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Chang Xu, Wen-Hao Guo, Xu He, Yin-Long Guo, Xue-Ying Zhang, Xingang Zhang
Relatively low reactivity hinders using chlorodifluoromethane (ClCF2 H) for general difluoromethylation with organic molecules, despite its availability as an inexpensive industrial chemical. To date, transformations of ClCF2 H are very limited and most of them involve difluorocarbene intermediate. Here, we describe a strategy for difluoromethylation of aromatics through nickel-catalyzed cross-coupling of ClCF2 H with readily accessible (hetero)aryl chlorides. The reaction proceeds under mild reaction conditions with high efficiency and features synthetic simplicity without preformation of arylmetals and broad substrate scope, including a variety of heteroaromatics and commercially available pharmaceuticals...
March 21, 2018: Nature Communications
Komal Sharma, Ankita Pagedar Singh
Biofilms are aggregates of microorganisms that coexist in socially coordinated micro-niche in a self-produced polymeric matrix on pre-conditioned surfaces. The biofilm matrix reduces the efficacy of antibiofilm strategies. DNase degrades the extracellular DNA (e-DNA) present in the matrix, rendering the matrix weak and susceptible to antimicrobials. In the current study, the effect of DNase I was evaluated during biofilm formation (pre-treatment), on preformed biofilms (post-treatment) and both (dual treatment)...
March 19, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Papatpong Phermsang-Ngarm, Chairat Charoemratrote
OBJECTIVES: To compare tooth movement achieved, time required for alignment, root resorption, and alveolar bone thickness changes during initial dental alignment between groups treated with 0.012-inch preformed heat-activated or customized nickel titanium (NiTi) archwires. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-two subjects (mean age 19.8 ± 1.7 years) with severe crowding of maxillary anterior teeth had premolar extractions and were randomly allocated into control and experimental groups receiving preformed heat-activated and customized NiTi archwires, respectively...
March 21, 2018: Angle Orthodontist
Ritika S Joshi, Dipanwita Das Mukherjee, Subhendu Chakrabarty, Ansie Martin, Manojkumar Jadhao, Gopal Chakrabarti, Angshuman Sarkar, Sujit Kumar Ghosh
In the development of small molecule drug candidates, naphthalimide based compounds hold a very important position as potent anti-cancer agents with considerable safety in drug discoveries. Being synthetically and readily accessible, naphthalimide compounds with planar architecture have been developed mostly as DNA targeting intercalators. However, in this article, we demonstrate, for the first time, wherein an unfused naphthalimide-benzothiazole bichromophoric compound 2-(6-chlorobenzo[d] thiazol-2-yl)-1H-benzo[de] isoquinoline-1,3(2H)-dione (CBIQD), designed and synthesized by our group, seem to expand the bioactivity of naphthalimide as anti-mitotic agents also...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Kimberly Schmitt, Ramesh Akkina
In the current quest for a complete cure for HIV/AIDS, highly sensitive HIV-1 latency detection methods are critical to verify full viral eradication. Until now, the in vitro quantitative viral outgrowth assays (qVOA) have been the gold standard for assessing latent HIV-1 viral burden. However, these assays have been inadequate in detecting the presence of ultralow levels of latent virus in a number of patients who were initially thought to have been cured, but eventually showed viral rebound. In this context, new approaches utilizing in vivo mouse-based VOAs are promising...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Jakob Dobroschke, Tina Groß, Jürgen Weitz, Christoph Reißfelder
OBJECTIVE: Radical inguinal lymphadenectomy is a standardised operation, which is exhibits high morbidity of up to 77%. These complications often lead to a delay in the planned adjuvant therapy. The objective of this video is to present videoendoscopic inguinal lymphadenectomy (VEIL), which seems to show less morbidity. INDICATION: There is no difference between the indications for open lymphadenectomy and VEIL. Prior excision of a sentinel lymph node is not a contraindication...
March 19, 2018: Zentralblatt Für Chirurgie
E Ridolo, I Martignago, S Masieri
Allergic Rhinitis (AR) is an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity disease caused by inhalation of an allergen to which the patients is sensitized. Etiopathogenesis of AR comprises a sensitization phase, an immediate phase and a late phase. In the sensitization phase, inhaled allergens are processed in peptides and come into contact with the nasal mucosa cells. Antigen-Presenting Cells (APCs), especially represented by Dendritic Cells (DCs), capture them through the interaction with their own MHC class II complexes and migrate to lymph nodes...
