 14 forelimb traits. In addition to Brownian motion models, three Ornstein-Uhlenbeck models of selective regimes were applied to PC scores describing trait variation among mustelids: one without a priori defined phenotypic optima, one with optima based upon locomotor habit, and one with a single phenotypic optimum...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151799/endodontic-management-of-maxillary-third-molar-with-mb2-vertucci-type-iv-canal-configuration-diagnosed-with-cone-beam-computed-tomography-a-case-report
#3
Pradeep Jain, Pallav Patni, Pant Yogesh, Vyas Anup
The endodontic treatment of maxillary third molar often poses a challenge even to an experienced endodontist because of their most posterior location in the dental arch, aberrant occlusal anatomy, abnormal root canal configuration and eruption patterns. Owing to these anatomical limitations, their extraction remains the treatment of choice for many clinicians. As we know, retaining every functional component of the dental arch is of prime importance in contemporary dental practice. This clinical case report aims to discuss the endodontic treatment of maxillary third molar with MB2 root canal separated throughout the length and exit at two separate apical foramina (Vertucci type IV) diagnosed with Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT)...
2017: Clujul Medical (1957)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149245/high-dimensional-therapeutic-inference-in-the-focally-damaged-human-brain
#4
Tianbo Xu, Hans Rolf Jäger, Masud Husain, Geraint Rees, Parashkev Nachev
Though consistency across the population renders the extraordinarily complex functional anatomy of the human brain surveyable, the inverse inference-from common functional maps to individual behaviour-is constrained by marked individual deviation from the population mean. Such inference is fundamental to the evaluation of therapeutic interventions in focal brain injury, where the impact of an induced structural change in the brain is quantified by its behavioural consequences, inevitably refracted through the lens of lesion-outcome relations...
November 15, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148257/multiscale-memory-and-bioelectric-error-correction-in-the-cytoplasm-cytoskeleton-membrane-system
#5
REVIEW
Chris Fields, Michael Levin
A fundamental aspect of life is the modification of anatomy, physiology, and behavior in the face of changing conditions. This is especially illustrated by the adaptive regulation of growth and form that underlies the ability of most organisms-from single cells to complex large metazoa-to develop, remodel, and regenerate to specific anatomical patterns. What is the relationship of the genome and other cellular components to the robust computations that underlie this remarkable pattern homeostasis? Here we examine the role of constraints defined at the cellular level, especially endogenous bioelectricity, in generating and propagating biological information...
November 17, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148042/comparative-anatomy-of-zebrafish-paired-and-median-fin-muscles-basis-for-functional-developmental-and-macroevolutionary-studies
#6
Natalia Siomava, Rui Diogo
In the last decades, Danio rerio became one of the most used model organisms in various evo-devo studies devoted to the fin skeletal anatomy and fin-limb transition. Surprisingly, there is not even a single paper about the detailed anatomy of the adult muscles of the five fin types of this species. To facilitate more integrative developmental, functional, genetic, and evolutionary studies of the appendicular musculoskeletal system of the zebrafish and to provide a basis for further comparisons with other fishes and tetrapods, we describe here the identity, overall configuration, and attachments of appendicular muscles in a way that can be easily understood and implemented by non-anatomist researchers...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145401/anatomically-specific-intratubular-and-interstitial-biominerals-in-the-human-renal-medullo-papillary-complex
#7
Ling Chen, Ryan S Hsi, Feifei Yang, Benjamin A Sherer, Marshall L Stoller, Sunita P Ho
Limited information exists on the anatomically-specific early stage events leading to clinically detectable mineral aggregates in the renal papilla. In this study, quantitative multiscale correlative maps of structural, elemental and biochemical properties of whole medullo-papillary complexes from human kidneys were developed. Correlative maps of properties specific to the uriniferous and vascular tubules using high-resolution X-ray computed tomography, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and immunolocalization of noncollagenous proteins (NCPs) along with their association with anatomy specific biominerals were obtained...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143863/morphometric-properties-of-the-latissimus-dorsi-muscle-in-human-fetuses-for-flap-surgery
#8
Orhan Beger, Burhan Beger, Deniz Uzmansel, Semra Erdoğan, Zeliha Kurtoğlu
PURPOSE: Although latissimus dorsi (LD) flaps are extensively used in a wide range of interventions, fetus studies on this subject are quite limited. This study aims to obtain detailed information about the morphometric features of LD, thoracodorsal artery (TDA) and nerve (TDN). METHODS: The study was carried out on both sides of 50 formalin-fixed human fetuses (22 male/28 female) with a mean gestational age of 24.5 ± 4.7 (range 18-36) weeks, which were in the inventory of Anatomy Department of Mersin University Faculty of Medicine...
