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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097694/serial-cytokine-alterations-and-abnormal-neuroimaging-in-newborn-infants-with-encephalopathy
#1
Fiona M O'Hare, R William G Watson, Amanda O'Neill, Ricardo Segurado, Deirdre Sweetman, Paul Downey, Eoghan Mooney, John Murphy, Veronica Donoghue, Eleanor J Molloy
AIM: Inflammatory cytokines may play a role in the final common pathway in the pathogenesis of hypoxic-ischaemic injury in experimental models. We aimed to profile the systemic pro- and anti-inflammatory response over the first week of life in term infants at risk of neonatal encephalopathy. METHOD: In a tertiary referral university neonatal intensive care unit, serial blood samples were analysed from 41 term infants (requiring resuscitation at birth) in this prospective observational pilot study...
January 17, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094094/sira-p-development-and-testing
#2
Kristina L Foster, Lacey D Bergerhofer, Janis B Smith, Michele M Fix, Adrienne Olney, Ashley Sherman
OBJECTIVES: To describe the development of a new skin risk assessment scale called Skin Injury Risk Assessment and Prevention (SIRA+P) and to establish initial reliability and validity of the scale among patients ranging in age from birth, including pre-term, to adulthood, regardless of age or acuity of illness. STUDY DESIGN: The single-site study was a retrospective chart review to evaluate the measurement properties of SIRA+P. Charts of 385 patients of all ages and in all units (including the neonatal and pediatric intensive care units) of a free-standing children's hospital were included...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092286/childhood-traumatic-brain-injury-and-the-associations-with-risk-behavior-in-adolescence-and-young-adulthood-a-systematic-review
#3
Eleanor Kennedy, Miriam Cohen, Marcus Munafò
OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the evidence that childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with risk behavior in adolescence and young adulthood. Risk behavior included one or more of the following: use of substances, including alcohol, tobacco, and illicit substances; involvement in criminal behavior; and behavioral issues with conduct. METHODS: A literature search was conducted using these terms: child, pediatric, traumatic brain injury, head injury, adolescent, psychosocial, antisocial, conduct, substance use...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090645/neonatal-limb-amputation-an-unusual-form-of-postmortem-canine-predation
#4
Kimberley J Omond, Calle Winskog, Allan Cala, Roger W Byard
Cases of postmortem canine predation often involve elderly recluses and their dogs. The face, head, and genitalia are targeted. Two unusual cases of postmortem canine predation of abandoned newborns are described to demonstrate an unusual alternative pattern of mutilation related to the small size of the decedents, marked decomposition, and canine scavenging behavior. Both bodies were abandoned/concealed soon after birth and were subsequently disturbed by dogs. Both were markedly decomposed with absent arms...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087725/neurodevelopmental-outcomes-of-extremely-low-birthweight-infants-randomised-to-different-pco2-targets-the-phelbi-follow-up-study
#5
Ulrich H Thome, Orsolya Genzel-Boroviczeny, Bettina Bohnhorst, Manuel Schmid, Hans Fuchs, Oliver Rohde, Stefan Avenarius, Hans-Georg Topf, Andrea Zimmermann, Dirk Faas, Katharina Timme, Barbara Kleinlein, Horst Buxmann, Wilfried Schenk, Hugo Segerer, Norbert Teig, Annett Bläser, Roland Hentschel, Matthias Heckmann, Rolf Schlösser, Jochen Peters, Rainer Rossi, Wolfgang Rascher, Ralf Böttger, Jürgen Seidenberg, Gesine Hansen, Maria Zernickel, Harald Bode, Jens Dreyhaupt, Rainer Muche, Helmut D Hummler
BACKGROUND: Tolerating higher partial pressures of carbon dioxide (PCO2) in mechanically ventilated extremely low birthweight infants to reduce ventilator-induced lung injury may have long-term neurodevelopmental side effects. This study analyses the results of neurodevelopmental follow-up of infants enrolled in a randomised multicentre trial. METHODS: Infants (n=359) between 400 and 1000 g birth weight and 23 0/7-28 6/7 weeks gestational age who required endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation within 24 hours of birth were randomly assigned to high PCO2 or to a control group with mildly elevated PCO2 targets...