January 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Yin Shuen Tan, Shao Wen Amanda Teo, Yiying Pei, Julia Huina Sng, Hong Wei Yap, Ying Pin Toh, Lalit K R Krishna
A consistent mentoring approach is key to unlocking the full benefits of mentoring, ensuring effective oversight of mentoring relationships and preventing abuse of mentoring. Yet consistency in mentoring between senior clinicians and medical students (novice mentoring) which dominate mentoring processes in medical schools is difficult to achieve particularly when mentors practice in both undergraduate and postgraduate medical schools. To facilitate a consistent approach to mentoring this review scrutinizes common aspects of mentoring in undergraduate and postgraduate medical schools to forward a framework for novice mentoring in medical schools...
March 17, 2018: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
Loredana Elena Nita, Aurica P Chiriac, Alina Gabriela Rusu, Maria Bercea, Alina Diaconu, Nita Tudorachi
The interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) are promising materials due to their unique properties. In this context, in the present study, new IPN structures based on poly(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) and poly(itaconic anhydride-co-3,9-divinyl-2,4,8,10-tetraoxaspiro[5.5] undecane) (PITAU) were synthesized. The double network was prepared by synthesizing and crosslinking (with N, N'-methylenebis(acrylamide)) PDMAEMA in the presence of a preformed PITAU network. The effect of the two components upon some properties such us: viscoelasticity, thermal stability and swelling behavior of the new prepared gels were deeply investigated...
June 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Jesper Jansen, Ruud Schreurs, Leander Dubois, Thomas J J Maal, Peter J J Gooris, Alfred G Becking
OBJECTIVE: Advanced three-dimensional (3D) diagnostics and preoperative planning are the first steps in computer-assisted surgery (CAS). They are an integral part of the workflow, and allow the surgeon to adequately assess the fracture and to perform virtual surgery to find the optimal implant position. The goal of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and predictability of 3D diagnostics and preoperative virtual planning without intraoperative navigation in orbital reconstruction. METHODS: In 10 cadaveric heads, 19 complex orbital fractures were created...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
Fei Li, Zhiguo Xia, Caofeng Pan, Yue Gong, Lin Gu, Quanlin Liu, Jin Z Zhang
The unification of tunable band edge (BE) emission and strong Mn2+ doping luminescence in all-inorganic cesium lead halide perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) CsPbX3 (X = Cl and Br) is of fundamental importance in fine tuning their optical properties. Herein, we demonstrate that, benefiting from the differentiation of the cation/anion exchange rate, ZnBr2 and preformed CsPb1-xCl3:xMn NCs can be used to obtain high Br content Cs(Pb1-x-zZnz)(ClyBr1-y)3:xMn2+ perovskite NCs with strong Mn2+ emission, and Mn2+ substitution ratio can reach about 22%...
March 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Christine D Plant, Giles W Plant
Biomaterials can be utilized to assist in the transplantation of Schwann cells to the central and peripheral nervous system. The biomaterials can be natural or man-made, and can have preformed shapes or injectable formats. Biomaterials can play multiple roles in cellular transplantation; for example, they can assist with cellular integration and protect Schwann cells from cell death initiated by the lack of a substrate, an occurrence known as "anoikis." In addition, biomaterials can be engineered to increase cell proliferation and differentiation by the addition of ligands bound to the substrate...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Joseph M Ladowski, Gregory R Martens, Luz M Reyes, Zheng-Yu Wang, Devin E Eckhoff, Vera Hauptfeld-Dolejsek, Matt Tector, A Joseph Tector
Genetically engineered pig organs could provide transplants to all patients with end-stage organ failure, but Ab-mediated rejection remains an issue. This study examines the class II swine leukocyte Ag (SLA) as a target of epitope-restricted Ab binding. Transfection of individual α- and β-chains into human embryonic kidney cells resulted in both traditional and hybrid class II SLA molecules. Sera from individuals on the solid organ transplant waiting list were tested for Ab binding and cytotoxicity to this panel of class II SLA single-Ag cells...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Piyush Agrawal, Sherry Bhalla, Kumardeep Chaudhary, Rajesh Kumar, Meenu Sharma, Gajendra P S Raghava
This paper describes in silico models developed using a wide range of peptide features for predicting antifungal peptides (AFPs). Our analyses indicate that certain types of residue (e.g., C, G, H, K, R, Y) are more abundant in AFPs. The positional residue preference analysis reveals the prominence of the particular type of residues (e.g., R, V, K) at N-terminus and a certain type of residues (e.g., C, H) at C-terminus. In this study, models have been developed for predicting AFPs using a wide range of peptide features (like residue composition, binary profile, terminal residues)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Xiaocui Fang, Maryam Yousaf, Qunxing Huang, Yanlian Yang, Chen Wang
