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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667409/ionic-liquids-as-additives-to-polystyrene-b-poly-methyl-methacrylate-enabling-directed-self-assembly-of-patterns-with-sub-10-nm-features
#1
Xuanxuan Chen, Chun Zhou, Shuang-Jun Chen, Gordon S W Craig, Paulina Rincon-Delgadillo, Takahiro Dazai, Ken Miyagi, Takaya Maehashi, Akiyoshi Yamazaki, Roel Gronheid, Mark Stoykovich, Paul F Nealey
Polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) is one of the prototypical block copolymers (BCPs) in directed self-assembly (DSA) research and development, with standardized protocols in place for processing on industrially relevant 300 mm wafers. Scaling of DSA patterns to pitches below 20 nm using PS-b-PMMA, however, is hindered by the relatively low Flory-Huggins interaction parameter,χ. Here we investigate the approach of adding small amounts of ionic liquids (IL) into PS-b-PMMA, which selectively segregates into the PMMA domain and effectively increases the χ parameter and thus the pattern resolution...
April 18, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667378/alarming-results-of-nosocomial-infections-in-a-multicenter-program-of-surveillance-in-polish-intensive-care-units
#2
Michał Wałaszek, Anna Różańska, Małgorzata Bulanda, Jadwiga Wojkowska-Mach, Polish Society of Hospital Infections Team
INTRODUCTION: Nosocomial bloodstream infections (BSI) among patients in intensive care units (ICU) are the most common form of nosocomial infections and they are serious complications of the treatment process. The etiological factors of these infections and the proper antibiotic therapy can influence the effects of patient treatment. The aim of the study was to analyze the epidemiology, microbiology and antibiotic therapy of nosocomial BSI in Polish ICU patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The retrospective study covered patients hospitalized in seven ICUs for adults with a general profile, located in southern Poland...
2018: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667263/assumptions-made-when-preparing-drug-exposure-data-for-analysis-have-an-impact-on-results-an-unreported-step-in-pharmacoepidemiology-studies
#3
Stephen R Pye, Thérèse Sheppard, Rebecca M Joseph, Mark Lunt, Nadyne Girard, Jennifer S Haas, David W Bates, David L Buckeridge, Tjeerd P van Staa, Robyn Tamblyn, William G Dixon
PURPOSE: Real-world data for observational research commonly require formatting and cleaning prior to analysis. Data preparation steps are rarely reported adequately and are likely to vary between research groups. Variation in methodology could potentially affect study outcomes. This study aimed to develop a framework to define and document drug data preparation and to examine the impact of different assumptions on results. METHODS: An algorithm for processing prescription data was developed and tested using data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD)...
April 17, 2018: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667239/evaluation-of-a-nursing-student-health-fair-program-meeting-curricular-standards-and-improving-community-members-health
#4
John P Salerno, Evan McEwing, Yui Matsuda, Rosa M Gonzalez-Guarda, Olutola Ogunrinde, Mona Azaiza, Jessica R Williams
BACKGROUND: Public health nursing (PHN) is an essential component of baccalaureate nursing education. In order to build PHN competencies, universities must design and operationalize meaningful clinical activities addressing community and population health. Currently, there is a paucity of literature delineating best practices for promoting competency in PHN. AIMS: The purpose of this manuscript is to describe a PHN-student health fair program as a means for meeting undergraduate PHN curricular standards, and to report results of an evaluation conducted examining its effectiveness in improving community member's health knowledge...
April 17, 2018: Public Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667050/improving-and-monitoring-air-quality
#5
André DuPont
Since the authorization of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, the air quality in the USA has significantly improved because of strong public support. The lessons learned over the last 25 years are being shared with the policy analysts, technical professionals, and scientist who endeavor to improve air quality in their communities. This paper will review how the USA has achieved the "high" standard of air quality that was envisioned in the early 1990s. This document will describe SO2 gas emission reduction technology and highlight operation of emission monitoring technology...
April 17, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667017/underestimated-prevalence-of-heart-failure-in-hospital-inpatients-a-comparison-of-icd-codes-and-discharge-letter-information
#6
Mathias Kaspar, Georg Fette, Gülmisal Güder, Lea Seidlmayer, Maximilian Ertl, Georg Dietrich, Helmut Greger, Frank Puppe, Stefan Störk
BACKGROUND: Heart failure is the predominant cause of hospitalization and amongst the leading causes of death in Germany. However, accurate estimates of prevalence and incidence are lacking. Reported figures originating from different information sources are compromised by factors like economic reasons or documentation quality. METHODS: We implemented a clinical data warehouse that integrates various information sources (structured parameters, plain text, data extracted by natural language processing) and enables reliable approximations to the real number of heart failure patients...
April 17, 2018: Clinical Research in Cardiology: Official Journal of the German Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666527/intransience-of-functional-components-and-distinctive-properties-of-amla-indian-gooseberry-ice-cream-during-short-term-storage
#7
Rajpreet Kaur Goraya, Usha Bajwa
Inclusion of processed amla have been found to enhance the functional properties and nutritional value of ice cream by augmenting the fiber content, total phenols, tannins, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity. The present investigation assessed the changes in these constituents, color values (L, a* and b*), melting rate, sensory scores and microbiological quality of ice cream containing amla shreds, pulp, preserve, candy and powder during 60 days' storage at - 18 to - 20 °C. The total solids increased slightly whereas the antioxidant activity, total phenols, ascorbic acid and tannins decreased on storage...