January 13, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077740/the-jarisch-herxheimer-reaction-after-antibiotic-treatment-of-spirochetal-infections-a-review-of-recent-cases-and-our-understanding-of-pathogenesis
#6
REVIEW
Thomas Butler
Within 24 hours after antibiotic treatment of the spirochetal infections syphilis, Lyme disease, leptospirosis, and relapsing fever (RF), patients experience shaking chills, a rise in temperature, and intensification of skin rashes known as the Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction (JHR) with symptoms resolving a few hours later. Case reports indicate that the JHR can also include uterine contractions in pregnancy, worsening liver and renal function, acute respiratory distress syndrome, myocardial injury, hypotension, meningitis, alterations in consciousness, seizures, and strokes...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074039/cd34-mesenchymal-cells-are-a-major-component-of-the-intestinal-stem-cells-niche-at-homeostasis-and-after-injury
#7
Igor Stzepourginski, Giulia Nigro, Jean-Marie Jacob, Sophie Dulauroy, Philippe J Sansonetti, Gérard Eberl, Lucie Peduto
The intestinal epithelium is continuously renewed by intestinal epithelial stem cells (IESCs) positioned at the base of each crypt. Mesenchymal-derived factors are essential to maintain IESCs; however, the cellular composition and development of such mesenchymal niche remains unclear. Here, we identify pericryptal CD34(+) Gp38(+) αSMA(-) mesenchymal cells closely associated with Lgr5(+) IESCs. We demonstrate that CD34(+) Gp38(+) cells are the major intestinal producers of the niche factors Wnt2b, Gremlin1, and R-spondin1, and are sufficient to promote maintenance of Lgr5(+) IESCs in intestinal organoids, an effect mainly mediated by Gremlin1...
10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066530/play-hands-protective-gloves-technical-note-on-design-and-concept
#8
Michele Houston-Hicks, Derek J Lura, M Jason Highsmith
Cerebral Palsy (CP) is the leading cause of childhood motor disability, with a global incidence of 1.6 to 2.5/1,000 live births. Approximately 23% of children with CP are dependent upon assistive technologies. Some children with developmental disabilities have self-injurious behaviors such as finger biting but also have therapeutic needs. The purpose of this technical note is to describe design considerations for a protective glove and finger covering that maintains finger dexterity for children who exhibit finger and hand chewing (dermatophagia) and require therapeutic range of motion and may benefit from sensory stimulation resulting from constant contact between glove and skin...
September 2016: Technology and Innovation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065815/neonatal-outcomes-following-preterm-birth-classified-according-to-placental-features
#9
Janet M Catov, Christina M Scifres, Steve N Caritis, Marnie Bertolet, Jacob Larkin, W Tony Parks
BACKGROUND: Preterm birth has staggering health implications, and yet the causes of most cases are still unknown. Placental features have been understudied as an etiology for preterm birth, and the association between placental pathologic lesions and neonatal outcomes are incompletely understood. OBJECTIVE: To characterize births according to placental pathology and relate these to adverse neonatal outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: We studied 20,091 births (15,710 term and 4,381 preterm) with placental evaluations...
January 5, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062913/understanding-the-developmental-pathways-pulmonary-fibroblasts-may-follow-during-alveolar-regeneration
#10
REVIEW
Stephen McGowan
Although pulmonary alveolar interstitial fibroblasts are less specialized than their epithelial and endothelial neighbors, they play essential roles during development and in response to lung injury. At birth, they must adapt to the sudden mechanical changes imposed by the onset of respiration and to a higher ambient oxygen concentration. In diseases such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia and interstitial fibrosis, their adaptive responses are overwhelmed leading to compromised gas-exchange function. Thus, although fibroblasts do not directly participate in gas-exchange, they are essential for creating and maintaining an optimal environment at the alveolar epithelial-endothelial interface...
