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Oral decontamination

Miroslav Popper, Soňa Gancarčíková, Marián Maďar, Dagmar Mudroňová, Gabriela Hrčková, Radomíra Nemcová
The experiment was carried out on 24 SPF BALB/c female mice and lasted for 15 days with a 5-day antibiotic (ATB) treatment and then 10 days without ATB treatment. The aim of our study was to acquire an animal model with reduced and controlled microflora and, at the same time, to ensure that the good health of these animals is maintained. Per oral administration of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium in Amoksiklav (Sandoz, Slovenia) at a dose of 387.11 mg/kg body weight (0.2 ml of dilution per mouse) and subcutaneous administration of ciprofloxacin in Ciloxan (Alcon, Spain) at a dose of 18...
October 1, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Mohammad Moshiri, Fatemeh Hamid, Leila Etemad
Seeds of the castor bean plant Ricinuscommunis L (CB) contain ricin toxin (RT), one of the most poisonous naturally-occurring substances known. Ricin toxin, a water-soluble glycoprotein that does not partition into the oil extract, is a ribosome-inactivating toxin composed of two chains, labeled A and B. Severity of the toxicity varies depending on the route of exposure to the toxin. Inhalational is the most toxic route, followed by oral ingestion. Orally-ingested RT accumulates in the liver and spleen but other cells are also affected...
April 2016: Reports of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
J Whangbo, J Ritz, A Bhatt
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is curative for many patients with severe benign and malignant hematologic disorders. The success of allogeneic HSCT is limited by the development of transplant-related complications such as acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). Early pre-clinical studies suggested that intestinal microflora contribute to the pathogenesis of acute GvHD, and that growth suppression or eradication of intestinal bacteria prevented the development of acute GvHD even in MHC-mismatched transplants...
August 15, 2016: Bone Marrow Transplantation
Bernhard Pommer, Robert Haas, Georg Mailath-Pokorny, Rudolf Fürhauser, Georg Watzek, Dieter Busenlechner, Michael Müller-Kern, Claudia Kloodt
PURPOSE: Periimplantitis is the most frequent cause of late implant failure; however, little is known about the long-term success of periimplantitis treatment and the effectiveness of various therapeutic interventions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 142 patients were referred to the Academy for Oral Implantology in Vienna for the treatment of recurrent periimplantitis around single-tooth implants. Of them, 72 patients (51%) were treated by laser decontamination, 47 patients (33%) by implantoplasty surgery, and 23 patients (16%) by a combination of both approaches...
October 2016: Implant Dentistry
Isabel Machuca, Belén Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, Salvador Pérez Cortés, Irene Gracia-Ahufinger, Josefina Serrano, María Dolores Madrigal, José Barcala, Fernando Rodríguez-López, Jesús Rodríguez-Baño, Julián Torre-Cisneros
OBJECTIVES: Invasive infections caused by KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPCKP) are associated with very high mortality. Because infection is usually preceded by rectal colonization, we investigated if decolonization therapy (DT) with aminoglycosides had a protective effect in selected patients. METHODS: Patients with rectal colonization by colistin-resistant KPCKP who were at high risk of developing infection (because of neutropenia, surgery, previous recurrent KPCKP infections or multiple comorbidities) were followed for 180 days...
July 26, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Alexandre Biasi Cavalcanti, Thiago Lisboa, Ana Cristina Gales
In this manuscript we review the rationale for using selective digestive decontamination(SDD) in critically ill patients, and its effects on clinical outcomes and rates of infection with antimicrobial resistant microorganisms. SDD consists of the application of non-absorbable antibiotics to the oropharynx and through a nasogastric or nasoenteral tube, in association with a 4-day course of an intravenous third-generation cephalosporin. The enteral component aims at preventing oral and rectal colonization with potentially pathogenic nosocomial aerobic Gram-negative bacilli and yeasts, while preserving normal protective anaerobic enteral flora...
August 2, 2016: Shock
M D Rohrer, H S Prasad, E G Savord
The aim of this study was to assess HYBENX® Oral Tissue Decontaminant (HOTD) in treating vital pulp exposure in a canine model. The use of HOTD solution was compared to an accepted and standard regimen for vital pulp exposure, an application of a commercial calcium hydroxide product (Ca(OH)2). Both control and experimental treatments were followed by restoration with a commercial zinc oxide and eugenol obtundant intermediate restorative material and thermal insulator (ZOE). At 7 days there was 100% pulp vitality with HOTD and 50% with Ca(OH)2...
