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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652872/medical-management-of-transgender-children-and-adolescents
#1
María Fernanda Castilla-Peón
Transgender or gender nonconforming (GN) persons identify themselves with a gender which is different from that correspondent to their birth sex. The demand for health services by families with transgender children or adolescents tends to increase. The prevalence of GN in children is unknown; however, it has been estimated to be > 1% in adolescents. Transgender persons are at increased risk of depression, suicide, illicit drug abuse, human immunodeficiency virus infection, and non-accidental injury. The most accepted model for the care of transgender persons assumes that these adverse outcomes are the consequence of social margination rather than the GI condition itself...
2018: Boletín Médico del Hospital Infantil de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627043/birth-of-airway-surgery-and-evolution-over-the-past-fifty-years
#2
REVIEW
Jean Deslauriers
Significant developments in airway surgery occurred following the introduction of mechanical ventilators and intubation with cuffed endotracheal tubes during the poliomyelitis epidemic of the 1950s. The resulting plethora of postintubation injuries provided extensive experience with resection and reconstruction of stenotic tracheal lesions. In the early 1960s, it was thought that no more 2 cm of trachea could be removed. By the late 1960s, this was challenged owing to better knowledge of airway anatomy and blood supply, tension-releasing maneuvers, and improved anesthetic techniques...
May 2018: Thoracic Surgery Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614704/constitutively-reduced-sensory-capacity-promotes-better-recovery-after-spinal-cord-injury-sci-in-blind-rats-of-the-dystrophic-rcs-strain
#3
Svenja Rink, Habib Bendella, Kurdin Alsolivany, Carolin Meyer, Aliona Woehler, Ramona Jansen, Zeynep Isik, Gregor Stein, Sina Wennmachers, Makoto Nakamura, Doychin N Angelov
BACKGROUND: We compared functional, electrophysiological and morphological parameters after SCI in two groups of rats Sprague Dawley (SD) rats with normal vision and blind rats from a SD-substrain "Royal College of Surgeons" (SD/RCS) who lose their photoreceptor cells after birth due to a genetic defect in the retinal pigment epithelium. For these animals skin-, intramuscular-, and tendon receptors are major available means to resolve spatial information. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to check whether increased sensitivity in SD/RCS rats would promote an improved recovery after SCI...
March 25, 2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610830/association-between-early-caffeine-citrate-administration-and-risk-of-acute-kidney-injury-in-preterm-neonates-results-from-the-awaken-study
#4
Matthew W Harer, David J Askenazi, Louis J Boohaker, J Bryan Carmody, Russell L Griffin, Ronnie Guillet, David T Selewski, Jonathan R Swanson, Jennifer R Charlton
Importance: Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs commonly in preterm neonates and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Objectives: To examine the association between caffeine citrate administration and AKI in preterm neonates in the first 7 days after birth and to test the hypothesis that caffeine administration would be associated with reduced incidence and severity of AKI. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study was a secondary analysis of the Assessment of Worldwide Acute Kidney Injury Epidemiology in Neonates (AWAKEN) study, a retrospective observational cohort that enrolled neonates born from January 1 to March 31, 2014...
April 2, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610829/association-of-histologic-chorioamnionitis-with-perinatal-brain-injury-and-early-childhood-neurodevelopmental-outcomes-among-preterm-neonates
#5
Daniel Bierstone, Nienke Wagenaar, Dawn L Gano, Ting Guo, Gregory Georgio, Floris Groenendaal, Linda S de Vries, Jojy Varghese, Hannah C Glass, Catherine Chung, Jefferson Terry, Maarten Rijpert, Ruth E Grunau, Anne Synnes, A James Barkovich, Donna M Ferriero, Manon Benders, Vann Chau, Steven P Miller
Importance: Understanding the role of chorioamnionitis, a major factor leading to preterm birth, in the pathogenesis of neonatal brain injury and adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes may help in identifying potentially modifiable perinatal variables affecting brain health and outcomes among children born preterm. Objective: To evaluate whether histologic chorioamnionitis among neonates born very preterm is associated with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and punctate white matter injury (WMI) or with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes during early childhood...
April 2, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607849/from-birth-till-palatoplasty-prosthetic-procedural-limitations-and-safeguarding-infants-with-palatal-cleft
#6
Sudhir Bhandari, Bhavita Wadhwa Soni, Shiv Sajan Saini
The most imminent issue to be addressed in a child born with cleft lip and/or palate is restoration of normal feeding. Early surgical treatment for cleft repair is crucial but may need to be postponed until certain age and weight gain is attained in an infant. When other feeding interventions fail in these children, prosthetic obturation of the defect with feeding instructions in the interim period is indicated to ward off the prevailing concerns. However, the entire prosthetic management presents a significant challenge with respect to the child's age, scope of iatrogenic injury to the delicate oral tissues, and potential for life-threatening situation during the procedures...
