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Oral decontamination

Noëmi M C De Roo, Laurent A M Thierens, Liesbeth Temmerman, Guy A M De Pauw
Prior to cryopreservation, a tooth is transported from a contaminated oral environment to the tooth bank. Our objective was to identify all studies reporting or investigating a transport protocol prior to the cryopreservation of teeth, in terms of decontamination of the subjects. The systematic literature search (1970-2017) was based on MEDLINE via PubMed, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library. The reference lists of the included studies and the Science Citation Index were used for hand searching (snowballing)...
March 7, 2018: Cell and Tissue Banking
Naohide Shinohara, Hiroko Yoshida-Ohuchi
Outdoor decontamination efforts have been ongoing since the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident; however, little is known about indoor contamination. Therefore, house dust was sampled based on particle size in 21 wooden buildings (19 residential houses and 2 community centers) within the evacuation area close to the FDNPP, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. Activities of radiocesium (137 Cs) per gram of house dust increased with decreasing particle size (mean: 6.1 × 103 , 2.6 × 103 , 1...
February 27, 2018: Environment International
Abbas Monzavi, Reza Fekrazad, Zahra Chinipardaz, Sima Shahabi, Roohollah Behruzi, Nasim Chiniforush
PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate and compare temperature change during implant decontamination with different laser types (carbon dioxide [Co2]/diode/neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet [Nd:YAG]/erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet [Er:YAG]/antimicrobial photodynamic therapy [aPDT]). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty implants were inserted into a bone block cut from a sheep's mandible. A 3 × 8 mm vertical lesion was made at the buccal of each implant. The bone block was placed into a 37°C water bath to simulate the in vivo oral condition...
February 27, 2018: Implant Dentistry
Angela L Chiew, Christian Gluud, Jesper Brok, Nick A Buckley
BACKGROUND: Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is the most widely used non-prescription analgesic in the world. Paracetamol is commonly taken in overdose either deliberately or unintentionally. In high-income countries, paracetamol toxicity is a common cause of acute liver injury. There are various interventions to treat paracetamol poisoning, depending on the clinical status of the person. These interventions include inhibiting the absorption of paracetamol from the gastrointestinal tract (decontamination), removal of paracetamol from the vascular system, and antidotes to prevent the formation of, or to detoxify, metabolites...
February 23, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
E Kieslichova, S Frankova, M Protus, D Merta, E Uchytilova, J Fronek, J Sperl
INTRODUCTION: Amanita phalloides poisoning is a potentially fatal cause of acute liver failure. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of initial patients' characteristics and different treatment modalities on the outcome of patients with liver failure caused by Amanita poisoning. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 23 patients admitted to our center between July 2007 and August 2016. RESULTS: Mean time interval between Amanita phalloides ingestion and the onset of gastrointestinal symptoms was 12...
January 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
Valentina Fabrizi, Ivana Zacconi, Mario Principato, Cristina Pesca, Deborah Cruciani, Silvia Crotti, Manuela Papini
A remarkable case of onychomycosis by Trichophyton (T.) rubrum combined with nail infestation by Tyrophagus (T.) putrescentiae in an elderly diabetic farmer is described and discussed. Large numbers of eggs and mites in all development stages were present in nail debris, reflecting active reproduction on site. Treatment with ivermectin 0.1% cream and environmental decontamination cleared the mite infestation, while onychomycosis responded well to oral terbinafine and ciclopirox 8% nail lacquer. Such a combination of onychomycosis and mite infestation of the same nail is an exceptional finding reported only twice in the literature...
December 1, 2017: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Stefan Renvert, Ioannis Polyzois
Peri-implant and periodontal pockets share a number of anatomical features but also have distinct differences. These differences make peri-implant pockets more susceptible to trauma and infection than periodontal pockets. Inadequate maintenance can lead to infections (defined as peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis) within peri-implant pockets. These infections are recognized as inflammatory diseases, which ultimately lead to the loss of supporting bone. Diagnostic and treatment methods conventionally used in periodontics have been adopted to assess and treat these diseases...