April 2016: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Vitor Hugo Panhóca, Fernando Luis Esteban Florez, Thaila Quatrini Corrêa, Fernanda Rossi Paolillo, Clovis Wesley Oliveira de Souza, Vanderlei Salvador Bagnato
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) using the association of curcumin with the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) for oral decontamination in orthodontic patients. BACKGROUND DATA: The installation of the orthodontic appliances promotes an increase in the retentive area that is available for microbial aggregation and makes difficult the oral health promotion. However, aPDT is one possible approach that is used for the reduction of oral microbial load...
September 2016: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
J W Betts, L M Phee, D W Wareham
Selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD) using combinations of oral non-absorbable antibiotics has been proposed as a means of preventing multidrug-resistant (MDR) infections. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of rifaximin (RIFAX) were determined against 262 Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial isolates by broth microtitre assay. Rifampicin (RIF) was used as a comparator in the analysis. Synergistic interactions between RIFAX and polymyxin B (PMB) were assessed by using the chequerboard method and calculating the fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI)...
March 2016: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Catrine Isehed, Anders Holmlund, Stefan Renvert, Björn Svenson, Ingegerd Johansson, Pernilla Lundberg
OBJECTIVE: This randomized clinical trial aimed at comparing radiological, clinical and microbial effects of surgical treatment of peri-implantitis alone or in combination with enamel matrix derivative (EMD). METHODS: Twenty-six subjects were treated with open flap debridement and decontamination of the implant surfaces with gauze and saline preceding adjunctive EMD or no EMD. Bone level (BL) change was primary outcome and secondary outcomes were changes in pocket depth (PD), plaque, pus, bleeding and the microbiota of the peri-implant biofilm analyzed by the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray over a time period of 12 months...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Periodontology
Karan Sahni, Fatemeh Khashai, Ali Forghany, Tatiana Krasieva, Petra Wilder-Smith
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of a novel anti-plaque formulation on oral biofilm removal. Specific aim was to elucidate the role of 2 potentially complementary mechanisms on dental biofilm removal using EPIEN Dental Debriding Solution (EDDS) like desiccating action leading to denaturation and destabilization of plaque and mechanical removal of destabilized plaque through forceful rinsing action. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 25 extracted teeth, after routine debriding and cleaning, underwent standard biofilm incubation model over 4 days...
April 2016: Dentistry: Current Research
Eszter Somogyi-Ganss, Mark S Chambers, Jan S Lewin, Jeffrey J Tarrand, Katherine A Hutcheson
The tracheoesophageal puncture (TEP) restores verbal communication after total laryngectomy using a one-way valved voice prosthesis (VP). Microbial colonization can shorten VP device life. Our aims were to investigate patterns of prosthetic and oral colonization, and record changes in VP device life after targeted decontamination. We conducted a retrospective review of TEP clinic patients who underwent microbial analysis of the VP between 01/2003 and 07/2013. Two subgroups were analyzed: (1) patients with microbial analysis of the VP and the mouth were analyzed to identify patterns of common contamination, and (2) patients who were prescribed targeted oral decontamination on the basis of the microbial analysis of the VP were analyzed to evaluate effects on device life...
July 11, 2016: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Ashwaq A Al-Hashedi, Marco Laurenti, Veronique Benhamou, Faleh Tamimi
OBJECTIVES: Current decontamination methods of titanium (Ti) implant present limited success in achieving predictable re-osseointegration. We hypothesized that even though these techniques could be useful in elimination of bacteria, they might be unsuccessful in removing organic contaminants and restoring the original surface composition. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of four decontamination methods on the surface chemistry and bacterial load of biofilm-contaminated implant surfaces in order to improve implant surface decontamination...
July 8, 2016: Clinical Oral Implants Research
Carolina Santezi, Juliane M G Tanomaru, Vanderlei S Bagnato, Osmir B Oliveira Júnior, Lívia N Dovigo
OBJECTIVE: The present study assessed the susceptibility of salivary pathogens to photodynamic inactivation (PDI), mediated by a water-soluble mixture of curcuminoids (CRM) and LED light. METHODS: A 10mL sample of unstimulated saliva was collected from volunteers. The inoculum was prepared using 9mL of saline and 1mL of saliva. Inoculum suspensions were divided into 14 groups and treated according to the description below. Groups that received the PDI treatment (light for 1min or 5min and 1...