January 6, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061422/can-we-predict-obstetric-anal-sphincter-injury
#11
Kristina Drusany Starič, Petra Bukovec, Katja Jakopič, Eftim Zdravevski, Vladimir Trajkovik, Adolf Lukanović
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to identify primiparous pregnant women with a higher risk for obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS) based on obstetric characteristics (risk factors). STUDY DESIGN: In the retrospective case control study primiparous women were examined using endoanal ultrasonography (EUS) for OASIS identification 6-12 weeks after delivery. Obstetric characteristics for OASIS were collected from the mothers' medical records. The univariate analysis of maternal (age at delivery, maternal height, weight, BMI), infant (length, weight and head circumference) and birth (pregnancy duration, labour and delivery duration, episiotomy, vacuum extraction and oxytocin augmentation) risk factors, Pearson correlations and information gain were carried out...
December 23, 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060793/preterm-birth-and-ventilation-decrease-surface-density-of-glomerular-capillaries-in-lambs-regardless-of-postnatal-respiratory-support-mode
#12
Eveline Staub, Mar Janna Dahl, Calan Yost, Sydney Bowen, Toshio Aoki, Adam Blair, Zhengming Wang, Donald M Null, Bradley A Yoder, Kurt H Albertine
BACKGROUND: Prematurity is often complicated by respiratory support, including invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) and non-invasive support (NIS). Compared to IMV, NIS reduces injury to the lung and brain. Prematurity may also disrupt glomerular architecture. Whether NIS differentially affects glomerular architecture is incompletely understood. We hypothesized that IMV would lead to greater disruption of glomerular architecture than NIS. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of kidneys from moderately preterm lambs delivered at ~131d gestation (term ~150d) that had antenatal steroid exposure and surfactant treatment before resuscitation by IMV...
January 6, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060210/obtaining-a-history-of-childhood-traumatic-brain-injury-using-the-ohio-state-university-tbi-identification-method-to-elicit-adult-recall
#13
Audrey McKinlay, John D Corrigan, Jennifer A Bogner, L John Horwood
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the concordance between medically documented childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) and recall of same by adults aged 35 years. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 962 birth cohort members from the Christchurch Health and Development Study available at the 35-year follow-up. MAIN MEASURES: Childhood TBI information prospectively collected yearly over ages 0 to 15 years as part of the Christchurch Health and Development Study...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056921/bifidobacterium-adolescentis-protects-against-necrotizing-enterocolitis-and-upregulates-tollip-and-sigirr-in-premature-neonatal-rats
#14
Wenshen Wu, Yanli Wang, Jingjing Zou, Fang Long, Huiheng Yan, Lijuan Zeng, Yunbin Chen
BACKGROUND: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a serious gastrointestinal disorder that is often seen in premature infants. Probiotics decrease the risk of NEC; however, the mechanism by which probiotics work is not clear. The goal of this study was to evaluate the preventive effect of Bifidobacterium adolescentis in an NEC rat model. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley neonatal rats were obtained by caesarean section after 20-21 d gestation and randomly divided into the following 3 groups: dam fed (DF), formula fed (FF), and formula + B...
January 5, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051898/high-proportion-of-deaths-attributable-to-hiv-among-postpartum-women-in-botswana-despite-widespread-uptake-of-antiretroviral-therapy
#15
Rebecca Marie Zash, Sajini Souda, Jean Leidner, Kelebogile Binda, Chazha Hick, Kathleen Powis, Joseph Makhema, Mompati Mmalane, Max Essex, Shahin Lockman, Roger L Shapiro
Mortality in the postpartum period may be impacted by antiretroviral therapy (ART) received in pregnancy, and whether ART is continued in the postpartum period. HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected mothers were enrolled within 48 h of delivery at five public hospital maternity wards throughout Botswana and followed for 24 months. Maternal deaths were reported by one of the approved contacts given by the mother at enrollment. Detailed information on the cause of death was not available. Risk factors for 24-month mortality were assessed using Cox proportional hazard models...
