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Birth injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830029/persistent-uncrossed-corticospinal-connections-in-patients-with-intractable-focal-epilepsy
#1
Harper L Kaye, Roman Gersner, Aaron D Boes, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Alexander Rotenberg
Corticospinal connections may be bilateral at birth, but a predominantly unilateral and crossed pattern develops by the toddler years. Acquired injury can alter the normal development of laterality such that uncrossed corticospinal connections persist, particularly if the injury is early in life and involves the motor system. Whether other developmental insults, such as childhood epilepsy, affect the development of crossed laterality in the motor system is unknown, although this topic has relevance for understanding the broader impact of epilepsy on brain development...
August 19, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828676/therapeutic-applications-of-extracellular-vesicles-perspectives-from-newborn-medicine
#2
Gareth R Willis, Stella Kourembanas, S Alex Mitsialis
With the advancements in antenatal steroid therapies and surfactant replacement, current clinical practices in neonatal intensive care units allow the survival of infants at very low gestational age. Despite these advances, there continues to be significant morbidity associated with extreme preterm birth that includes both short-term and long-term cardiorespiratory impairment. With no effective single therapy in preventing or treating developmental lung injuries, the need for new tools to treat and reduce risk of complications associated with extreme preterm birth is urgent...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828634/potential-risk-factors-for-birth-fractures-a-case-control-study
#3
Thanase Ariyawatkul, Kitti Worawuthangkul, Chatupon Chotigavanichaya, Kamolporn Kaewpornsawan, Ornusa Chalayon, Perajit Eamsobhana
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Birth fractures are uncommon but remain a concern among obstetricians. Although such fractures usually heal without long-term sequelae, some are associated with lifelong disabilities, such as brachial plexus injuries. The purpose of this study was primarily to investigate risk factors related to birth fractures. METHODS: This study comprised newborns delivered at our institute between 2003 and 2013. All 46 birth fractures were reviewed and compared with 223 randomly selected normal neonates...
August 21, 2017: International Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828129/salter-harris-i-fracture-of-the-distal-humerus-in-a-neonate-imaging-appearance-of-radiographs-ultrasound-and-arthrography
#4
Nicholas M Beckmann, Lindsay Crawford
Neonatal Salter-Harris I fractures of the distal humerus are a rare injury. This injury can be easily mistaken for a posterior elbow dislocation, creating a delay in diagnosis. We present a case of a neonate with a distal humerus Salter-Harris I fracture secondary to trauma during delivery. The patient presented with pseudoparesis of the left arm following birth. Posterior displacement of the elbow was identified on radiographs. Ultrasound of the elbow was performed after a gentle closed reduction of the left elbow was unsuccessful...
September 2017: Radiology case reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827748/calf-spleen-extractive-injection-protects-mice-against-cyclophosphamide-induced-hematopoietic-injury-through-g-csf-mediated-jak2-stat3-signaling
#5
Wenqian Lu, Dongxu Jia, Shengshu An, Ming Mu, Xinan Qiao, Yan Liu, Xin Li, Di Wang
Calf Spleen Extractive Injection (CSEI), extracted from the spleen of healthy cows (within 24 hours of birth), is a small-peptide-enriched extraction and often used as an ancillary agent in cancer therapy. This study evaluated the hematopoietic function of CSEI and its underlying mechanisms, principally in CHRF, K562 cells, BMNCs and a mouse model of cyclophosphamide (CTX)-induced hematopoietic suppression. CSEI promoted the proliferation and differentiation of CHRF and K562 cells, activated hematopoietic- and proliferation-related factors RSK1p90, ELK1 and c-Myc, and facilitated the expression of differentiation- and maturation-related transcription factors GATA-1, GATA-2...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827644/cardiac-injury-of-the-newborn-mammalian-heart-accelerates-cardiomyocyte-terminal-differentiation
#6
David C Zebrowski, Charlotte H Jensen, Robert Becker, Fulvia Ferrazzi, Christina Baun, Svend Hvidsten, Søren P Sheikh, Brian D Polizzotti, Ditte C Andersen, Felix B Engel
After birth cardiomyocytes undergo terminal differentiation, characterized by binucleation and centrosome disassembly, rendering the heart unable to regenerate. Yet, it has been suggested that newborn mammals regenerate their hearts after apical resection by cardiomyocyte proliferation. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that apical resection either inhibits, delays, or reverses cardiomyocyte centrosome disassembly and binucleation. Our data show that apical resection rather transiently accelerates centrosome disassembly as well as the rate of binucleation...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822437/-predictive-effect-of-neonatal-morbidities-on-the-poor-outcomes-at-12-months-corrected-age-in-very-low-birth-weight-premature-infants
#7
Y B Rao, J Yang, B Cao, D M Chen, P M Gao, Q Zhong, M X Li, J H Gao, Y J Chen, X M Zhong, Z X Ren
Objective: To investigate the prognostic effect of neonatal morbidities on poor outcomes at 12 months corrected age in very low birth weight (VLBW) premature infants . Method: From November 2013 to October 2014, a multi-center retrospective study was conducted in 8 tertiary Maternal and Children's hospitals in Guangdong, Hunan and Fujian. The premature infants survived to a postmenstrual age (PMA) of 36 weeks with birth weight less than 1 500 g and without congenital diseases were included, and divided into two groups according to poor outcomes...
