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Functional Anatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334998/spatiotemporal-mapping-of-epileptic-spikes-using-simultaneous-eeg-functional-mri
#1
Jennifer M Walz, Mangor Pedersen, Amir Omidvarnia, Mira Semmelroch, Graeme D Jackson
Epileptic spikes occur on the sub-second timescale and are known to involve not only epileptic foci but also large-scale distributed brain networks. There is likely to be a sequence of neural activity in multiple brain regions that occurs within the duration of a single spike, but standard electroencephalography-functional magnetic resonance imaging analyses, which use only the timing of the spikes to model the functional magnetic resonance imaging data, cannot determine the sequence of these activations. Our aim in this study is to temporally resolve these spatial activations to observe the spatiotemporal dynamics of the spike-related neural activity at a sub-second timescale...
February 20, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334287/climate-trends-in-the-wood-anatomy-of-acacia-sensu-stricto-leguminosae-mimosoideae
#2
Nigel W M Warwick, Luke Hailey, Kerri L Clarke, Peter E Gasson
Background and Aims: This study investigates the structural diversity of the secondary xylem of 54 species of Acacia from four taxonomic sections collected across five climate regions along a 1200 km E-W transect from sub-tropical [approx. 1400 mm mean annual precipitation (MAP)] to arid (approx. 240 mm MAP) in New South Wales, Australia. Acacia sensu stricto ( s.s. ) is a critical group for understanding the effect of climate and phylogeny on the functional anatomy of wood. Methods: Wood samples were sectioned in transverse, tangential and radial planes for light microscopy and analysis...
March 9, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333689/computational-modelling-of-the-cerebral-cortical-microvasculature-effect-of-x-ray-microbeams-versus-broad-beam-irradiation
#3
Andreas Merrem, Stefan Bartzsch, Jean Laissue, Uwe Oelfke
Microbeam Radiation Therapy is an innovative pre-clinical strategy which uses arrays of parallel, tens of micrometre wide kilo-voltage photon beams to treat tumours. These X-ray beams are typically generated on a synchrotron source. It was shown that these beam geometries allow exceptional normal tissue sparing from radiation damage while still being effective in tumour ablation. A final biological explanation for this enhanced therapeutic ratio has still not been found, some experimental data support an important role of the vasculature...
March 23, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333429/multimodality-imaging-to-plan-and-guide-transcatheter-tricuspid-valve-interventions
#4
Edgard A Prihadi, Victoria Delgado, Jeroen J Bax
Tricuspid regurgitation (TR) is a highly prevalent valvular heart disease. The natural history of untreated significant TR portends an unfavourable outcome, but only a minority of patients is currently referred for surgical treatment. Organic TR (caused by primary abnormality of the leaflets) is relatively infrequent whereas secondary or functional TR (caused by dilatation of the tricuspid annulus, right ventricle [RV] and right atrium) is the predominant mechanism. The success of transcatheter therapies for left valvular heart disease over the last decade, has fuelled similar development of novel transcatheter devices for the treatment of TR...
March 23, 2017: Minerva Cardioangiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333376/regulation-of-coronary-blood-flow
#5
Adam G Goodwill, Gregory M Dick, Alexander M Kiel, Johnathan D Tune
The heart is uniquely responsible for providing its own blood supply through the coronary circulation. Regulation of coronary blood flow is quite complex and, after over 100 years of dedicated research, is understood to be dictated through multiple mechanisms that include extravascular compressive forces (tissue pressure), coronary perfusion pressure, myogenic, local metabolic, endothelial as well as neural and hormonal influences. While each of these determinants can have profound influence over myocardial perfusion, largely through effects on end-effector ion channels, these mechanisms collectively modulate coronary vascular resistance and act to ensure that the myocardial requirements for oxygen and substrates are adequately provided by the coronary circulation...
March 16, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333375/renal-nerves-and-long-term-control-of-arterial-pressure
#6
John W Osborn, Jason D Foss
The objective of this review is to provide an in-depth evaluation of how renal nerves regulate renal and cardiovascular function with a focus on long-term control of arterial pressure. We begin by reviewing the anatomy of renal nerves and then briefly discuss how the activity of renal nerves affects renal function. Current methods for measurement and quantification of efferent renal-nerve activity (ERNA) in animals and humans are discussed. Acute regulation of ERNA by classical neural reflexes as well and hormonal inputs to the brain is reviewed...
March 16, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332239/clinical-application-of-calculated-split-renal-volume-using-computed-tomography-based-renal-volumetry-after-partial-nephrectomy-correlation-with-technetium-99m-dimercaptosuccinic-acid-renal-scan-data
#7
Chan Ho Lee, Young Joo Park, Ja Yoon Ku, Hong Koo Ha
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical application of computed tomography-based measurement of renal cortical volume and split renal volume as a single tool to assess the anatomy and renal function in patients with renal tumors before and after partial nephrectomy, and to compare the findings with technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scan. METHODS: The data of 51 patients with a unilateral renal tumor managed by partial nephrectomy were retrospectively analyzed...