The oligomerization and fibrillation of human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) play a central role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Strategies for remodelling the formation of hIAPP oligomers and fibrils have promising application potential in type 2 diabetes therapy. Herein, we demonstrated that PEG-PE micelle could inhibit hIAPP oligomerization and fibrillation through blocking the hydrophobic interaction and the conformational change from random coil to β-sheet structures of hIAPP. In addition, we also found that PEG-PE micelle could remodel the preformed hIAPP fibrils allowing the formation of short fibrils and co-aggregates...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Junren Lu, Jing Han, Chi Zhang, Zhenjun Yao, Yi Yang
Although two-stage revision surgery is generally considered as the gold standard treatment for periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) after total knee arthroplasty, the procedure is limited by the costs of commercially preformed spacers used for treatment. In this work, we aim to report a modified approach by which the cost of the spacer could be significantly reduced without compromising eradication of infection. Between 2010 and 2016, we performed a total of 11 two-stage revision arthroplasties using a surgically handmade spacer with a new polyethylene insert...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Knee Surgery
Dmitri Atiakshin, Igor Buchwalow, Vera Samoilova, Markus Tiemann
Mast cells are haematopoietic cells that arise from pluripotent precursors of the bone marrow. They play immunomodulatory roles in both health and disease. When appropriately activated, mast cells undergo degranulation, and preformed granule compounds are rapidly released into the surroundings. In many cases, the effects that mast cells have on various inflammatory settings are closely associated with the enzymatic characteristics of tryptase, the main granule compound of mast cells. Tryptase degranulation is often linked with the development of an immune response, allergy, inflammation, and remodelling of tissue architecture...
March 12, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Tao Ye, Dongliang Sun, Tong Mu, Yi Chu, Hui Miao, Mian Zhang, Hongxu Yang, Qian Liu, Lei Lu, Xianghui Xing, Shibin Yu
The striking predilection of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in women, especially during gonad-intact puberty or reproductive years, indicates that oestrogen plays an important role in the progression of TMD, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, unilateral anterior crossbite (UAC) was used to create temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJ OA) models in rats, while 17β-estradiol (E2 ) injections were applied to mimic patients with high-physiological levels of oestrogen. Micro-CT scanning, histological staining and real-time PCR assays were preformed to observe the degenerative changes in the mandibular condylar cartilage and subchondral bone...
March 9, 2018: Bone
Rüdiger M Zimmerer, Nils-Claudius Gellrich, Sophie von Bülow, Edward Bradley Strong, Edward Ellis, Maximilian E H Wagner, Gregorio Sanchez Aniceto, Alexander Schramm, Michael P Grant, Lim Thiam Chye, Alvaro Rivero Calle, Frank Wilde, Daniel Perez, Gido Bittermann, Nicholas R Mahoney, Marta Redondo Alamillos, Joanna Bašić, Marc Metzger, Michael Rasse, Jan Dittman, Elke Rometsch, Kathrin Espinoza, Ronny Hesse, Carl-Peter Cornelius
PURPOSE: Reconstruction of orbital wall fractures is demanding and has improved dramatically with the implementation of new technologies. True-to-original accuracy of reconstruction has been deemed essential for good clinical outcome, and reasons for unfavorable clinical outcome have been researched extensively. However, no detailed analysis on the influence of plate position and surface contour on clinical outcome has yet been published. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from a previous study were used for an ad-hoc analysis to identify predictors for unfavorable outcome, defined as diplopia or differences in globe height and/or globe projection of >2 mm...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
Ulf Andersson, Huan Yang, Helena Harris
Alarmins are preformed, endogenous molecules that can be promptly released to signal cell or tissue stress or damage. The ubiquitous nuclear molecule high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) is a prototypical alarmin activating innate immunity. HMGB1 serves a dual alarmin function. The protein can be emitted to alert adjacent cells about endangered homeostasis of the HMGB1-releasing cell. In addition to this expected path of an alarmin, extracellular HMGB1 can be internalized via RAGE-receptor mediated endocytosis to the endolysosomal compartment while attached to other extracellular proinflammatory molecules...
March 9, 2018: Seminars in Immunology
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