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Cytotoxic t lymphocytes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091715/highly-sensitive-glycosylamine-labelling-of-o-glycans-using-non-reductive-%C3%AE-elimination
#1
Kenichiro Furuki, Toshimasa Toyo'oka, Kazutoshi Ban
When developing biopharmaceuticals, glycans are the most important posttranslational protein modifications that must be addressed because they affect the between-protein interactions that maintain homeostasis. The glycan profile may be defined as a critical quality attribute of a biopharmaceutical. Comprehensive analysis of protein glycosylation must overcome challenges such as the release, labelling, separation and detection of O-glycans. In contrast, N-glycans can be readily released non-reductively from peptide backbones using an enzyme such as peptide N-glycosidase F...
January 14, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089549/modified-live-infectious-bursal-disease-virus-ibdv-vaccine-delays-infection-of-neonatal-broiler-chickens-with-variant-ibdv-compared-to-turkey-herpesvirus-hvt-ibdv-vectored-vaccine
#2
Shanika Kurukulasuriya, Khawaja Ashfaque Ahmed, Davor Ojkic, Thushari Gunawardana, Kalhari Goonewardene, Ashish Gupta, Betty Chow-Lockerbie, Shelly Popowich, Philip Willson, Suresh K Tikoo, Susantha Gomis
Chickens are commonly processed around 35-45days of age in broiler chicken industry hence; diseases that occur at a young age are of paramount economic importance. Early age infection with infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) results in long-lasting immunosuppression and profound economic losses. To our knowledge, this is the first study comparing the protection efficacy of modified live (MdLV) IBDV and herpesvirus turkey (HVT)-IBDV vaccines against early age variant IBDV (varIBDV) infection in chicks. Experiments were carried out in IBDV maternal antibody (MtAb) positive chicks (n=330), divided into 6 groups (n=50-60/group), namely Group 1 (saline), Group 2 (saline+varIBDV), Group 3 (HVT-IBDV), Group 4 (HVT-IBDV+varIBDV), Group 5 (MdLV) and Group 6 (MdLV+varIBDV)...
January 12, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078578/cd95-stimulation-with-cd95l-and-disc-analysis
#3
Matthieu Le Gallo, Patrick Legembre
CD95 and its ligand CD95L play a major role in immune surveillance and homeostasis. CD95L is expressed by activated T lymphocytes and NK cells to induce apoptosis in cancer and virus-infected cells. The goal of this chapter is to describe a method used to immunoprecipitate CD95 and analyze its associated protein complex in cells stimulated with a cytotoxic CD95L (i.e., Ig-CD95L).
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078577/production-of-the-non-apoptotic-metalloprotease-cleaved-cd95l-and-its-cytotoxic-recombinant-counterpart-designed-ig-cd95l
#4
Eléonore Lepvrier, Sophie Martin, Brigitte Collet
The ligand of CD95, CD95L (also known as FasL or CD178), is a type II transmembrane protein that belongs to the Tumor Necrosis factor (TNF) family (Fig. 1a). This membrane-bound cytokine is mainly expressed at the surface of activated T lymphocytes and natural killer cells, where it is used as an apoptotic factor to eliminate infected and transformed cells (Strasser et al., Immunity 30:180-192, 2009).
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077684/targeting-aurora-kinase-a-and-jak2-prevents-gvhd-while-maintaining-treg-and-antitumor-ctl-function
#5
Brian C Betts, Anandharaman Veerapathran, Joseph Pidala, Hua Yang, Pedro Horna, Kelly Walton, Christopher L Cubitt, Steven Gunawan, Harshani R Lawrence, Nicholas J Lawrence, Said M Sebti, Claudio Anasetti
Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a leading cause of nonrelapse mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. T cell costimulation by CD28 contributes to GVHD, but prevention is incomplete when targeting CD28, downstream mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), or Aurora A. Likewise, interleukin-6 (IL-6)-mediated Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) signaling promotes alloreactivity, yet JAK2 inhibition does not eliminate GVHD. We provide evidence that blocking Aurora A and JAK2 in human T cells is synergistic in vitro, prevents xenogeneic GVHD, and maintains antitumor responses by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs)...
