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Oral decontamination

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320561/the-effects-of-oral-rinse-with-0-2-and-2-chlorhexidine-on-oropharyngeal-colonization-and-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-in-adults-intensive-care-units
#1
Farid Zand, Leili Zahed, Parisa Mansouri, Freshte Dehghanrad, Maryam Bahrani, Mohammad Ghorbani
BACKGROUND: Ventilator Associated Pneumonia (VAP) is the most common nosocomial infection in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) which increases the length of ICU stay, duration of mechanical ventilation, and mortality. The present study used an oral care protocol and compared the effects of two different concentrations of chlorhexidine on reduction of oropharyngeal colonization and VAP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was performed on 114 patients from trauma, surgery, neurosurgery, and general ICUs randomly allocated to two groups under oral care with 0...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267670/selective-digestive-decontamination-in-critically-ill-children-a-survey-of-canadian-providers
#2
Srinivas Murthy, Nazima Pathan, Brian H Cuthbertson
BACKGROUND: Selective digestive decontamination of the digestive tract involves the routine administration of oral, gastric, and intravenous antibiotics to mechanically ventilated children to prevent hospital-acquired infections. It has a strong evidence base in adults, with limited pediatric evidence. Current utilization of this intervention among pediatric physicians in North America is unknown. METHODS: An electronic survey administered to pediatric critical care and pediatric infectious disease providers in Canada...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133524/comparison-of-activated-charcoal-and-sodium-polystyrene-sulfonate-resin-efficiency-on-reduction-of-amitriptyline-oral-absorption-in-rat-as-treatments-for-overdose-and-toxicities
#3
Gholamhossein Yousefi, Mohammad Bizhani, Akram Jamshidzadeh, Saeid Gholamzadeh
OBJECTIVES: Comparative in vivo studies were carried out to determine the adsorption characteristics of amitriptyline (AMT) on activated charcoal (AC) and sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS). AC has been long used as gastric decontamination agent for tricyclic antidepressants and SPS has showed to be highly effective on in-vitro drugs adsorption. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sprague-Dawley male rats were divided into six groups. Group I: control, group II: AMT 200 mg/kg as single dose orally, group III and IV: AC 1g/kg as single dose orally 5 and 30 min after AMT administration respectively, and group 5 and 6: SPS 1 g/kg as single dose orally 5 and 30 min after AMT administration, respectively...
January 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118221/prevention-of-ventilator-associated-pneumonia
#4
Gianluigi Li Bassi, Tarek Senussi, Eli Aguilera Xiol
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is an iatrogenic disease. Here we appraise recent advancements in the development and testing of strategies to prevent VAP. We also provide recommendations on the most promising interventions that should be applied. RECENT FINDINGS: In the last year, preventive bundles have consistently let to a reduction of VAP. A few trials on endotracheal tubes (ETTs) with novel cuffs failed to translate positive bench findings into clinical settings...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117914/chemotherapeutic-decontamination-of-dental-implants-colonized-by-mature-multispecies-oral-biofilm
#5
Sebastien Dostie, Lubna T Alkadi, Gethin Owen, Jiarui Bi, Ya Shen, Markus Haapasalo, Hannu S Larjava
AIM: No studies have tested disinfectants on mature multispecies oral biofilms on titanium substrata. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of commonly used antimicrobial agents in decontamination of multispecies mature oral biofilm on sandblasted, large-grit, acid-etched (SLA) titanium implants. METHODS: SLA titanium disks were inoculated with dental plaque and cultured anaerobically for 21 days. The disks were rinsed with 0.9% NaCl, exposed for 2 min...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Clinical Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042438/the-treatment-of-peri-implant-diseases-a-new-approach-using-hybenx-%C3%A2-as-a-decontaminant-for-implant-surface-and-oral-tissues
#6
M A Lopez, M Andreasi Bassi, L Confalone, F Silvestre, C Arcuri
PURPOSE: The aim of the present study is to demonstrate the efficacy of HyBeNX® to decontaminate the implant surface, both in the case mucositis and severe peri-implantitis and to allow future bone regeneration. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We describe three case reports of peri-implantitis successfully treated with HyBeNX®. In our study, we have used microbiological tests to demonstrate the efficacy of HyBeNX® in decreasing bacterial load. RESULTS: The microbiological results of the clinical cases described show that there was a reduction in the total bacterial count after treatment...
July 2016: Oral & Implantology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039835/toxicokinetics-of-chlordecone-in-goats-implications-for-risk-management-in-french-west-indies
#7
Agnès Fournier, Cyril Feidt, Marie-Laure Lastel, Harry Archimede, Jean-Pierre Thome, Maurice Mahieu, Guido Rychen
The former use of chlordecone (CLD) in the French West Indies has resulted in long-term pollution of soils. CLD is known to be potentially transferred towards animal products of animals reared outdoors, mainly through accidental soil ingestion. Several studies indicate that soil bound CLD is bioavailable when administered to farm animals. Currently there is a need to quantify the level of CLD absorption and its toxicokinetic characteristics in the ruminant and particularly in the goat. These are considered as important farm species in the French West Indies...