January 2018: Journal of the Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605768/perinatal-exposure-to-energy-drink-induces-oxidative-damage-in-the-liver-kidney-and-brain-and-behavioral-alterations-in-mice-offspring
#7
Gadh I Al-Basher, Hanan Aljabal, Rafa S Almeer, Ahmed A Allam, Ayman M Mahmoud
The worldwide consumption of energy drinks (EDs) has increased in recent years. EDs have several side effects and can be linked to liver injury, kidney damage and risk-seeking behavior. The impact of perinatal consumption of EDs on the newborns has not been previously investigated. In this study, we evaluated the effects of perinatal exposure to a caffeinated ED on the liver, kidney, brain, locomotor activity and anxiety in mice newborns. Pregnant mice received 2.5 or 5 ml ED by oral gavage from the first day of pregnancy until day 15 after birth...
March 29, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604124/risk-factors-and-mortality-rate-in-premature-babies-with-acute-kidney-injury
#8
Ahmet Taner Elmas, Yılmaz Tabel, Ramazan Özdemir
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common morbidity in neonatal intensive care units and associated with poor outcome. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of AKI and provide a demographic data and risk factors associated with the mortality and morbidity. METHODS: This is a retrospective study included 105 premature babies. Diagnosis of AKI was based on neonatal KDIGO classification criteria. The babies were stratified into two groups according to AKI status during the hospitalization...
March 31, 2018: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597832/maternal-pufa-omega-3-supplementation-prevents-hyperoxia-induced-pulmonary-hypertension-in-the-offspring
#9
Ying Zhong, Daniel Catheline, Ali Houeijeh, Dyuti Sharma, Li-Zhong Du, Capucine Besengez, Philippe Deruelle, Philippe Legrand, Laurent Storme
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) and right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) affect 16-25% of premature infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), contributing significantly to perinatal morbidity and mortality. Polyunsaturated fatty acids ω-3 (PUFA ω-3) can improve vascular remodeling, angiogenesis, and inflammation under pathophysiological conditions. However, the effects of PUFA ω-3 supplementation in BPD-associated PH are unknown. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of PUFA ω-3 on pulmonary vascular remodeling, angiogenesis, and inflammatory response in a hyperoxia-induced rat model of PH...
March 29, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596309/risk-factors-for-brachial-plexus-birth-injury
#10
Emily Louden, Michael Marcotte, Charles Mehlman, William Lippert, Bin Huang, Andrea Paulson
Over the course of decades, the incidence of brachial plexus birth injury (BPBI) has increased despite advances in healthcare which would seem to assist in decreasing the rate. The aim of this study is to identify previously unknown risk factors for BPBI and the risk factors with potential to guide preventative measures. A case control study of 52 mothers who had delivered a child with a BPBI injury and 132 mothers who had delivered without BPBI injury was conducted. Univariate, multivariable and logistic regressions identified risk factors and their combinations...
March 29, 2018: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593996/trauma-induced-delivery-a-case-report
#11
Ryan D Brown, Coralee Toal, Sarah Mashburn, Paige Pasquali
The term "birth trauma" is one that is well ingrained into the lexicon of medical providers. There is ample information of the types of injuries that are incurred during the birth process. However, there is no uniformed term for the process of an unforeseen act that leads to a precipitous birth. We would like to show a case report of such an act. The infant's injuries were sustained while in utero and the trauma induced a medical team to deliver the infant due to non-reassuring heart tones. Also, we would like to introduce the term of "trauma-induced delivery" into the medical literature as a way to describe similar types of deliveries that are influenced by factors related to physical forces applied to the mother's body, either intentional or unintentional...
July 2017: Case Reports in Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593188/risk-factor-of-mortality-in-indonesian-children-with-cerebral-palsy
#12
Indra Gunawan Prastiya, Vitria Prasetyo Risky, Irmawati Mira, Asih Setyoningrum Retno, Saharso Darto, Prasetyo Erny
OBJECTIVE: Individuals with CP have a lower life expectancy than the general population. The objective of the study is to investigate the risk factor of mortality in Indonesian children with CP. METHODS: An observational analytic study was conducted using medical records at pediatric ward Dr. Soetomo Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia, from January 2014 to December 2016. Inclusion criteria was all of CP patients in that were hospitalized from 6 months to 14 year of age...
2018: Journal of Medical Investigation: JMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589286/genetic-and-environmental-contributions-to-variation-in-the-posterior-communicating-collaterals-of-the-circle-of-willis
#13
James E Faber, Hua Zhang, Wojciech Rzechorzek, Kathy Z Dai, Benjamin T Summers, Cooper Blazek, Samuel J Hedges
Variation in blood flow mediated by the posterior communicating collateral arteries (PComs) contributes to variation in the severity of tissue injury in obstructive disease. Evidence in animals and humans indicates that differences in the extent of PComs, i.e., their anatomic lumen diameter and whether they are present bilaterally, unilaterally, or absent, are a major factor. These differences arise during development since they are present at birth. However, the causal mechanisms are unknown. We used angiography after maximal dilation to examine involvement of genetic, environmental, and stochastic factors...