January 11, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077213/inhibition-of-dopamine-receptor-d3-signaling-in-dendritic-cells-increases-antigen-cross-presentation-to-cd8-t-cells-favoring-anti-tumor-immunity
#6
Claudio Figueroa, Felipe Gálvez-Cancino, Cesar Oyarce, Francisco Contreras, Carolina Prado, Catalina Valeria, Sebastián Cruz, Alvaro Lladser, Rodrigo Pacheco
Dendritic cells (DCs) display the unique ability for cross-presenting antigens to CD8(+) T-cells, promoting their differentiation into cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs), which play a pivotal role in anti-tumor immunity. Emerging evidence points to dopamine receptor D3 (D3R) as a key regulator of immunity. Accordingly, we studied how D3R regulates DCs function in anti-tumor immunity. The results show that D3R-deficiency in DCs enhanced expansion of CTLs in vivo and induced stronger anti-tumor immunity. Co-culture experiments indicated that D3R-inhibition in DCs potentiated antigen cross-presentation and CTLs activation...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076863/adverse-renal-effects-of-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-a-narrative-review
#7
Rimda Wanchoo, Sabine Karam, Nupur N Uppal, Valerie S Barta, Gilbert Deray, Craig Devoe, Vincent Launay-Vacher, Kenar D Jhaveri
BACKGROUND: Cancer immunotherapy, such as anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) and anti-programmed death 1 (PD-1), has revolutionized the treatment of malignancies by engaging the patient's own immune system against the tumor rather than targeting the cancer directly. These therapies have demonstrated a significant benefit in the treatment of melanomas and other cancers. SUMMARY: In order to provide an extensive overview of the renal toxicities induced by these agents, a Medline search was conducted of published literature related to ipilimumab-, pembrolizumab-, and nivolumab-induced kidney toxicity...
January 12, 2017: American Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075442/increased-expression-of-pd%C3%A2-l1-by-the-human-papillomavirus-16-e7-oncoprotein-inhibits-anticancer-immunity
#8
Chaoqi Liu, Jiao Lu, Huiqun Tian, Wei Du, Lin Zhao, Jing Feng, Ding Yuan, Zhiying Li
Cytotoxic T lymphocyte dysfunction is frequently associated with PD‑L1/PD‑1 pathway activation, and is a principal obstacle in cancer therapy. In the present study, the mechanisms underlying the human papillomavirus (HPV)‑induced evasion of cervical cancer cells to the host immune system via the programmed death ligand  1/programmed death 1 (PD‑L1/PD‑1) signaling pathway was investigated. A significant increase in the expression of the HPV16E7 viral protein and PD‑L1 in cervical tissues was observed when compared with normal cervical tissues...
January 5, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075416/phosphorylated-radix-cyathulae-officinalis-polysaccharides-act-as-adjuvant-via-promoting-dendritic-cell-maturation
#9
Haibo Feng, Sean P McDonough, Jing Fan, Shiping Yang, Xuelian Zhao, Yong Lu, Yun Gan, Xiao Yi, Yung-Fu Chang
The aim of this study was to investigate whether phosphorylated Radix Cyathulae officinalis Kuan polysaccharides (pRCPS) used as adjuvant with foot-and-mouth disease vaccine (FMDV) can stimulate specific humoral and cellular immune responses in ICR mice. The results demonstrated that pRCPS significantly up-regulated FMDV-specific IgG, IgG1, IgG2b and IgG2a antibody levels and splenocyte proliferation. pRCPS also promoted the killing activities of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and natural killer cells (NK). In addition, pRCPS enhanced the expression levels of IL-2, IL-4, and IFN-γ in CD4⁺ T cells and the level of IFN-γ in CD8⁺ T cells...
