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Standard Process

Ulrich Hamann, Christine Ankel
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  After reviewing this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Understand the epidemiology of breast cancer, its incidence and impact. 2. Appreciate the importance of early diagnosis and treatment. 3. Understand the concept of comprehensive breast cancer management and its multidisciplinarity. 4. Be knowledgeable about the entire process required to manage breast cancer, since the early diagnosis until the management of non breast related conditions derived from the treatment...
February 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
D L Ma, X K Ma, L Liu, S Zhang
The objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition, DE and ME contents, and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in seven cottonseed co-products fed to growing pigs. The seven cottonseed co-products were: cottonseed meals (solvent extracted) with CP level of 46%, 50% and 55% (46CSM, 50CSM and 55CSM), cottonseed protein with CP level of 50% and 55% (50CSP and 55CSP), fermented cottonseed meal (CSMF), and expelled cottonseed meal (CSME). The DE and ME contents of the seven test ingredients were measured using 48 crossbreed barrows (BW: 44...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Eiji Haramoto, Masaaki Kitajima, Akihiko Hata, Jason R Torrey, Yoshifumi Masago, Daisuke Sano, Hiroyuki Katayama
Waterborne human enteric viruses, such as noroviruses and adenoviruses, are excreted in the feces of infected individuals and transmitted via the fecal-oral route including contaminated food and water. Since viruses are normally present at low concentrations in aquatic environments, they should be concentrated into smaller volumes prior to downstream molecular biological applications, such as quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). This review describes recent progress made in the development of concentration and detection methods of human enteric viruses in water, and discusses their applications for providing a better understanding of the prevalence of the viruses in various types of water worldwide...
February 8, 2018: Water Research
Jimmy Ly, Noel S Ha, Shilin Cheung, R Michael van Dam
Miniaturized synthesis of positron emission tomography (PET) tracers is poised to offer numerous advantages including reduced tracer production costs and increased availability of diverse tracers. While many steps of the tracer production process have been miniaturized, there has been relatively little development of microscale systems for the quality control (QC) testing process that is required by regulatory agencies to ensure purity, identity, and biological safety of the radiotracer before use in human subjects...
February 22, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Allison Tong, Benedicte Sautenet, Emilio D Poggio, Krista L Lentine, Rainer Oberbauer, Roslyn Mannon, Barbara Murphy, Benita Padilla, Kai Ming Chow, Lorna Marson, Steve Chadban, Jonathan C Craig, Angela Ju, Karine E Manera, Camilla S Hanson, Michelle A Josephson, Greg Knoll
BACKGROUND: Graft loss, a critically important outcome for transplant recipients, is variably defined and measured, and incompletely reported in trials. We convened a consensus workshop on establishing a core outcome measure for graft loss for all trials in kidney transplantation. METHODS: Twenty-five kidney transplant recipients/caregivers and 33 health professionals from eight countries participated. Transcripts were analyzed thematically. RESULTS: Five themes were identified...
February 22, 2018: Transplantation
Ergun Velidedeoglu, Marc W Cavaillé-Coll, Shukal Bala, Ozlem A Belen, Yan Wang, Renata Albrecht
BACKGROUND: Despite major advances in understanding the pathophysiology of antibody mediated rejection (AMR); prevention, diagnosis and treatment remain unmet medical needs. It appears that early T-cell mediated rejection (TCMR), de novo donor specific antibody (dnDSA) formation and AMR result from patient or physician initiated suboptimal immunosuppression, and represent landmarks in an ongoing process rather than separate events. METHODS: On April 12-13, 2017, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) sponsored a public workshop on AMR in kidney transplantation to discuss new advances, importance of immunosuppressive medication nonadherence in dnDSA formation, associations between AMR, cellular rejection, changes in GFR, and challenges of clinical trial design for the prevention and treatment of AMR...