November 16, 2017: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138871/revision-shoulder-arthroplasty-with-a%C3%A2-reverse-shoulder-prosthesis-use-of-structural-allograft-for-glenoid-bone-loss
#9
S E Ozgur, R Sadeghpour, T R Norris
INTRODUCTION: Revision shoulder arthroplasty presents many unique and complex challenges when glenoid bone loss is involved. A distorted and medialized anatomy prevents the proper mechanics of the reverse prosthesis with regard to deltoid tension and ultimate function. This paper highlights one surgeon's experience using structural allograft for glenoid bone loss. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In all, 20 patients for a total of 24 surgeries with a medialized glenoid and/or substantial glenoid bone loss of grade IIB or higher were evaluated in this retrospective study...
November 14, 2017: Der Orthopäde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137591/surgical-anatomy-and-microvascular-surgical-technique-relevant-to-experimental-renal-transplant-in-rat-employing-aortic-and-inferior-venacaval-conduits
#10
Badri Man Shrestha, John Haylor
OBJECTIVES: Rat models of renal transplant are used to investigate immunologic processes and responses to therapeutic agents before their translation into routine clinical practice. In this study, we have described details of rat surgical anatomy and our experiences with the microvascular surgical technique relevant to renal transplant by employing donor inferior vena cava and aortic conduits. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For this study, 175 rats (151 Lewis and 24 Fisher) were used to establish the Fisher-Lewis rat model of chronic allograft injury at our institution...
November 15, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136411/shoot-apical-meristem-and-plant-body-organization-a-cross-species-comparative-study
#11
Renáta Schnablová, Tomáš Herben, Jitka Klimešová
Background and Aims: The shoot apical meristem (SAM) is the key organizing element in the plant body and is responsible for the core of plant body organization and shape. Surprisingly, there are almost no comparative data that would show links between parameters of the SAM and whole-plant traits as drivers of the plant's response to the environment. Methods: Interspecific differences in SAM anatomy were examined in 104 perennial herbaceous angiosperms. Key Results: There were differences in SAM parameters among individual species, their phylogenetic patterns, and how their variation is linked to variation in plant above-ground organs and hence species' environmental niches...
November 10, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131765/comprehensive-cross-sectional-imaging-of-the-pulmonary-veins
#12
Cameron Hassani, Farhood Saremi
The pulmonary veins carry oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart, but their importance to the radiologist extends far beyond this seemingly straightforward function. The anatomy of the pulmonary veins is variable among patients, with several noteworthy variant and anomalous patterns, including supernumerary pulmonary veins, a common ostium, anomalous pulmonary venous return, and levoatriocardinal veins. Differences in pulmonary vein anatomy and the presence of variant or anomalous anatomy can be of critical importance, especially for preoperative planning of pulmonary and cardiac surgery...
November 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131389/a-new-porcine-vascularized-tibial-bone-allotransplantation-model-anatomy-and-surgical-technique
#13
Dimitra Kotsougiani, Joost I Willems, Alexander Y Shin, Patricia F Friedrich, Caroline A Hundepool, Allen T Bishop
INTRODUCTION: Vascularized bone allotransplantation may provide new options for reconstruction of segmental defects if problems of long-term immune modulation can be solved. The current literature lacks an orthotopic large animal model, limited to bone and without the confounding effects of other tissue types, permitting a multifaceted evaluation before new methods are used clinically. The purpose of this study was to develop a large animal model for vascularized bone allotransplantation...
November 13, 2017: Microsurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130520/narrated-video-demonstrating-the-procedure-of-videourodynamics
#14
Linda Cardozo, Fevzi Shakir, George Araklitis, Angie Rantell, Dudley Robinson
AIMS: To present a narrated video designed to demonstrate the steps involved in the procedure of videourodynamics. METHODS: The technique shown and described in this teaching video is that performed in the urogynaecology Department at King's College Hospital, London. The equipment utilizes fluid filled lines and external pressure transducers which provide accurate and consistent results. RESULTS: The advantage of videocystourolodraphy is that as well as incorporating screening fluoroscopy with a cystometric trace, simultaneous assessment of lower urinary tract anatomy and morphology and function is possible...