May 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666461/the-neural-encoding-of-information-prediction-errors-during-non-instrumental-information-seeking
#8
Maja Brydevall, Daniel Bennett, Carsten Murawski, Stefan Bode
In a dynamic world, accurate beliefs about the environment are vital for survival, and individuals should therefore regularly seek out new information with which to update their beliefs. This aspect of behaviour is not well captured by standard theories of decision making, and the neural mechanisms of information seeking remain unclear. One recent theory posits that valuation of information results from representation of informative stimuli within canonical neural reward-processing circuits, even if that information lacks instrumental use...
April 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666158/qc-art-a-tool-for-real-time-quality-control-assessment-of-mass-spectrometry-based-proteomics-data
#9
Bryan A Stanfill, Ernesto S Nakayasu, Lisa M Bramer, Allison M Thompson, Charles K Ansong, Therese Clauss, Marina A Gritsenko, Matthew E Monroe, Ronald J Moore, Daniel J Orton, Paul D Piehowski, Athena A Schepmoes, Richard D Smith, Bobbie-Jo Webb-Robertson, Thomas O Metz, The Environmental Determinants Of Diabetes In The Young Teddy Study Group
Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based proteomics studies of large sample cohorts can easily require from months to years to complete. Acquiring consistent, high-quality data in such large-scale studies is challenging because of normal variations in instrumentation performance over time, as well as artifacts introduced by the samples themselves, such as those due to collection, storage and processing. Existing quality control methods for proteomics data primarily focus on post-hoc analysis to remove low-quality data that would degrade downstream statistics; they are not designed to evaluate the data in near real-time, which would allow for interventions as soon as deviations in data quality are detected...
April 17, 2018: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665710/significance-of-incidental-intra-articular-and-peri-articular-fdg-avid-foci-on-pet-ct
#10
Wayne B Cohen-Levy, Juan Pretell-Mazzini, Adam D Singer, Ty Subhawong, Dylan N Greif, Jean Jose
Background Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is a useful imaging adjunct in patients with sarcoma. Intra-articular and peri-articular 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) avid lesions are often discovered incidentally. Purpose To describe the etiology, appearance, and standardized uptake values (SUV) of incidentally detected FDG avid intra-articular and peri-articular foci in patients with sarcoma. Material and Methods The institutional sarcoma database between November 2011 and November 2016 was retrospectively reviewed...
January 1, 2018: Acta Radiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665309/association-between-operative-technique-and-intrusive-thoughts-on-health-related-quality-of-life-3-years-after-ape-elape-for-rectal-cancer-results-from-a-national-swedish-cohort-with-comparison-with-normative-swedish-data
#11
Mattias Prytz, Anna Ledebo, Eva Angenete, David Bock, Eva Haglind
The aim of this prospective registry-based population study was to investigate the association between QoL 3 years after surgery for rectal cancer and intrusive thoughts and to assess the association with the type of surgery (i.e., APE or ELAPE) in a population-based national cohort. ELAPE has been proposed as a superior surgical technique for distal rectal cancer, but long-term effects on QoL are not known. There are also no studies on the association of negative intrusive thoughts on patients' self-reported Quality of Life following surgery for distal rectal cancer...
April 17, 2018: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665183/age-related-changes-of-proinsulin-processing-in-diabetic-and-non-diabetic-japanese-individuals
#12
Hiroshi Yoshino, Kyoko Kawakami, Gen Yoshino, Takahisa Hirose
AIM: The present study was carried out to examine whether the insulin secretory mechanism deteriorates during the aging process using the new intact proinsulin assay system in non-diabetic and diabetic individuals. METHODS: A total of 172 participants were separated into four groups according to their age (<64 years and >65 years) and an association of type 2 diabetes; that is, 46 older diabetics (mean age 74.5 ± 6.2 years, glycated hemoglobin [National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program] 7...