January 10, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074937/circulating-t-lymphocyte-subsets-cytokines-and-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-in-patients-with-bipolar-ii-or-major-depression-a-preliminary-study
#10
Wei Wu, Ya-Li Zheng, Li-Ping Tian, Jian-Bo Lai, Chan-Chan Hu, Peng Zhang, Jing-Kai Chen, Jian-Bo Hu, Man-Li Huang, Ning Wei, Wei-Juan Xu, Wei-Hua Zhou, Shao-Jia Lu, Jing Lu, Hong-Li Qi, Dan-Dan Wang, Xiao-Yi Zhou, Jin-Feng Duan, Yi Xu, Shao-Hua Hu
This study aimed to investigate the less known activation pattern of T lymphocyte populations and immune checkpoint inhibitors on immunocytes in patients with bipolar II disorder depression (BD) or major depression (MD). A total of 23 patients with BD, 22 patients with MD, and 20 healthy controls (HCs) were recruited. The blood cell count of T lymphocyte subsets and the plasma level of cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, and IFN-γ) were selectively investigated. The expression of T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin-domain containing-3 (TIM-3), programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and its ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2, on T lymphocytes and monocytes, was detected...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073775/dasatinib-changes-immune-cell-profiles-concomitant-with-reduced-tumor-growth-in-several-murine-solid-tumor-models
#11
Can Hekim, Mette Ilander, Jun Yan, Erin Michaud, Richard Smykla, Markus Vähä-Koskela, Paula Savola, Siri Tähtinen, Leena Saikko, Akseli Hemminki, Panu E Kovanen, Kimmo Porkka, Francis Yf Lee, Satu Mustjoki
Dasatinib, a broad range tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), induces rapid mobilization of lymphocytes and clonal expansion of cytotoxic cells in leukemia patients. Here, we investigated whether dasatinib could induce beneficial immunomodulatory effects in solid tumor models. The effects on tumor growth and on the immune system were studied in four different syngeneic mouse models (B16.OVA melanoma, 1956 sarcoma, MC38 colon, and 4T1 breast carcinoma). Both peripheral blood (PB) and tumor samples were immunophenotyped during treatment...
January 10, 2017: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073132/hypothyroidism-in-cancer-patients-on-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-with-anti-pd1-agents-insights-on-underlying-mechanisms
#12
M Alhusseini, J Samantray
Background: Immune therapy using monoclonal antibodies against cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death 1 receptor (PD-1) for various cancers have been reported to cause thyroid dysfunction. Little is known, however, about the underlying pathogenic mechanisms and the course of hypothyroidism that subsequently develops. In this report, we use the change in thyroglobulin and thyroid antibody levels in patients on immune therapy who develop hypothyroidism to better understand its pathogenesis as well as examine the status of hypothyroidism in the long term...
January 10, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070761/effect-of-long-term-simulated-microgravity-on-immune-system-and-lung-tissues-in-rhesus-macaque
#13
Yang Chen, Chongyu Xu, Ping Wang, Yiling Cai, Huasong Ma
We evaluated different lymphocyte populations and levels of plasma cytokines in peripheral blood as well as inflammatory infiltration and expressions of cytokines in lung tissues derived from macaque under long-term stimulated microgravity through being suspended in an antiorthostatic position so as to identify relevant immune parameters and to understand potential mechanisms of lung injury. Fifteen healthy male rhesus macaques were randomly divided into groups 1 (control, n = 5), groups 2 (head-down tilting for 6 weeks, n = 5), and groups 3 (head-down tilting for 6 weeks and recovery for 4 weeks, n = 5)...
January 9, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065449/a-specific-immune-tolerance-toward-offspring-cells-is-to-exist-after-the-mother-lymphocyte-infusion
#14
Haizhou Xing, Shiqin Liu, Xue Chen, Fang Fang, Xueqiang Wu, Ping Zhu
PURPOSE: To examine immune tolerance between maternal lymphocytes and offspring tissue after a donor lymphocyte infusion. METHODS: Mouse models were established by mating female BALB/c mice with male C57BL mice. Splenic lymphocytes from donors of different genetic backgrounds were labeled with carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE), and 1×10(7) of the labeled cells were intravenously injected into a recipient. At 6h, 24h, 72h and 120h after the infusion, mononuclear cells in recipient spleen, liver, thymus, lymph nodes, and peripheral blood were collected...
December 26, 2016: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064019/the-random-co-polymer-glatiramer-acetate-rapidly-kills-primary-human-leukocytes-through-sialic-acid-dependent-cell-membrane-damage
#15
Stig Hill Christiansen, Xianwei Zhang, Kristian Juul-Madsen, Michael Lykke Hvam, Brian Stougaard Vad, Manja Annette Behrens, Ida Lysgaard Thygesen, Babak Jalilian, Jan Skov Pedersen, Kenneth A Howard, Daniel E Otzen, Thomas Vorup-Jensen
The formulation glatiramer acetate (GA) is widely used in therapy of multiple sclerosis. GA consists of random copolymers of four amino acids, in ratios that produce a predominantly positive charge and an amphipathic character. With the extraordinary complexity of the drug, several pharmacological modes-of-action were suggested, but so far none, which rationalizes the cationicity and amphipathicity as part of the mode-of-action. Here, we report that GA rapidly kills primary human T lymphocytes and, less actively, monocytes...