December 13, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991646/materials-for-retrograde-filling-in-root-canal-therapy
#8
REVIEW
Xiangyu Ma, Chunjie Li, Liuhe Jia, Yan Wang, Wenwen Liu, Xuedong Zhou, Trevor M Johnson, Dingming Huang
BACKGROUND: Root canal therapy is a sequence of treatments involving root canal cleaning, shaping, decontamination and obturation. It is conventionally performed through a hole drilled into the crown of the affected tooth, namely orthograde root canal therapy. For teeth that cannot be treated with orthograde root canal therapy, or for which it has failed, retrograde root filling, which seals the root canal from the root apex, is a good alternative. Many materials, such as amalgam, zinc oxide eugenol and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), are generally used...
December 17, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931875/efficacy-of-antimicrobial-photodynamic-therapy-in-the-disinfection-of-acrylic-denture-surfaces-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
Sergio Varela Kellesarian, Tariq Abduljabbar, Fahim Vohra, Hans Malmstrom, Michael Yunker, Tammy Varela Kellesarian, Georgios E Romanos, Fawad Javed
BACKGROUND: the aim of the present systematic review was to assess the efficacy of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) in the disinfection of acrylic denture surfaces. METHODS: in order to address the focused question: "Is aPDT more effective in decontaminating denture surfaces compared with traditional denture-disinfection techniques?" an electronic search without time or language restrictions was conducted up to November 2016 in indexed databases using different key words...
December 5, 2016: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852955/microbiological-efficacy-of-early-mrsa-treatment-in-cystic-fibrosis-in-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#10
Marianne Sponer Muhlebach, Valeria Beckett, Elena Popowitch, Melissa B Miller, Arthur Baines, Nicole Mayer-Hamblett, Edith T Zemanick, Wynton C Hoover, Jill M VanDalfsen, Preston Campbell, Christopher H Goss
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate microbiological effectiveness, that is, culture negativity of a non-blinded eradication protocol (Rx) compared with observation (Obs) in clinically stable cystic fibrosis participants with newly positive methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) cultures. DESIGN: This non-blinded trial randomised participants ages 4-45 years with first or early (≤2 positive cultures within 3 years) MRSA-positive culture without MRSA-active antibiotics within 4 weeks 1:1 to Rx or Obs...
November 15, 2016: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828768/clinical-comparison-of-two-photosensitizers-for-oral-cavity-decontamination
#11
Hérica Adad Ricci Donato, Sebastião Pratavieira, Clovis Grecco, Aldo Brugnera-Júnior, Vanderlei Salvador Bagnato, Cristina Kurachi
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aim to compare the photodynamic inactivation (PDI) effects of two different photosensitizers (PS), Photogem(®) and Natural Curcumin, irradiated with light-emitted diodes (LED) at 630 and 450 nm, respectively. BACKGROUND: The current antimicrobial mouthwash for oral hygiene has several drawbacks. In this context, PDI is an alternative technique to inactivate pathogenic microbes in mucosa and in periodontal tissue. Furthermore, there are numerous infectious diseases that may affect the oral cavity, motivating the use of PDI in dentistry...
February 2017: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811563/systemic-fungal-infections-in-donors-for-corneal-transplantation
#12
Sheila Pabon, Thomas D Lindquist, Thomas D Miller, Bennie H Jeng
PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of postkeratoplasty fungal infection when corneal tissue from donors with a recent medical history of oral thrush or respiratory, urine, wound, sputum, bronchial, tracheal, or throat culture positive for fungus is identified before recovery and after decontamination of the corneal tissue with 5% povidone-iodine flush to the donors' eyes during recovery. METHODS: This is a prospective analysis of corneas from 42 donors with a documented medical history of fungus or positive fungal culture, which were recovered between January 2010 and November 2010...
January 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695915/amoxicillin-clavulanic-acid-and-ciprofloxacin-treated-spf-mice-as-gnotobiotic-model
#13
Miroslav Popper, Soňa Gancarčíková, Marián Maďar, Dagmar Mudroňová, Gabriela Hrčková, Radomíra Nemcová
The experiment was carried out on 24 SPF BALB/c female mice and lasted for 15 days with a 5-day antibiotic (ATB) treatment and then 10 days without ATB treatment. The aim of our study was to acquire an animal model with reduced and controlled microflora and, at the same time, to ensure that the good health of these animals is maintained. Per oral administration of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium in Amoksiklav (Sandoz, Slovenia) at a dose of 387.11 mg/kg body weight (0.2 ml of dilution per mouse) and subcutaneous administration of ciprofloxacin in Ciloxan (Alcon, Spain) at a dose of 18...
