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Cytotoxic t lymphocytes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433836/recent-advances-in-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-guidelines-for-primary-and-secondary-hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis
#1
REVIEW
Smita Ramachandran, Fauzia Zaidi, Archana Aggarwal, Rani Gera
BACKGROUND: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a hyperinflammatory syndrome characterized by excessive activation of macrophages and T cells resulting from defective cytotoxicity. It is potentially life threatening due to the large amounts of cytokines released by the activated macrophages and lymphocytes secondary to a hyperinflammatory response. It has a high fatality in children with an incidence of approximately 1.2cases/million per year. METHOD: The literature was extensively searched in PubMed, MEDLINE and Google scholar...
November 3, 2016: Blood Cells, Molecules & Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432704/human-galectin-9-on-the-porcine-cells-affects-the-cytotoxic-activity-of-m1-differentiated-thp-1-cells-through-inducing-a-shift-in-m2-differentiated-thp-1-cells
#2
Sung Han Jung, Jeong Ho Hwang, Sang Eun Kim, Young Kyu Kim, Hyo Chang Park, Hoon Taek Lee
BACKGROUND: In xenotransplantation, immune rejection by macrophages occurs rapidly and remains a major obstacle. Studies to control immune rejection in macrophages have been continuing to date. Recent studies have reported that human galectin-9 (hGal-9) can regulate the function of regulatory T cells (Treg), as well as cytotoxicity T cells (CTL) and natural killer cells (NK). Although the effect of hGal-9 on lymphocytes has been well studied, the relationship between hGal-9 and myeloid cells has been scarcely studied...
April 21, 2017: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432648/rationale-for-new-checkpoint-inhibitor-combinations-in-melanoma-therapy
#3
Mario Mandalà, Carlo Tondini, Barbara Merelli, Daniela Massi
The use of monoclonal antibodies that block immunologic checkpoints, which mediate adaptive immune resistance, has revolutionized the treatment of metastatic melanoma patients. Specifically, targeting single immune suppressive molecules such as cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4), or programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) expressed on T cells or its primary ligand, programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1), resulted in pronounced clinical benefit for a subset of melanoma patients. Although single-agent immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy has demonstrated promising clinical activity in metastatic melanoma patients, there is still a significant proportion of patients who show primary resistance to these therapies...
April 21, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432597/t-regulatory-cells-in-bone-remodelling
#4
REVIEW
Aline Bozec, Mario M Zaiss
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: In this review, we present the role of regulatory T (Treg) cells in bone remodelling and bone-related disease such as osteoporosis or inflammatory bone loss. We also discuss the cellular and molecular mechanism how Treg cells regulate osteoclastogenesis. RECENT FINDINGS: Treg cells could regulate osteoclastogenesis by secreting TGF-β and IL-10 as well as IL-4 cytokines. Moreover, Treg cells can additionally regulate osteoclast differentiation, in a cell-to-cell contact via the cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen (CTLA-4)...
April 21, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432397/downregulation-of-neuropilin-1-on-macrophages-modulates-antibody-mediated-tumoricidal-activity
#5
Kosuke Kawaguchi, Eiji Suzuki, Mariko Nishie, Isao Kii, Tatsuki R Kataoka, Masahiro Hirata, Masashi Inoue, Fengling Pu, Keiko Iwaisako, Moe Tsuda, Ayane Yamaguchi, Hironori Haga, Masatoshi Hagiwara, Masakazu Toi
Neuropilin-1 (NRP-1)-expressing macrophages are engaged in antitumor immune functions via various mechanisms. In this study, we investigated the role of NRP-1 on macrophages in antibody-mediated tumoricidal activity. Treatment of macrophages with NRP-1 knockdown or an anti-NRP-1-neutralizing antibody significantly suppressed antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and modulated cytokine secretion from macrophages in vitro. Furthermore, in vivo studies using a humanized mouse model bearing human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer xenografts showed that antibody-mediated antitumor activity and tumor infiltration of CD4(+) T lymphocytes were significantly downregulated when peripheral blood mononuclear cells in which NRP-1 was knocked down were co-administered with an anti-HER2 antibody...