February 2018: Periodontology 2000
Pascal Kintz, Alice Ameline, Aude Eibel, Laurie Gheddar, Emilie Feisthauer, Annie Geraut, Laurent Berthelon, Audrey Farrugia, Jean-Sebastien Raul
BACKGROUND: Hair has been suggested since the middle of the 90's to be a suitable matrix to document repetitive exposure to cannabis. Because it is possible to detect Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabinol (CBN) and cannabidiol (CBD) in cannabis smoke, the identification of the metabolite, 11-nor-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol carboxylic acid (THC-COOH) has been considered to allow the discrimination of active use. OBJECTIVE: Although the identification of an active compound in a child's hair shows contamination of the local environment, it is a challenge to discriminate between hair incorporation after ingestion or inhalation and environmental external deposition from dust, smoke, or even contaminated surfaces by hand contact...
2017: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Vivek Agarwal, Rameshwari Singhal, Richa Khanna, Pavitra Rastogi, Avinash Agarwal, Shuchi Tripathi
Nosocomial infections in critically ill/ventilated patients result from bacterial load in oropharyngeal regions. Oral decontamination serves as the easiest effective means of controlling infections. Knowledge, attitude, and practices followed by healthcare personnel in intensive care settings need to be assessed to implement concrete measures in health-care. Survey questionnaire was constructed and implemented following its validation on seventy nursing and paramedical staff working in government and private intensive care units throughout Lucknow city...
2017: Critical Care Research and Practice
Marie-Laure Lastel, Agnès Fournier, Stefan Jurjanz, Jean-Pierre Thomé, Célia Joaquim-Justo, Harry Archimède, Maurice Mahieu, Cyril Feidt, Guido Rychen
Sixteen weaned male Alpine kids (Capra hircus) were subjected to a 21-day oral daily exposure of 0.05 mg kg(-1) BW. d(-1) of chlordecone (CLD) and 0.30 μg kg(-1) BW. d(-1) of each non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCBs, congeners 28, 52, 101, 138, 153 and 180). Four kids, identified as the CONTA group, were slaughtered at the end of the exposure, while the remaining animals (n = 12) were fed with specific diets for an additional 21-day decontamination period before slaughtering. Kids from the DECONTA (n = 4) group were fed a control diet, while those from the AC10% and PO8% group received pellets supplemented with 10% activated carbon (AC) and 8% paraffin oil (PO), respectively...
October 27, 2017: Chemosphere
Magda Mensi, Eleonora Scotti, Stefano Calza, Andrea Pilloni, Maria G Grusovin, Claudio Mongardini
BACKGROUND: Peri-implantitis is a frequent disease that may lead to implant loss. The aim of this case series was to evaluate the clinical results of a new non-surgical treatment protocol. METHODS: Fifteen patients with dental implants affected by peri-implantitis were treated with a multiple anti-infective non-surgical treatment (MAINST) which included two steps: 1) supra-gingival decontamination of the lesion and sub-gingival treatment with a controlled-release topical doxycycline; 2) after one week, a session of supra and sub gingival air polishing with Erythritol powder and ultrasonic debridement (where calculus was present) of the whole oral cavity was performed along with a second application of topical doxycycline around the infected implant...
December 2017: Minerva Stomatologica
Rudolf Pfab, Sabrina Schmoll, Gabriele Dostal, Jochen Stenzel, Alexander Hapfelmeier, Florian Eyer
CONTEXT: Oral activated charcoal (AC) for toxin absorption should be applied as soon as possible. Extra-hospital AC-application on site by medical laypersons with pre-emptive obtained AC may save time, but may be inferior to AC-application by medical professionals. OBJECTIVE: 1) Availability and incidence of pre-emptive stockpiling of AC on site in the German region Bavaria 2) time saved by AC-stockpiling and application on site, 3) quality of AC-application defined by completeness of the applied AC-dose, time needed, incidence of side-effects in lay-care and in professional-care, considering confounding variables: AC-formulation/powder/tablets, recommended AC-dose, patient's age...
2017: Toxicology Reports
C Matthias Wilk, Isabel Weber, Kati Seidl, Carole Rachmühl, Anne Holzmann-Bürgel, Antonia M S Müller, Stefan P Kuster, Urs Schanz, Annelies S Zinkernagel
Recipients of allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) are severely immunocompromised and are at increased risk of infection. In this prospective, observational, single-centre study including 110 allo-HSCT recipients, the rate of Staphylococcus aureus colonisation was reduced from 11.8% to 0% (P <0.001) following peritransplant oral gut decontamination. No invasive S. aureus infections were observed.