March 22, 2017: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329054/whole-heart-detailed-and-quantitative-anatomy-myofibre-structure-and-vasculature-from-x-ray-phase-contrast-synchrotron-radiation-based-micro-computed-tomography
#8
Anna Gonzalez-Tendero, Chong Zhang, Vedrana Balicevic, Rubén Cárdenes, Sven Loncaric, Constantine Butakoff, Bruno Paun, Anne Bonnin, Patricia Garcia-Cañadilla, Emma Muñoz-Moreno, Eduard Gratacós, Fatima Crispi, Bart Bijnens
Background: While individual cardiac myocytes only have a limited ability to shorten, the heart efficiently pumps a large volume-fraction thanks to a cell organization in a complex 3D fibre structure. Subclinical subtle cardiac structural remodelling is often present before symptoms arise. Understanding and early detection of these subtle changes is crucial for diagnosis and prevention. Additionally, personalized computational modelling requires knowledge on the multi-scale structure of the whole heart and vessels...
March 15, 2017: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326682/nervous-system-development-and-regeneration-in-freshwater-planarians
#9
REVIEW
Kelly G Ross, Ko W Currie, Bret J Pearson, Ricardo M Zayas
Planarians have a long history in the fields of developmental and regenerative biology. These animals have also sparked interest in neuroscience due to their neuroanatomy, spectrum of simple behaviors, and especially, their almost unparalleled ability to generate new neurons after any type of injury. Research in adult planarians has revealed that neuronal subtypes homologous to those found in vertebrates are generated from stem cells throughout their lives. This feat is recapitulated after head amputation, wherein animals are capable of regenerating whole brains and regaining complete neural function...
March 22, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325439/a-novel-myocardium-segmentation-approach-based-on-neutrosophic-active-contour-model
#10
Yanhui Guo, Guo-Qing Du, Jing-Yi Xue, Rong Xia, Yu-Hang Wang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Automatic delineation of the myocardium in echocardiography can assist radiologists to diagnosis heart problems. However, it is still challenging to distinguish myocardium from other tissue due to a low signal-to-noise ratio, low contrast, vague boundary, and speckle noise. The purpose of this study is to automatically detect myocardium region in left ventricle myocardial contrast echocardiography (LVMCE) images to help radiologists' diagnosis and further measurement on infarction size...
April 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323332/shedding-light-on-gray-ing-areas-connectivity-and-task-switching-dynamics-in-aging
#11
Pauline L Baniqued, Kathy A Low, Mark A Fletcher, Gabriele Gratton, Monica Fabiani
Control-demanding tasks rely on communication among regions of the frontoparietal network, areas that undergo significant age-related decline. Here, we integrate data from brain anatomy, electrophysiology (ERPs), and optical imaging (event-related optical signals, EROS) to characterize the spatial and temporal dynamics of preparatory control processes in middle to old age. Older adults participated in an experiment that required switching between a position and a meaning task (spatial Stroop), a paradigm that has been shown to primarily recruit prefrontal cortex in opposite hemispheres and is thought to involve the corpus callosum (CC)...
March 21, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322334/the-evolutionary-origin-of-jaw-yaw-in-mammals
#12
David M Grossnickle
Theria comprises all but three living mammalian genera and is one of the most ecologically pervasive clades on Earth. Yet, the origin and early history of therians and their close relatives (i.e., cladotherians) remains surprisingly enigmatic. A critical biological function that can be compared among early mammal groups is mastication. Morphometrics and modeling analyses of the jaws of Mesozoic mammals indicate that cladotherians evolved musculoskeletal anatomies that increase mechanical advantage during jaw rotation around a dorsoventrally-oriented axis (i...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321426/quantitative-anatomic-analysis-of-the-native-ligamentum-teres
#13
Jacob D Mikula, Erik L Slette, Jorge Chahla, Alex W Brady, Renato Locks, Christiano A C Trindade, Matthew T Rasmussen, Robert F LaPrade, Marc J Philippon
BACKGROUND: While recent studies have addressed the biomechanical function of the ligamentum teres and provided descriptions of ligamentum teres reconstruction techniques, its detailed quantitative anatomy remains relatively undocumented. Moreover, there is a lack of consensus in the literature regarding the number and morphology of the acetabular attachments of the ligamentum teres. PURPOSE: To provide a clinically relevant quantitative anatomic description of the native human ligamentum teres...