August 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819007/effects-of-antenatal-melatonin-therapy-on-lung-structure-in-growth-restricted-newborn-lambs
#8
Graeme R Polglase, Jade Barbuto, Beth J Allison, Tamara Yawno, Amy Elizabeth Sutherland, Atul Malhotra, Keith E Schulze, Euan M Wallace, Graham Jenkin, Sharon D Ricardo, Suzanne L Miller
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress arising from suboptimal placental function contributes to a multitude of pathologies in infants compromised by fetal growth restriction (FGR). FGR infants are at high risk for respiratory dysfunction after birth and poor long-term lung function. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the contribution of oxidative stress to adverse lung development and the effects of melatonin administration, a powerful anti-oxidant, on lung structure in FGR lambs...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818731/association-between-severities-of-striae-gravidarum-and-obstetric-anal-sphincter-injuries-oasis
#9
Ofra Halperin, Anita Noble, Shosh Balachsan, Ester Klug, Michal Liebergall-Wischnitzer
OBJECTIVES: to examine the association between the severities of Striae Gravidarum (SG) and Obstetric Anal Sphincter Injuries (OASIS) and to measure the symptoms regarding urinary incontinence, fecal/flatus incontinence, and dyspareunia, at 6 and 12 months postpartum. DESIGN: this is a cohort study. SETTING: four university teaching medical centers in Israel, two in the north and two in the center of the country. PARTICIPANTS: women with OASIS were interviewed and assessed for SG...
August 1, 2017: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818273/a-novel-genetic-model-to-explore-the-brenner-hypothesis-linking-nephron-endowment-and-number-with-hypertension
#10
Sean P Didion
Nephron endowment, the total number of nephrons an individual is born with, is determined by both genetic and environmental factors during embryonic development. In 1988, Brenner hypothesized that there was an inverse relationship between nephron number and hypertension. Over the course of one's lifetime it is predicted that even healthy individuals will lose a significant percentage of nephrons as part of normal aging. Thus, a low nephron endowment at birth or in combination with age- or disease-related nephron loss could pre-dispose individuals to the development of hypertension...
September 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817212/fingolimod-against-endotoxin-induced-fetal-brain-injury-in-a-rat-model
#11
And Yavuz, Mekin Sezik, Ozlem Ozmen, Halil Asci
AIM: Fingolimod is a sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor modulator used for multiple sclerosis treatment and acts on cellular processes such as apoptosis, endothelial permeability, and inflammation. We hypothesized that fingolimod has a positive effect on alleviating preterm fetal brain injury. METHODS: Sixteen pregnant rats were divided into four groups of four rats each. On gestational day 17, i.p. endotoxin was injected to induce fetal brain injury, followed by i...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814547/annual-summary-of-vital-statistics-2013-2014
#12
Sherry L Murphy, T J Mathews, Joyce A Martin, Cynthia S Minkovitz, Donna M Strobino
The number of births in the United States increased by 1% between 2013 and 2014, to a total of 3 988 076. The general fertility rate rose 1% to 62.9 births per 1000 women. The total fertility rate also rose 0.3% in 2014, to 1862.5 births per 1000 women. The teenage birth rate fell to another historic low in 2014, 24.2 births per 1000 women. The percentage of all births to unmarried women declined to 40.2% in 2014, from 40.6% in 2013. In 2014, the cesarean delivery rate declined to 32.2% from 32.7% in 2013...
June 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812000/diagnostic-imaging-features-of-necrotizing-enterocolitis-a-narrative-review
#13
REVIEW
Francesco Esposito, Rosanna Mamone, Marco Di Serafino, Carmela Mercogliano, Valerio Vitale, Gianfranco Vallone, Patrizia Oresta
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is an inflammatory process, characterized by intestinal necrosis of variable extension, leading to perforation, generalized peritonitis and death. The classical pathogenetic theory focuses on mucosal damage related to a stress induced intestinal ischemia leading to mucosal injury and bacterial colonization of the wall. A more recent hypothesis emphasizes the role of immaturity of gastrointestinal and immune system, particularly of the premature, responsible of bowel wall vulnerability and suffering...