February 20, 2018: Transplantation
Hanae Naceiri Mrabti, Karima Sayah, Nidal Jaradat, Faouzi Kichou, Abdelaziz Ed-Dra, Badiaa Belarj, Yahia Cherrah, My El Abbes Faouzi
Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) is currently a major health problem and the most common chronic disease worldwide. Traditional medicinal plants remedies remain a potential adjunct therapy to maintain better glycemic control while also imparting few side-effects. Arbutus unedo L. has been traditionally used to manage several diseases including diabetes. This study was undertaken to contribute the validation of the traditional use of Arbutus unedoL. (Ericaceae) in the treatment of diabetes. Methods In-vitro antidiabetic effect of the A...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Complementary & Integrative Medicine
Andreas E Steinhilber, Felix F Schmidt, Wael Naboulsi, Hannes Planatscher, Alicia Niedzwiecka, Jutta Zagon, Albert Braeuning, Alfonso Lampen, Thomas O Joos, Oliver Poetz
The ban of processed animal proteins (PAPs) in feed for farmed animals introduced in 2001 was one of the main EU measures to control the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) crisis. Currently, microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), are the official methods for the detection of illegal PAPs in feed. However, the progressive release of the feed ban, recently with the legalization of non-ruminant PAPs for the use in aquaculture, requires the development of alternative methods to determine the species origin and the source (legal or not)...
February 22, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Kamal K Pant, Dali R Burada, Mohamed Bichra, Amitava Ghosh, Gufran S Khan, Stefan Sinzinger, Chandra Shakher
In the present work, a spline-based integration technique for the reconstruction of a freeform wavefront from the slope data has been implemented. The slope data of a freeform surface contain noise due to their machining process and that introduces reconstruction error. We have proposed a weighted cubic spline based least square integration method (WCSLI) for the faithful reconstruction of a wavefront from noisy slope data. In the proposed method, the measured slope data are fitted into a piecewise polynomial...
February 10, 2018: Applied Optics
Hui Zeng, Fei Li, Xilong Yu, Dongbin Ou, Lianzhong Chen
In this paper, quantitative experiments were made to measure the concentration of key intermediate products (CO, N2 O, and NO) and the gas temperature for combustion flow based on near-infrared and mid-infrared laser absorption spectroscopy. This paper used the developed diagnostic system to study two main ignition modes of a real 1-Newton thruster based on ammonium dinitramide (ADN): steady-state firing and pulse-mode firing over a feed pressure of 5-12 bar. The steady-state firing experiments distinguished the whole process into catalytic decomposition stage and combustion stage, experimentally demonstrating the combustion kinetics mechanism of an ADN monopropellant...
February 20, 2018: Applied Optics
Rein Ketelaars, Christian Beekers, Geert-Jan Van Geffen, Gert Jan Scheffer, Nico Hoogerwerf
BACKGROUND: Patients in cardiac arrest must receive algorithm-based management such as basic life support and advanced (cardiac) life support. International guidelines dictate diagnosing and treating any factor that may have caused the arrest or may be complicating the resuscitation. Ultrasound may be of potential value in this process and can be used in a prehospital setting. The objective is to evaluate the use of prehospital ultrasound during traumatic and non-traumatic CPR and determine its impact on prehospital treatment decisions in a Dutch helicopter emergency medical service (HEMS)...
February 22, 2018: Prehospital Emergency Care
Zhang Li-Juan, Xu Zhi-Min, Qian Ying-Jun, Dang Hui, Lü Shan, Xu Jing, Li Shi-Zhu, Zhou Xiao-Nong
This report presents the endemic status of schistosomiasis in the People's Republic of China at national level in 2016, and analyzes the data collected from the national schistosomiasis prevention and control system and 454 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites. Among the 12 provinces (municipality and autonomous region) of endemic of schistosomiasis japonica in P. R. China, 5 provinces (municipality and autonomous region), i.e., Shanghai, Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong and Guangxi, had achieved elimination, and 7 provinces of Sichuan, Yunnan, Jiangsu, Hubei, Anhui, Jiangxi and Hunan had achieved transmission control by the end of 2016...
December 28, 2017: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
Sara Morgan
Simulation has been introduced in recent years into international nursing curricula. Many educational establishments have developed simulation centres that resemble the ward settings nursing students will be exposed to so that they can use the same equipment as they will in clinical practice. This is referred to as high fidelity simulation training (HFST). This article reflects on an example of a multidisciplinary HFST scenario in the context of the assessment and accountability and learning domains of the Nursing and Midwifery Council standards...