February 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320887/hip-region-muscular-dystrophy-and-emergence-of-motor-deficits-in-dysferlin-deficient-bla-j-mice
#14
Nadia Nagy, Randal J Nonneman, Telmo Llanga, Catherine F Dial, Natallia V Riddick, Tom Hampton, Sheryl S Moy, Kimmo K Lehtimäki, Toni Ahtoniemi, Jukka Puoliväli, Hillarie Windish, Douglas Albrecht, Isabelle Richard, Matthew L Hirsch
The identification of a dysferlin-deficient animal model that accurately displays both the physiological and behavior aspects of human dysferlinopathy is critical for the evaluation of potential therapeutics. Disease progression in dysferlin-deficient mice is relatively mild, compared to the debilitating human disease which manifests in impairment of particular motor functions. Since there are no other known models of dysferlinopathy in other species, locomotor proficiency and muscular anatomy through MRI (both lower leg and hip region) were evaluated in dysferlin-deficient B6...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320311/a-receptor-based-analysis-of-local-ecosystems-in-the-human-brain
#15
Skirmantas Janušonis
BACKGROUND: As a complex system, the brain is a self-organizing entity that depends on local interactions among cells. Its regions (anatomically defined nuclei and areas) can be conceptualized as cellular ecosystems, but the similarity of their functional profiles is poorly understood. The study used the Allen Human Brain Atlas to classify 169 brain regions into hierarchically-organized environments based on their expression of 100 G protein-coupled neurotransmitter receptors, with no a priori reference to the regions' positions in the brain's anatomy or function...
March 20, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320209/anterolateral-ligament-of-the-knee-anatomy-function-imaging-and-treatment
#16
Ronak M Patel, Robert H Brophy
The anterolateral ligament (ALL) of the knee has gained attention recently for its potential role in rotational stability of the knee, especially in association with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. Anatomic studies have characterized the ALL as it runs in an anteroinferior and oblique direction from the lateral distal femur to the anterolateral proximal tibia, although the prevalence and variance of this ligament are not well understood. Magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound have identified the ligament and linked it with the classically described Segond fracture...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317555/the-cervical-spine-of-australopithecus-sediba
#17
Marc R Meyer, Scott A Williams, Peter Schmid, Steven E Churchill, Lee R Berger
Cervical vertebrae are rare in the early hominin fossil record, presenting a challenge for understanding the evolution of the neck and head carriage in hominin evolution. Here, we examine the cervical vertebrae of Australopithecus sediba, which unlike other South African taxa is known from associated cervical vertebrae. The A. sediba cervical vertebrae exhibit human-like values for wedging, pedicle cross-sectional areas, and articular facet heights, indicating reduced ventral loading relative to African apes...
March 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317554/chimpanzee-and-human-midfoot-motion-during-bipedal-walking-and-the-evolution-of-the-longitudinal-arch-of-the-foot
#18
Nicholas B Holowka, Matthew C O'Neill, Nathan E Thompson, Brigitte Demes
The longitudinal arch of the human foot is commonly thought to reduce midfoot joint motion to convert the foot into a rigid lever during push off in bipedal walking. In contrast, African apes have been observed to exhibit midfoot dorsiflexion following heel lift during terrestrial locomotion, presumably due to their possession of highly mobile midfoot joints. This assumed dichotomy between human and African ape midfoot mobility has recently been questioned based on indirect assessments of in vivo midfoot motion, such as plantar pressure and cadaver studies; however, direct quantitative analyses of African ape midfoot kinematics during locomotion remain scarce...
March 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316962/wiring-techniques-for-the-fixation-of-trochanteric-fragments-during-bipolar-hemiarthroplasty-for-femoral-intertrochanteric-fracture-clinical-study-and-technical-note
#19
Joong-Myung Lee, Yongsuk Cho, Junhyun Kim, Dong-Won Kim
PURPOSE: Femoral intertrochanteric fractures are common in the elderly. Appropriate surgical fixation of trochanteric fracture fragments can restore normal anatomical structure and ambulation, and can aid in the recovery of biomechanical function of the hip. We evaluated clinical outcomes of bipolar hemiarthroplasty using a wiring technique for trochanteric fracture fragment fixation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From September 2006 to February 2015, a total of 260 cases underwent simultaneous bipolar hemiarthroplasty and wire fixation...
March 2017: Hip & Pelvis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315813/the-case-for-applying-tissue-engineering-methodologies-to-instruct-human-organoid-morphogenesis
#20
REVIEW
Carlos R Marti-Figueroa, Randolph S Ashton
Three-dimensional organoids derived from human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) derivatives have become widely used in vitro models for studying development and disease. Their ability to recapitulate facets of normal human development during in vitro morphogenesis produces tissue structures with unprecedented biomimicry. Current organoid derivation protocols primarily rely on spontaneous morphogenesis processes to occur within 3-D spherical cell aggregates with minimal to no exogenous control. This yields organoids containing microscale regions of biomimetic tissues, but at the macroscale (i...
March 15, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
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