April 21, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430604/signal-transducing-adaptor-protein-2-promotes-generation-of-functional-long-term-memory-cd8-t-cells-by-preventing-terminal-effector-differentiation
#6
Daisuke Muraoka, Naohiro Seo, Tae Hayashi, Chisaki Hyuga-Amaike, Kana Okamori, Isao Tawara, Naozumi Harada, Hiroshi Shiku
Long-surviving memory CD8+ T cells generated by stimulation with appropriate tumor-associated antigens are the most aggressive and persistent tumoricidal effectors. In this event of memory CD8+ T cell development, the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins function as the crucial intracellular signaling molecules, but the regulatory mechanism of STATs in CD8+ T cells is not fully understood. In this study, we report for the first time, by using murine vaccination models, that signal-transducing adaptor protein-2 (STAP2) maintains the cytotoxicity of long-lived memory CD8+ T cells by controlling a STAT3/suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) cascade...
February 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430349/prognostic-significance-of-infiltrating-immune-cell-subtypes-in-invasive-ductal-carcinoma-of-the-breast
#7
Yangmei Xu, Suzhen Lan, Qiuhong Zheng
PURPOSE: To explore the correlation between tumor-infiltrating immune cell subsets and breast cancer prognosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Specimens of 102 patients with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast were analyzed for immune-related markers (CD8, CD20, FOXP3 and CD68). The number of positive cells in the 3 most highly stained intratumoral stroma areas of the primary tumor was counted. The mean number was calculated and used to divide patients into 2 groups for each marker (CD8-high/CD8-low, CD20-high/CD20-low, FOXP3-high/FOXP3-low, and CD68-high/CD68-low)...
April 20, 2017: Tumori
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429464/inflammatory-features-of-frontal-fibrosing-alopecia
#8
Sophia A Ma, Sotonye Imadojemu, Kenneth Beer, John T Seykora
INTRODUCTION: Frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA) is a cicatricial alopecia typically occurring in post-menopausal women. The etiology and pathophysiology of FFA is poorly understood but thought to be immune mediated. This study aims to further explore the extent of fibrosis and the inflammatory microenvironment by characterizing Langerhans cells (LCs), helper T cells, cytotoxic T cells, and B cells near hair follicles in FFA. METHODS: 11 paraffin-embedded tissues from patients with a clinical and histopathologic diagnosis of FFA were selected for immunohistochemical studies using CD3, CD4, CD8, CD1a, and CD20...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429264/lymphocytes-incubated-in-the-presence-of-il-2-lose-the-capacity-for-chemotaxis-but-acquire-antitumor-activity
#9
E A Romanova, E A Dukhanina, T N Sharapova, L P Sashchenko, N V Gnuchev, D V Yashin
Naïve non-activated lymphocytes are capable of releasing the chemoattractant complex Tag7-Mts1 and can migrate along the gradient of its concentration. After activation of these cells by IL-2, they acquire the abilities to kill tumor cells and to release the cytotoxic Tag7-Hsp70 complex, which is accompanied by a loss of both the Tag7-Mts1-mediated lymphocyte chemotaxis and the ability to release this chemoattractant into the conditioned medium.
January 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428947/update-on-programmed-death-1-and-programmed-death-ligand-1-inhibition-in-the-treatment-of-advanced-or-metastatic-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#10
REVIEW
Marco A J Iafolla, Rosalyn A Juergens
PURPOSE: Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has a large worldwide prevalence with a high mortality rate. Chemotherapy has offered modest improvements in survival over the past two decades. Immune checkpoint modulation with programmed death-1 (PD-1) or programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibition has shown the promise of changing the future landscape of cancer therapy. This update reviews recent advances in the treatment of NSCLC with immune checkpoint modulation. METHODS: Publications and proceedings were identified from searching PubMed and proceedings from the annual meetings of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, European Society for Medical Oncology, and European Lung Cancer Conference...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428880/long-term-complete-remission-with-ipilimumab-in-metastatic-castrate-resistant-prostate-cancer-case-report-of-two-patients
#11
Luc Cabel, Elika Loir, Gwenaelle Gravis, Pernelle Lavaud, Christophe Massard, Laurence Albiges, Giulia Baciarello, Yohann Loriot, Karim Fizazi
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in men and the fourth leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Although major progress has been achieved in the last years for patients with metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), thanks to next-generation androgen receptor axis targeted drugs, taxanes, and bone-targeted agents, immunotherapy has not been widely approved and used for the treatment of prostate cancer. Two large studies with ipilimumab, an anti-CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4) antibody reported improved progression-free survival, but not statistically improved overall survival at the primary analysis (CA184 043 and CA184 095)...