June 2017: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811513/altered-cerebellar-biochemical-profiles-in-infants-born-prematurely
#14
Marie Brossard-Racine, Jonathan Murnick, Marine Bouyssi-Kobar, Janie Coulombe, Taeun Chang, Catherine Limperopoulos
This study aims to compare the cerebellar biochemical profiles in preterm (PT) infants evaluated at term equivalent age (TEA) and healthy full-term newborns using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS). We explore the associations between altered cerebellar metabolite profiles and brain injury topography, severity of injury, and prematurity-related clinical complications. We prospectively collected high quality (1)H-MRS in 59 premature infants born ≤32 weeks and 61 healthy full term controls. (1)H-MRS data were processed using LCModel software to calculate absolute metabolite concentration for N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), choline (Cho) and creatine (Cr)...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807190/socioeconomic-differences-in-mortality-in-the-antiretroviral-therapy-era-in-agincourt-rural-south-africa-2001-13-a-population-surveillance-analysis
#15
Chodziwadziwa W Kabudula, Brian Houle, Mark A Collinson, Kathleen Kahn, Francesc Xavier Gómez-Olivé, Stephen Tollman, Samuel J Clark
BACKGROUND: Understanding the effects of socioeconomic disparities in health outcomes is important to implement specific preventive actions. We assessed socioeconomic disparities in mortality indicators in a rural South African population over the period 2001-13. METHODS: We used data from 21 villages of the Agincourt Health and socio-Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS). We calculated the probabilities of death from birth to age 5 years and from age 15 to 60 years, life expectancy at birth, and cause-specific and age-specific mortality by sex (not in children <5 years), time period, and socioeconomic status (household wealth) quintile for HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis, other communicable diseases (excluding HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis) and maternal, perinatal, and nutritional causes, non-communicable diseases, and injury...
September 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806494/body-piercing-motivations-and-implications-for-health
#16
REVIEW
Cheri Van Hoover, Carol-Ann Rademayer, Cindy L Farley
Body piercing has evolved from a behavior once considered extreme to an accepted choice among the general population. Earlobe piercing is so common that it is now considered a normative behavior. The motivations for choosing body piercing have changed and are associated with piercing site and number of piercings chosen by the individual. Meanings ascribed to body piercing were traditionally related to enhanced sexual desirability and experience, but now range from the innocuous, such as a fashion statement, to the risk laden, such as nonsuicidal self-injury...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795220/achieving-and-maintaining-lung-volume-in-the-preterm-infant-from-the-first-breath-to-the-nicu
#17
REVIEW
Gianluca Lista, Andrés Maturana, Fernando R Moya
Please check if statements under Abstract section are presented correctly.The main goal for the neonatologist is to facilitate the adaptation to extra-uterine life during initial transition, while minimizing lung injury opening and protecting the premature lung from the first breath onwards. An appropriate management from birth should lead to the achievement of an early functional residual capacity (FRC), and the following steps should aim at maintaining an adequate lung volume. To date, different strategies are available to optimize fetal-neonatal transition and promote lung recruitment...
August 10, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789711/does-growth-restriction-increase-the-vulnerability-to-acute-ventilation-induced-brain-injury-in-newborn-lambs-implications-for-future-health-and-disease
#18
B J Allison, S B Hooper, E Coia, G Jenkin, A Malhotra, V Zahra, A Sehgal, M Kluckow, A W Gill, T Yawno, G R Polglase, M Castillo-Melendez, S L Miller
Fetal growth restriction (FGR) and preterm birth are frequent co-morbidities, both are independent risks for brain injury. However, few studies have examined the mechanisms by which preterm FGR increases the risk of adverse neurological outcomes. We aimed to determine the effects of prematurity and mechanical ventilation (VENT) on the brain of FGR and appropriately grown (AG, control) lambs. We hypothesized that FGR preterm lambs are more vulnerable to ventilation-induced acute brain injury. FGR was surgically induced in fetal sheep (0...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789649/intentional-injury-among-the-indigenous-and-total-populations-in-british-columbia-canada-trends-over-time-and-ecological-analyses-of-risk
#19
M Anne George, Andrew Jin, Mariana Brussoni, Christopher E Lalonde, Rod McCormick
BACKGROUND: Our objective was to explore intentional injury disparity between Indigenous populations and the total population in the province of British Columbia (BC), Canada. We focus on hospitalizations, including both self-inflicted injuries and injuries inflicted by others. METHODS: We used data from BC's universal health care insurance plan, 1991 to 2010, linked to Vital Statistics databases. Indigenous people were identified through the insurance premium group, and birth and death records...
August 8, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783687/group-b-streptococcus-circumvents-neutrophils-and-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-during-amniotic-cavity-invasion-and-preterm-labor
#20
Erica Boldenow, Claire Gendrin, Lisa Ngo, Craig Bierle, Jay Vornhagen, Michelle Coleman, Sean Merillat, Blair Armistead, Christopher Whidbey, Varchita Alishetti, Veronica Santana-Ufret, Jason Ogle, Michael Gough, Sengkeo Srinouanprachanh, James W MacDonald, Theo K Bammler, Aasthaa Bansal, H Denny Liggitt, Lakshmi Rajagopal, Kristina M Adams Waldorf
Preterm birth is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Although microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity (MIAC) is associated with most early preterm births, the temporal events that occur during MIAC and preterm labor are not known. Group B streptococci (GBS) are β-hemolytic, Gram-positive bacteria, which commonly colonize the vagina but have been recovered from the amniotic fluid in preterm birth cases. To understand temporal events that occur during MIAC, we used a chronically catheterized nonhuman primate model that closely emulates human pregnancy...
October 14, 2016: Science Immunology
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