January 5, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060767/cytotoxic-t-lymphocyte-associated-protein-4-49a-g-polymorphisms-contribute-to-the-risk-of-type-1-diabetes-in-children-an-updated-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-with-trial-sequential-analysis
#16
Bo Wang, Wei Du, Yutao Jia, Xiaobai Zhang, Guorui Ma
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a heritable disease associated with multiple genetic variants. This systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the correlation between cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4(CTLA-4) +49A/G polymorphisms and the risk of T1D in children. The random effects model was used to estimate the related odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Trial sequential analysis (TSA) was used to determine whether the currently available evidence was sufficient and conclusive. Our results indicated that CTLA-4 gene polymorphisms significantly increased the risk of childhood T1D in an allelic model (G vs...
January 2, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059852/immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-in-first-line-therapy-of-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#17
Jordi Remon, Benjamin Besse
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Evading immune destruction is a hallmark of cancer. The first therapeutic wave in immunotherapies comprised a series of monoclonal antibodies directed against the immune checkpoint molecules cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4, programmed death 1 (PD-1), and programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) revolutionizing the therapeutic landscape of advanced non-small cell lung cancer. They were validated initially as second-line treatment, becoming the new standard of care...
January 3, 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057521/biodegradable-nanoparticle-delivery-of-inactivated-swine-influenza-virus-vaccine-provides-heterologous-cell-mediated-immune-response-in-pigs
#18
Santosh Dhakal, Jagadish Hiremath, Kathryn Bondra, Yashavanth S Lakshmanappa, Duan-Liang Shyu, Kang Ouyang, Kyung-Il Kang, Basavaraj Binjawadagi, Jonathan Goodman, Kairat Tabynov, Steven Krakowka, Balaji Narasimhan, Chang-Won Lee, Gourapura J Renukaradhya
Swine influenza virus (SwIV) is one of the important zoonotic pathogens. Current flu vaccines have failed to provide cross-protection against evolving viruses in the field. Poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) is a biodegradable FDA approved polymer and widely used in drug and vaccine delivery. In this study, inactivated SwIV H1N2 antigens (KAg) encapsulated in PLGA nanoparticles (PLGA-KAg) were prepared, which were spherical in shape with 200 to 300nm diameter, and induced maturation of antigen presenting cells in vitro...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056887/therapeutic-vaccine-targeting-epstein-barr-virus-latent-protein-lmp1-suppresses-lmp1-expressing-tumor-growth-and-metastasis-in-vivo
#19
Mei-Chun Lin, Yong-Chong Lin, Syue-Ting Chen, Tai-Horng Young, Pei-Jen Lou
BACKGROUND: In endemic area, nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) tumor cells harbor EBV latent infection and expresses viral antigens such as EBNA1, LMP1 and LMP2. In this study, we established a NPC-mimicry animal model and assessed the therapeutic potential of LMP1 vaccine. METHODS: Animal models were established by injection of LMP1-expressing TC-1 cells in C57BL6/J mice subcutaneously or through tail veins. pcDNA3.1 empty vector or LMP1/pcDNA3.1 vaccine was delivered by a helium-driven gene gun...
January 5, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056337/marked-enteropathy-in-an-accelerated-macaque-model-of-aids
#20
Joshua D Croteau, Elizabeth L Engle, Suzanne E Queen, Erin N Shirk, M Christine Zink
Enteropathy in HIV infection is not eliminated with combination antiretroviral therapy and is possibly linked to microbial translocation. We used a rapidly progressing SIV/pigtailed macaque model of HIV to examine enteropathy and microbial translocation. Histologic evidence of intestinal disease was observed in only half of infected macaques during late-stage infection (LSI). Combination antiretroviral therapy initiated during acute infection prevented intestinal disease. In the ileum and colon, enteropathy was associated with increased caspase-3 staining, decreased CD3(+) T cells, and increased SIV-infected cells...
January 2, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
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