August 7, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Michael Klompas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize and contextualize recent evidence on preventing ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). RECENT FINDINGS: Many centers continue to report dramatic decreases in VAP rates after implementing ventilator bundles. Interpreting these reports is complicated, however, by the subjectivity and lack of specificity of VAP definitions. More objective data suggest VAP rates may not have meaningfully changed over the past decade. If so, this compels us to re-examine and revise the prevention bundles we have been using to prevent VAP...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Ranjitha Chacko, Amala Rajan, Prabha Lionel, M Thilagavathi, Bijesh Yadav, Jeyarani Premkumar
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is one of the major nosocomial infections in the intensive care unit (ICU), contributing to increased mortality and morbidity. Studies have shown that oral decontamination through the use of mechanical and pharmacological agents significantly reduces the incidence of VAP, but oral care practices in ICUs are not consistent. A double-blind randomised controlled trial was undertaken in the medical ICU of a tertiary care centre in India, to assess the efficacy of a toothbrush-based oral care technique in reducing incidence of VAP...
June 8, 2017: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
Karen A Moriello, Kimberly Coyner, Susan Paterson, Bernard Mignon
BACKGROUND: Dermatophytosis is a superficial fungal skin disease of cats and dogs. The most common pathogens of small animals belong to the genera Microsporum and Trichophyton. It is an important skin disease because it is contagious, infectious and can be transmitted to people. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this document is to review the existing literature and provide consensus recommendations for veterinary clinicians and lay people on the diagnosis and treatment of dermatophytosis in cats and dogs...
June 2017: Veterinary Dermatology
Paola Lambelet, Carlo Tascini, Simona Fortunato, Alessandro Stefanelli, Federico Simonetti, Chiara Vettori, Alessandro Leonildi, Francesco Menichetti
The mortality for carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC-Kp) infection ranges from 18 to 48% depending on the type of therapy. Mortality rates in hematologic patients are even higher, up to 85%. Gut decontamination with oral gentamicin might be an option to avoid a subsequent KPC-Kp infection in colonized patients. We treated 14 hematologic patients with oral gentamicin, 80 mg four times daily, for 7 to 25 days in order to eradicate KPC-Kp from the gut, starting oral gentamicin therapy when possible after the discontinuation of systemic antibiotic therapy...
July 2017: New Microbiologica
R Vignesh, C Vishnu Rekha, Parisa Norouzi Baghkomeh, Sankar Annamalai, Ditto Sharmin
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the antimicrobial potency of aqueous extract of Psidium guajava leaves in two different concentrations as a toothbrush disinfectant against three oral bacterial species. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Aqueous extracts of P. guajava leaves were prepared at 20% and 30% concentrations and 0.2% chlorhexidine was used as control. The toothbrushes were equally divided into 9 groups with 10 toothbrushes per disinfectant, which were contaminated with Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Enterococcus faecalis...
January 2017: European Journal of Dentistry
Getnet Mequanint Adinew, Assefa Belay Asrie, Eshetie Melese Birru
BACKGROUND: Despite the apparent benefits of organophosphate compounds (OPCs) acute organophosphate (OP) pesticide poison is an increasing problem worldwide. In a country like Ethiopia, where agriculture is a major component of the economy, these compounds are readily available to the general public. There is paucity of evidence from Ethiopia showing the pattern of organophosphate poisoning (OPP) in healthcare facilities. The objective of this study was to evaluate retrospectively the pattern of acute OPP at the University of Gondar Teaching Hospital in northwest Ethiopia, during September 2010 through December 2014 was conducted...
April 4, 2017: BMC Research Notes
Satariya Trakulsrichai, Natcha Kosanyawat, Pongsakorn Atiksawedparit, Charuwan Sriapha, Achara Tongpoo, Umaporn Udomsubpayakul, Panee Rittilert, Winai Wananukul
OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of poisoning by zinc phosphide, a common rodenticide in Thailand, and to evaluate whether these outcomes can be prognosticated by the clinical presentation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 3-year retrospective cohort study was performed using data from the Ramathibodi Poison Center Toxic Exposure Surveillance System. RESULTS: In total, 455 poisonings were identified...
2017: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
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