March 27, 2018: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587540/risk-of-recurrent-shoulder-dystocia-are-we-any-closer-to-prediction
#14
Shadha Al-Hawash, Clare L Whitehead, Dan Farine
OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence and risk factors for recurrent shoulder dystocia in women. METHODS: We searched Medline, Pubmed, Embase, and CINAHL for relevant articles in English and French from 1980 to February 2018 that described risks of recurrent shoulder dystocia undergoing a trial of labour in subsequent pregnancies. A total of 684 articles were found, of which 13 were included as they met criteria. We extracted data on study characteristics, incidence of recurrent shoulder dystocia, degree of neonatal injury, and presence of known risk factors...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581237/female-fertility-preservation-past-present-and-future
#15
Benjamin Fisch, Ronit Abir
Anti-cancer therapy, particularly chemotherapy damages ovarian follicles and promotes ovarian failure. The only pharmacological means for protecting the ovaries from chemotherapy-induced injury is gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist, but its efficiency remains controversial; ovarian transposition is used to shield the ovary from radiation when indicated. Until the late 1990s, the only option for fertility preservation and restoration in women with cancer was embryo cryopreservation. The development of other assisted reproductive technologies such as mature oocyte cryopreservation and in vitro maturation of oocytes has contributed to fertility preservation...
March 26, 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575874/influence-of-growth-hormone-therapy-on-selected-dental-and-skeletal-system-parameters
#16
Małgorzata Partyka, Renata Chałas, Izabella Dunin-Wilczyńska, Myroslava Drohomyretska, Maria Klatka
INTRODUCTION: Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is one of the main indications for growth hormone therapy. One characteristic of this disease is bone age delay in relation to the chronological age. Pituitary dysfunction negatively affects the growth and development of the jaws and teeth of the child. The secretion of endocrine glands regulates growth, development, and gender differentiation. It also controls the growth of bones and teeth, regulates metabolism of calcium and phosphate, proteins, lipids and carbohydrates...
March 14, 2018: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575180/sonographic-assessment-of-the-anal-sphincter-after-obstetric-anal-sphincter-injury-oasi-using-transperineal-ultrasound-tpus
#17
EDITORIAL
Vered H Eisenberg, Dan V Valsky, Simcha Yagel
Obstetric anal sphincter injury (OASI) is the most common cause of anal incontinence and ano-rectal symptoms in women1 . Reported rates of anal incontinence following primary repair of OASI range between 15-61%, with a mean of 39%2, 3 . Other possible complications of OASI include perineal pain, dyspareunia, and less commonly, abscess formation, wound breakdown, and rectovaginal fistulae. Symptom onset may occur immediately, several years postpartum, or only late in life when aging of tissues adds to the delivery insult...
March 24, 2018: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572587/neonatal-abstinence-syndrome-nas-in-southwestern-border-states-examining-trends-population-correlates-and-implications-for-policy
#18
Khaleel S Hussaini, Luigi F Garcia Saavedra
Introduction Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is withdrawal syndrome in newborns following birth and is primarily caused by maternal drug use during pregnancy. This study examines trends, population correlates, and policy implications of NAS in two Southwest border states. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional analysis of Hospital Inpatient Discharge Data (HIDD) was utilized to examine the incidence of NAS in the Southwest border states of Arizona (AZ) and New Mexico (NM). All inpatient hospital births in AZ and NM from January 1, 2008 through December 31, 2013 with ICD9-CM codes for NAS (779...
March 23, 2018: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571123/implementation-of-the-rcog-guidelines-for-prevention-of-obstetric-anal-sphincter-injuries-oasis-at-two-london-hospitals-a-time-series-analysis
#19
Henna Mohiudin, Sajjad Ali, Pradyna N Pisal, Rose Villar
OBJECTIVE: To audit the impact of implementation of the RCOG guidelines for prevention of Obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS) by introducing antenatal perineal massage, manual perineal protection, and cutting episiotomies at 60° to the midline at the time of crowning. DESIGN: Time series analysis; Setting - Two London teaching hospitals; Royal Free London (RFL) and Barnet; Population or Sample - All nulliparous women undergoing vaginal birth; Methods - Training was provided for above techniques...
March 15, 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566931/signs-of-physical-abuse-and-neglect-in-the-mature-patient
#20
Karlijn Clarysse, Coleen Kivlahan, Ingo Beyer, Jan Gutermuth
Neglect and physical abuse of elderly are worrisome health problems, which are expected to grow even further, considering the aging of the population. By 2060, the number of people aged above 65 years is expected to double, whereas birth rates are low. This trend will cause a significant imbalance between different age groups and put more senior adults at risk for abuse. Risk factors, associated with abuse and neglect, are well established and can be categorized in sociodemographic-, victim-, or perpetrator-related risk factors...
March 2018: Clinics in Dermatology
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