February 22, 2018: Nursing Management (Harrow)
Qiying Liu, Yuanming Guo, Xiumei Sun, Qing Hao, Xin Cheng, Lu Zhang
We propose a method for the simultaneous determination of 15 kinds of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in marine samples (muscle) employing gas chromatography with mass spectrometry after saponification reaction with ultrasonic and solid phase extraction. The experimental conditions were optimized by response surface method. In addition, the effects of different lye and extractants on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons extraction were discussed and the result was the saturated sodium carbonate was first used as the primary saponification reaction and extracted with 10 mL of ethyl acetate and the second time 1 mol/L of sodium hydroxide and 10 mL of n-hexane were used to achieve better results...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
Debbie Nisbet, Ann Robertson, Blessy Mannil, Vanessa Pincham, Andrew Mclennan
BACKGROUND: Nuchal translucency measurement has an established role in first trimester screening. Accurate measurement requires that technical guidelines are followed. Performance can be monitored by auditing the distribution of measurements obtained in a series of cases. AIMS: The primary aim is to develop an accessible, theory-based educational program for individuals whose distribution of measurements at audit falls outside an acceptable range, and assess operator performance following this intervention...
February 22, 2018: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Mike F Schmidt, Judd M Storrs, Kevin B Freeman, Clifford R Jack, Stephen T Turner, Michael E Griswold, Thomas H Mosley
MRI has become an indispensable tool for brain volumetric studies, with the hippocampus an important region of interest. Automation of the MRI segmentation process has helped advance the field by facilitating the volumetric analysis of larger cohorts and more studies. FreeSurfer has emerged as the de facto standard tool for these analyses, but studies validating its output are all based on older versions. To characterize FreeSurfer's validity, we compare several versions of FreeSurfer software with traditional hand-tracing...
February 21, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Rahel Heule, Zarko Celicanin, Sebastian Kozerke, Oliver Bieri
PURPOSE: To investigate the ability of simultaneous multislice triple-echo steady-state (SMS-TESS) imaging to provide quantitative maps of multiple tissue parameters, i.e., longitudinal and transverse relaxation times (T1 and T2 ), proton density (PD), and off-resonance (ΔB0 ), in the human brain at 3T from a single scan. METHODS: TESS acquisitions were performed in 2D mode to reduce motion sensitivity and accelerated by an SMS excitation scheme (CAIPIRINHA) with SENSE reconstruction...
February 21, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
M Adil Sbai
Advective particle tracking is a conventional groundwater modeling technique that is widely used as a screening tool but lacks robustness as a reliable method for general applications. In this work, we investigate the suitability of industry-standard, finite-difference, grid-based methods as an alternative to the conventional particle-tracking approach. The presented method is classified as a particular case of the more general forward- or backward-in-time advective-dispersive probabilistic transport approaches...
February 22, 2018: Ground Water
Jeffrey M Rogers, Greg Savage, Marcus A Stoodley
Displacement of the cerebellar tonsils in Chiari type I malformation (CMI) can affect functions controlled by the cerebellum and brainstem. While playing an integral role in the control of movement, the cerebellum also has widespread cortical connections, influencing a range of cognitive process. A systematic literature review was conducted to examine the relationship between cognition and CMI, assessing evidence for general or domain-specific cognitive change. The search protocol examined the AMED, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Scopus databases...
February 21, 2018: Neuropsychology Review
Jan-Peter Glossmann, Nicole Skoetz, Barbara Starbatty, Martina Bischoff, Serge Leyvraz, Henrike Westekemper, Ludwig M Heindl
BACKGROUND: In cases of rare cancer entities, such as malignant melanoma of the conjunctiva, there are often no evidence-based national guidelines available. Standard operating procedures (SOP) are an alternative in these cases. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this project was to develop a consensus SOP for diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up care of conjunctival melanomas between the 14 Centers of Excellence in Germany supported by German Cancer Aid. METHODS: The SOP was prepared according to a defined process including timelines, flow of information, and roles...
February 21, 2018: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
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