November 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27536698/ricin-toxicity-clinical-and-molecular-aspects
#14
Mohammad Moshiri, Fatemeh Hamid, Leila Etemad
Seeds of the castor bean plant Ricinuscommunis L (CB) contain ricin toxin (RT), one of the most poisonous naturally-occurring substances known. Ricin toxin, a water-soluble glycoprotein that does not partition into the oil extract, is a ribosome-inactivating toxin composed of two chains, labeled A and B. Severity of the toxicity varies depending on the route of exposure to the toxin. Inhalational is the most toxic route, followed by oral ingestion. Orally-ingested RT accumulates in the liver and spleen but other cells are also affected...
April 2016: Reports of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27526283/antibiotic-mediated-modification-of-the-intestinal-microbiome-in-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#15
REVIEW
J Whangbo, J Ritz, A Bhatt
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is curative for many patients with severe benign and malignant hematologic disorders. The success of allogeneic HSCT is limited by the development of transplant-related complications such as acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). Early pre-clinical studies suggested that intestinal microflora contribute to the pathogenesis of acute GvHD, and that growth suppression or eradication of intestinal bacteria prevented the development of acute GvHD even in MHC-mismatched transplants...
February 2017: Bone Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27504533/periimplantitis-treatment-long-term-comparison-of-laser-decontamination-and-implantoplasty-surgery
#16
Bernhard Pommer, Robert Haas, Georg Mailath-Pokorny, Rudolf Fürhauser, Georg Watzek, Dieter Busenlechner, Michael Müller-Kern, Claudia Kloodt
PURPOSE: Periimplantitis is the most frequent cause of late implant failure; however, little is known about the long-term success of periimplantitis treatment and the effectiveness of various therapeutic interventions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 142 patients were referred to the Academy for Oral Implantology in Vienna for the treatment of recurrent periimplantitis around single-tooth implants. Of them, 72 patients (51%) were treated by laser decontamination, 47 patients (33%) by implantoplasty surgery, and 23 patients (16%) by a combination of both approaches...
October 2016: Implant Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27494911/oral-decontamination-with-aminoglycosides-is-associated-with-lower-risk-of-mortality-and-infections-in-high-risk-patients-colonized-with-colistin-resistant-kpc-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#17
Isabel Machuca, Belén Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, Salvador Pérez Cortés, Irene Gracia-Ahufinger, Josefina Serrano, María Dolores Madrigal, José Barcala, Fernando Rodríguez-López, Jesús Rodríguez-Baño, Julián Torre-Cisneros
OBJECTIVES: Invasive infections caused by KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPCKP) are associated with very high mortality. Because infection is usually preceded by rectal colonization, we investigated if decolonization therapy (DT) with aminoglycosides had a protective effect in selected patients. METHODS: Patients with rectal colonization by colistin-resistant KPCKP who were at high risk of developing infection (because of neutropenia, surgery, previous recurrent KPCKP infections or multiple comorbidities) were followed for 180 days...
November 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27488086/is-selective-digestive-decontamination-useful-for-critically-ill-patients
#18
Alexandre Biasi Cavalcanti, Thiago Lisboa, Ana Cristina Gales
In this study we review the rationale for using selective digestive decontamination (SDD) in critically ill patients, and its effects on clinical outcomes and rates of infection with antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms. SDD consists of the application of nonabsorbable antibiotics to the oropharynx and through a nasogastric or nasoenteral tube, in association with a 4-day course of an intravenous third-generation cephalosporin. The enteral component aims at preventing oral and rectal colonization with potentially pathogenic nosocomial aerobic gram-negative bacilli and yeasts while preserving normal protective anaerobic enteral flora...
January 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27469568/a-histologic-assessment-of-a-hybenx%C3%A2-oral-tissue-decontaminant-in-vital-pulp-therapy-in-dogs
#19
M D Rohrer, H S Prasad, E G Savord
The aim of this study was to assess HYBENX® Oral Tissue Decontaminant (HOTD) in treating vital pulp exposure in a canine model. The use of HOTD solution was compared to an accepted and standard regimen for vital pulp exposure, an application of a commercial calcium hydroxide product (Ca(OH)2). Both control and experimental treatments were followed by restoration with a commercial zinc oxide and eugenol obtundant intermediate restorative material and thermal insulator (ZOE). At 7 days there was 100% pulp vitality with HOTD and 50% with Ca(OH)2...
April 2016: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27454528/oral-decontamination-of-orthodontic-patients-using-photodynamic-therapy-mediated-by-blue-light-irradiation-and-curcumin-associated-with-sodium-dodecyl-sulfate
#20
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Vitor Hugo Panhóca, Fernando Luis Esteban Florez, Thaila Quatrini Corrêa, Fernanda Rossi Paolillo, Clovis Wesley Oliveira de Souza, Vanderlei Salvador Bagnato
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) using the association of curcumin with the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) for oral decontamination in orthodontic patients. BACKGROUND DATA: The installation of the orthodontic appliances promotes an increase in the retentive area that is available for microbial aggregation and makes difficult the oral health promotion. However, aPDT is one possible approach that is used for the reduction of oral microbial load...
September 2016: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
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