April 17, 2018: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665140/review-functional-and-hybrid-imaging-of-bone-metastases
#13
Gary J R Cook, Vicky Goh
Bone metastases are common, cause significant morbidity and impact on healthcare resources. While radiographs, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and bone scintigraphy have frequently been used for staging the skeleton, it is recognized that these methods are insensitive and non-specific for monitoring treatment response in a clinically relevant time frame. We summarize several recent reports on new functional and hybrid imaging methods including single photon emission CT / CT, positron emission tomography / CT and whole-body MRI with diffusion-weighted imaging...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664973/introducing-automation-to-the-molecular-diagnosis-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-infection-a-comparative-study-of-sample-treatments-dna-extraction-methods-and-real-time-pcr-assays
#14
Alba Abras, Cristina Ballart, Teresa Llovet, Carme Roig, Cristina Gutiérrez, Silvia Tebar, Pere Berenguer, María-Jesús Pinazo, Elizabeth Posada, Joaquim Gascón, Alejandro G Schijman, Montserrat Gállego, Carmen Muñoz
BACKGROUND: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has become a useful tool for the diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi infection. The development of automated DNA extraction methodologies and PCR systems is an important step toward the standardization of protocols in routine diagnosis. To date, there are only two commercially available Real-Time PCR assays for the routine laboratory detection of T. cruzi DNA in clinical samples: TCRUZIDNA.CE (Diagnostic Bioprobes Srl) and RealCycler CHAG (Progenie Molecular)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664945/accuracy-reliability-and-timing-of-visual-evaluations-of-decay-in-fresh-cut-lettuce
#15
Ivan Simko, Ryan J Hayes
Visual assessments are used for evaluating the quality of food products, such as fresh-cut lettuce packaged in bags with modified atmosphere. We have compared the accuracy and the reliability of visual evaluations of decay on fresh-cut lettuce performed with experienced and inexperienced raters. In addition, we have analyzed decay data from over 4.5 thousand bags to determine the optimum timing for evaluations to detect differences among accessions. Lin's concordance coefficient (ρc) that takes into consideration both the closeness of the data and the conformance to the identity line showed high repeatability (intra-rater reliability, ρc = 0...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664944/ccl2-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-of-rs1024611-implicates-prominence-of-inflammatory-cascade-by-univariate-modeling-in-indian-amd
#16
Neel Kamal Sharma, Kaushal Sharma, Ramandeep Singh, Suresh Kumar Sharma, Akshay Anand
BACKGROUND: The role of chemotactic protein CCL2/MCP-1 has been widely explored in age related macular degeneration (AMD) patients as well as animal models through our previous studies. AIM: Aim of the study was to examine the association of another variance of CCL2, rs1024611 in pathophysiology of AMD. METHODS: This particular SNP has been found to be involved in inflammatory processes in various diseases. Total 171 subjects were recruited in the study with all demographic details by administering a standard questionnaire...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664654/annual-trends-of-gastrointestinal-cancers-mortality-in-iran-during-1990-2015-nasbod-study
#17
Hamideh Salimzadeh, Farnaz Delavari, Catherine Sauvaget, Negar Rezaee, Alireza Delavari, Farzad Kompani, Nazila Rezaei, Ali Sheidaei, Mitra Modirian, Rosa Haghshenas, Maryam Chegini, Kimiya Gohari, Hossein Zokaiee, Farshad Farzadfar, Reza Malekzadeh
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal (GI) neoplasms are among the most common cancers in Iran. This study aimed to measure annual trends in mortality rates from GI cancers in Iran between 1990 and 2015. METHODS: This study was part of an ongoing study termed the 'National and Subnational Burden of Diseases' study in Iran. Data used in this study was obtained from the Iranian Death Registration System (1995 to 2010) and from 2 major cemeteries in Tehran (1995 to 2010) and Isfahan (2007 to 2010)...
February 1, 2018: Archives of Iranian Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664415/model-based-optimal-multipolar-stimulation-without-a-priori-knowledge-of-nerve-structure-application-to-vagus-nerve-stimulation
#18
Melissa Dali, Olivier Rossel, David Andreu, Laure Laporte, Alfredo Hernandez, Jeremy Laforet, Eloi Marijon, Albert Hagège, Maureen Clerc, Christine Henry, David Guiraud
OBJECTIVE: Multipolar cuff electrode can selectively stimulate areas of peripheral nerves and therefore enable to control independent functions. However, the branching and fascicularization are known for a limited set of nerves and the specific organization remains subject-dependent. This paper presents a general modeling and optimization methods in the context of multipolar stimulation using a cuff electrode without a priori knowledge of the nerve structure. Vagus nerve stimulation experiments based on the optimization results were then investigated...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664187/exercise-interventions-and-patient-beliefs-for-people-with-hip-knee-or-hip-and-knee-osteoarthritis-a-mixed-methods-review
#19
REVIEW
Michael Hurley, Kelly Dickson, Rachel Hallett, Robert Grant, Hanan Hauari, Nicola Walsh, Claire Stansfield, Sandy Oliver
BACKGROUND: Chronic peripheral joint pain due to osteoarthritis (OA) is extremely prevalent and a major cause of physical dysfunction and psychosocial distress. Exercise is recommended to reduce joint pain and improve physical function, but the effect of exercise on psychosocial function (health beliefs, depression, anxiety and quality of life) in this population is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To improve our understanding of the complex inter-relationship between pain, psychosocial effects, physical function and exercise...
April 17, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664179/developing-and-pilot-testing-a-shared-decision-making-intervention-for-dialysis-choice
#20
Jeanette Finderup, Jens K D Jensen, Kirsten Lomborg
BACKGROUND: Evidence is inconclusive on how best to guide the patient in decision-making around haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis choice. International guidelines recommend involvement of the patient in the decision to choose the dialysis modality most suitable for the individual patient. Nevertheless, studies have shown lack of involvement of the patient in decision-making. OBJECTIVES: To develop and pilot test an intervention for shared decision-making targeting the choice of dialysis modality...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Renal Care
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