November 11, 2017: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129763/mammillothalamic-and-mammillotegmental-tracts-as-new-targets-for-dementia-and-epilepsy-treatment
#15
REVIEW
Naci Balak, Ece Balkuv, Ali Karadag, Recep Basaran, Huseyin Biceroglu, Buruç Erkan, Necmettin Tanriover
Very recently, neuromodulation through deep brain stimulation (DBS) has appeared as a new surgical procedure in the treatment of some types of dementia and epilepsy. The mammillothalamic and the mammillotegmental tracts are involved among the new targets. To our knowledge, a review article focused specifically on these mammillary body efferents is lacking in the medical literature. Their contribution to memory is, regrettably, often overlooked. There is evidence that mammillary bodies can contribute to memory independently from hippocampal formation, but the mechanism is not yet known...
November 9, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127118/the-acra-anatomy-study-assessment-of-disability-after-coronary-procedures-using-radial-access-a-comprehensive-anatomic-and-functional-assessment-of-the-vasculature-of-the-hand-and-relation-to-outcome-after-transradial-catheterization
#16
Maarten A H van Leeuwen, Maurits R Hollander, Dirk J van der Heijden, Peter M van de Ven, Kim H M Opmeer, Yannick J H J Taverne, Marco J P F Ritt, Ferdinand Kiemeneij, Nicolas M van Mieghem, Niels van Royen
BACKGROUND: The palmar arches serve as the most important conduits for digital blood supply, and incompleteness may lead to digital ischemia when the radial artery becomes obstructed after cardiac catheterization. The rate of palmar arch incompleteness and the clinical consequences after transradial access are currently unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: The vascular anatomy of the hand was documented by angiography in 234 patients undergoing transradial cardiac catheterization...
November 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125205/reconstructing-pectoral-appendicular-muscle-anatomy-in-fossil-fish-and-tetrapods-over-the-fins-to-limbs-transition
#17
Julia L Molnar, Rui Diogo, John R Hutchinson, Stephanie E Pierce
The question of how tetrapod limbs evolved from fins is one of the great puzzles of evolutionary biology. While palaeontologists, developmental biologists, and geneticists have made great strides in explaining the origin and early evolution of limb skeletal structures, that of the muscles remains largely unknown. The main reason is the lack of consensus about appendicular muscle homology between the closest living relatives of early tetrapods: lobe-finned fish and crown tetrapods. In the light of a recent study of these homologies, we re-examined osteological correlates of muscle attachment in the pectoral girdle, humerus, radius, and ulna of early tetrapods and their close relatives...
November 10, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125097/historical-and-contemporary-aspects-of-maternal-immunity-in-swine
#18
Korakrit Poonsuk, Jeff Zimmerman
Maternal immunity plays a pivotal role in swine health and production because piglets are born agammaglobulinemic and with limited cell-mediated immunity, i.e. few peripheral lymphoid cells, immature lymphoid tissues, and no effector and memory T-lymphocytes. Swine do not become fully immunologically competent until about 4 weeks of age, which means that their compromised ability to respond to infectious agents during the first month of life must be supplemented by maternal immune components: (1) circulating antibodies derived from colostrum; (2) mucosal antibodies from colostrum and milk; and (3) immune cells provided in mammary secretions...
November 10, 2017: Animal Health Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123402/transient-global-amnesia-current-perspectives
#19
REVIEW
David R Spiegel, Justin Smith, Ryan R Wade, Nithya Cherukuru, Aneel Ursani, Yuliya Dobruskina, Taylor Crist, Robert F Busch, Rahim M Dhanani, Nicholas Dreyer
Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a clinical syndrome characterized by the sudden onset of an extraordinarily large reduction of anterograde and a somewhat milder reduction of retrograde episodic long-term memory. Additionally, executive functions are described as diminished. Although it is suggested that various factors, such as migraine, focal ischemia, venous flow abnormalities, and epileptic phenomena, are involved in the pathophysiology and differential diagnosis of TGA, the factors triggering the emergence of these lesions are still elusive...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123400/comparison-of-spontaneous-brain-activity-revealed-by-regional-homogeneity-in-aqp4-igg-neuromyelitis-optica-optic-neuritis-versus-mog-igg-optic-neuritis-patients-a-resting-state-functional-mri-study
#20
Junqing Wang, Yuan Tian, Yi Shao, Hui Feng, Limin Qin, Weiwei Xu, Hongjuan Liu, Quangang Xu, Shihui Wei, Lin Ma
Objective: Many previous studies have demonstrated that neuromyelitis optica (NMO) patients have abnormalities of brain anatomy and function. However, differences in spontaneous brain activity between myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-IgG ON and aquaporin 4(AQP4)-neuromyelitis optica-optic neuritis (ON) remain unknown. In the current study, we investigated the brain neural homogeneity in MOG-IgG ON versus AQP4-IgG NMO-ON subjects by regional homogeneity (ReHo) method using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
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