2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428612/granzyme-k-deficient-mice-show-no-evidence-of-impaired-anti-viral-immunity
#12
Lars T Joeckel, Cody C Allison, Mark Pellegrini, Catherina H Bird, Phillip Ian Bird
The biological role of granzyme K, a serine protease of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), is controversial. It has been reported to induce perforin-mediated cell death in vitro, but is also reported to be non-cytotoxic and to operate in inflammatory processes. To elucidate the biological role of this protease we have deleted the granzyme K gene in mice (mutant allele: Gzmk(tm1.1Pib); MGI:5636646). Gzmk(-/-) mice are healthy, anatomically normal, fecund, and show normal hematopoietic development. Gzmk(-/-) mice readily recover from Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus and mouse pox Ectromelia virus infection...
April 21, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428135/the-immunotoxicological-pattern-of-subchronic-and-chronic-benzene-exposure-in-rats
#13
Alexander V Karaulov, Irina V Mikhaylova, Alexander I Smolyagin, Viktor M Boev, Alexandra Kalogeraki, Aristides M Tsatsakis, Ayse Basak Engin
Exposure to benzene and its inevitable metabolites can result in deleterious effects on human health, including lymphocytopenia, hematotoxicity and cancer. However, the duration of exposure might alter the effects including immune consequences. The aim of this study was to determine whether benzene could modulate lymphocyte proliferation induced by the T cell mitogen concanavalin A, in rats, at different exposure durations. 386 Wistar rats were assigned into control and treatment groups which was subdivided into groups for 45, 90 and 135days for 0,6mL/kg of drinking water mixed benzene treatment...
April 17, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428066/effects-of-gold-nanoparticle-based-vaccine-size-on-lymph-node-delivery-and-cytotoxic-t-lymphocyte-responses
#14
Sukmo Kang, Sukyung Ahn, Jeewon Lee, Jinyong Kim, Minsuk Choi, Vipul Gujrati, Hyungjun Kim, Jinjoo Kim, Eui-Cheol Shin, Sangyong Jon
Although it has been shown that the size of nanoparticle-based vaccines is a key determining factor for the induction of immune responses, few studies have provided detailed analyses of thresholds or critical sizes of nanoparticle vaccines. Here we report effects of the size of gold nanoparticle (GNP)-based vaccines on their efficiency of delivery to lymph nodes (LNs) and induction of CD8(+) T-cell responses. We further propose a threshold size of GNPs for use as an effective vaccine. To examine the effects of GNP size, we synthesized GNPs with diameters of 7, 14 and 28nm, and then conjugated them with recombinant ovalbumin (OVA) as a model antigen...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427176/metronomic-regimen-as-an-effective-treatment-for-aggressive-t-lgl-leukemia-with-central-nervous-system-infiltration-clinical-experience-and-review-of-literature
#15
REVIEW
Yun Liu, Lei Fan, Huihui Zhao, Wei Xu, Jianyong Li
A 71-year-old man was diagnosed with T-Large granular lymphocytic (LGL) leukemia, which usually represents a relatively indolent clinical course. While the clinical manifestation of this patient we report herein was aggressive with lasting fever, splenomegaly and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). T-cell immunophenotype was CD3+CD4-CD8-CD5-CD7-TCRαβ+. After comprehensive evaluation, an adjusted chemotherapy regimen CEOP (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, etoposide, prednisone) with etoposide, a potential effective regimen for HLH was administrated to the patient...