January 2017: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045076/phf14-an-innate-inhibitor-against-the-progression-of-renal-fibrosis-following-folic-acid-induced-kidney-injury
#16
Bo Yang, Sixiu Chen, Ming Wu, Lin Zhang, Mengna Ruan, Xujiao Chen, Zhengjun Chen, Changlin Mei, Zhiguo Mao
PHF14 is a newly identified regulator of mesenchyme growth in embryonic tissues. Previous studies have shown that phf14-null mutants die just after birth due to interstitial tissue hyperplasia in major organs, including the kidneys. The aim of this study was to investigate PHF14 function in renal fibrosis. By studying the chronic kidney injury mouse model, we found that PHF14 was upregulated in fibrotic kidneys after renal insults induced by folic acid administration. Compared with wild-type mice, PHF14-null mice showed more severe renal fibrosis after pro-fibrotic stimuli...
January 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041752/burns-and-long-term-infectious-disease-morbidity-a-population-based-study
#17
Janine M Duke, Sean M Randall, Fiona M Wood, James H Boyd, Mark W Fear
BACKGROUND: There is a growing volume of data that indicates that serious injury suppresses immune function, predisposing individuals to infectious complications. With recent evidence showing long-term immune dysfunction after less severe burn, this study aimed to investigate post-burn infectious disease morbidity and assess if burn patients have increased long-term hospital use for infectious diseases. METHODS: A population-based longitudinal study using linked hospital morbidity and death data from Western Australia for all persons hospitalised for a first burn (n=30,997) in 1980-2012...
December 29, 2016: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039618/birth-settings-and-the-validation-of-neonatal-seizures-recorded-in-birth-certificates-compared-to-medicaid-claims-and-hospital-discharge-abstracts-among-live-births-in-south-carolina-1996-2013
#18
Qing Li, Dorothea D Jenkins, Stephen L Kinsman
Objective Neonatal seizures in the first 28 days of life often reflect underlying brain injury or abnormalities, and measure the quality of perinatal care in out-of-hospital births. Using the 2003 revision of birth certificates only, three studies reported more neonatal seizures recorded among home births ​or planned out-of-hospital births compared to hospital births. However, the validity of recording neonatal seizures or serious neurologic dysfunction across birth settings in birth certificates has not been evaluated...
December 30, 2016: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031959/averting-the-legacy-of-kidney-disease-focus-on-childhood
#19
REVIEW
Julie R Ingelfinger, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh, Franz Schaefer
World Kidney Day 2016 focuses on kidney disease in childhood and the antecedents of adult kidney disease that can begin in earliest childhood. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) in childhood differs from that in adults, as the largest diagnostic group among children includes congenital anomalies and inherited disorders, with glomerulopathies and kidney disease in the setting of diabetes being relatively uncommon. In addition, many children with acute kidney injury will ultimately develop sequelae that may lead to hypertension and CKD in later childhood or in adult life...
June 2016: Future Science OA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030594/understanding-misclassification-between-neonatal-deaths-and-stillbirths-empirical-evidence-from-malawi
#20
Li Liu, Henry D Kalter, Yue Chu, Narjis Kazmi, Alain K Koffi, Agbessi Amouzou, Olga Joos, Melinda Munos, Robert E Black
Improving the counting of stillbirths and neonatal deaths is important to tracking Sustainable Development Goal 3.2 and improving vital statistics in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, the validity of self-reported stillbirths and neonatal deaths in surveys is often threatened by misclassification errors between the two birth outcomes. We assessed the extent and correlates of stillbirths being misclassified as neonatal deaths by comparing two recent and linked population surveys conducted in Malawi, one being a full birth history (FBH) survey, and the other a follow-up verbal/social autopsy (VASA) survey...
2016: PloS One
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