September 2016: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
Vladimir Lazarevic, Nadia Gaïa, Myriam Girard, Jacques Schrenzel
BACKGROUND: Identification of unexpected taxa in 16S rRNA surveys of low-density microbiota, diluted mock communities and cultures demonstrated that a variable fraction of sequence reads originated from exogenous DNA. The sources of these contaminants are reagents used in DNA extraction, PCR, and next-generation sequencing library preparation, and human (skin, oral and respiratory) microbiota from the investigators. RESULTS: For in silico removal of reagent contaminants, a pipeline was used which combines the relative abundance of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in V3-4 16S rRNA gene amplicon datasets with bacterial DNA quantification based on qPCR targeting of the V3 segment of the 16S rRNA gene...
2016: BMC Microbiology
Giovanpaolo Pini-Prato, Cristina Magnani, Roberto Rotundo
The aim of this preliminary study is to show the effect of the biofilm decontamination approach on peri-implantitis treatment. Clinical cases showing peri-implantitis were treated using an oral tissue decontaminant material that contains a concentrated aqueous mixture of hydroxybenzenesulfonic and hydroxymethoxybenzenesulfonic acids and sulfuric acid. The material was positioned in the pocket around the implant without anesthesia in nonsurgically treated cases. No instrumentation and no systemic or local antibiotics were used in any of the cases...
May 2016: International Journal of Periodontics & Restorative Dentistry
Wenqing Xu, Changqing Wu
Raspberries have served as vehicles for transmission of foodborne pathogens through fecal-oral route and have resulted in 11 outbreaks in the United States from 1983 through 2013. However, because of its dedicated structures and perishability, water based sanitizer washing cannot be used for raspberry decontamination. As a non-thermal technique, pulsed light (PL) may have the potential to maintain both safety and quality of fresh raspberries. The first objective of our study was to investigate Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 inactivation efficacy of pulsed light (PL) on fresh raspberries during 10 days storage at 4 °C...
August 2016: Food Microbiology
Philip Spreadborough, Sarah Lort, Sandro Pasquali, Matthew Popplewell, Andrew Owen, Irene Kreis, Olga Tucker, Ravinder S Vohra
BACKGROUND: Oral antiseptics reduce nosocomial infections and ventilator-associated pneumonia in critically ill medical and surgical patients intubated for prolonged periods. However, the role of oral antiseptics given before and after planned surgery is not clear. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to determine the effect of oral antiseptics (chlorhexidine or povidone-iodine) when administered before and after major elective surgery. METHODS: Searches were conducted of the MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases...
2016: Perioperative Medicine
Moe Htet, Marwa Madi, Osama Zakaria, Takayuki Miyahara, Wang Xin, Zayar Lin, Kazuhiro Aoki, Shohei Kasugai
BACKGROUND: Although oral rehabilitation with dental implants is a very promising and effective procedure, peri-implantitis is an emerging concern. Surgical and non-surgical methods have been applied to treat peri-implantitis together with various implant surface decontamination methods. However, there is no consensus concerning the most effective treatment for peri-implantitis. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effects of erbium-doped:yttrium, aluminum, and garnet (Er:YAG) laser, photodynamic therapy (PDT), and titanium bur with and without citric acid on ligature-induced peri-implantitis around an anodized implant surface...
August 2016: Journal of Periodontology
Omid Heidar Muhammad, Jean-Paul Rocca, Carlo Fornaini, Etienne Medioni
A microbe free root canal space before obturation leads to higher success rate and conventional chemo-mechanical debridement might not achieve this goal completely. First trials of laser in dentistry started from surgical intervention on caries and bones of oral cavity and extended to prepare cavities and even shaping root canals. Afterward lasers were implicated soon into direct debridement of root canal space. Anyhow failure of laser to remove debris totally from root canal space is demonstrated recently, additionally it might lead to damages to surrounding tissues or inorganic material of root canal if be used without precaution...
December 30, 2015: Laser Therapy
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