February 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426141/melanocortin-2-3-and-4-receptor-gene-expressions-are-downregulated-in-cd8-t-cytotoxic-lymphocytes-and-cd19-b-lymphocytes-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-responding-to-tnf%C3%AE-inhibition
#16
Marlene Andersen, Ivan Nagaev, Michael Kruse Meyer, Olga Nagaeva, Jarl Wikberg, Lucia Mincheva-Nilsson, Grethe Neumann Andersen
Melanocortin signaling in leukocyte subsets elicits anti-inflammatory and immune tolerance inducing effects in animal experimental inflammation. In man, however, the effects of melanocortin signaling in inflammatory conditions have scarcely been examined. We explored the differential reactions of melanocortin 1-5 receptor (MC1-5R) gene expressions in pathogenetic leukocyte subsets in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) to treatment with TNFα inhibitor adalimumab. Seven patients with active RA donated blood at start and at three months treatment...
April 20, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425860/a-novel-recombinant-multi-epitope-vaccine-could-induce-specific-cytotoxic-t-lymphocyte-response-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#17
Yahong Wu, Wenjie Zhai, Meng Sun, Zhe Zou, Xiuman Zhou, Guodong Li, Zhongyi Yan, Yuanming Qi, Yanfeng Gao
Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) against various tumor antigens play an important role in elimination of tumor cells. To develop therapeutic vaccines that can induce specific immune response, we designed a novel recombinant multiepitope vaccine YL66 which consists of HLA-A2-restricted CTL epitopes from two widely expressed tumor antigen cyclooxygenase-2 and MAGE-4, linked with membrane permeable Tat-PTD and the universal T helper epitope. The DNA fragment of YL66 was cloned into pGEX-4T-2-YL66 and pcDNA3.1(+)-YL66, respectively...
April 19, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425129/role-of-sialyl-6-sulfo-lewis-x-in-anti-tumor-immunity-against-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#18
Hisato Yoshida, Hitomi Hoshino, Yoshiaki Imamura, Hitoshi Yoshimura, Kazuo Sano, Motohiro Kobayashi
BACKGROUND: Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) reportedly play a pivotal role in anti-tumor immunity against oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC); however, mechanisms governing TIL recruitment to OSCC tissues remain to be clarified. The present study was undertaken to assess a potential association between TILs and high endothelial venule (HEV)-like vessels that express sialyl 6-sulfo Lewis X (LeX). METHODS: OSCC tissue sections (n = 41) were subjected to immunohistochemistry for sialyl 6-sulfo LeX and CD34 to allow quantitation of HEV-like vessels...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423736/laminarin-promotes-anti-cancer-immunity-by-the-maturation-of-dendritic-cells
#19
Kyeongeun Song, Li Xu, Wei Zhang, Yun Cai, Bian Jang, Junghwan Oh, Jun-O Jin
This research evaluates the effects of laminarin on the maturation of dendritic cells and on the in vivo activation of anti-cancer immunity. In vivo treatment of C56BL/6 mice with laminarin increased the expression levels of co-stimulatory molecules and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in spleen dendritic cells. Laminarin enhanced ovalbumin antigen presentation in spleen dendritic cells and promoted the proliferation of OT-I and OT-II T cells. Laminarin also induced the maturation of dendritic cells in tumor-draining lymph nodes and protected interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α and proliferation of OT-I and OT-II T cells in tumors...
March 14, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423548/axl-acts-as-a-tumor-suppressor-by-regulating-light-expression-in-t-lymphoma
#20
Eun-Hee Lee, Eun-Mi Kim, Kon-Young Ji, A-Reum Park, Ha-Rim Choi, Hwa-Youn Lee, Su-Man Kim, Byung Yeoup Chung, Chul-Hong Park, Hyo Jin Choi, Young-Hyeh Ko, Hyoung-Woo Bai, Hyung-Sik Kang
Axl is an oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinase that plays a role in many cancers. LIGHT (Lymphotoxin-related inducible ligand that competes for glycoprotein D binding to herpesvirus entry mediator on T cells) is a ligand that induces robust anti-tumor immunity by enhancing the recruitment and activation of effector immune cells at tumor sites. We observed that mouse EL4 and human Jurkat T lymphoma cells that stably overexpressed Axl also showed high expression of LIGHT. When Jurkat-Axl cells were treated with Gas6, a ligand for Axl, LIGHT expression was upregulated through activation of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway and transcriptional induction by Sp1...
March 28, 2017: Oncotarget
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