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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822889/metformin-targets-gastric-cancer-stem-cells
#1
Sarah Courtois, Raúl V Durán, Julie Giraud, Elodie Sifré, Julien Izotte, Francis Mégraud, Philippe Lehours, Christine Varon, Emilie Bessède
Gastric cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide and has still a poor prognosis. Therefore, new therapeutic strategies are needed: among them, targeting cancer stem cells (CSCs) could offer new opportunities. The aim of our study was to evaluate the anti-tumoural effect of metformin on gastric cancer in vitro and in vivo and especially, to determine whether this molecule could target the gastric CSCs. Metformin effects were evaluated on the proliferation and tumourigenic properties of the gastric CSCs from patient-derived primary tumour xenografts (PDXs) and cancer cell lines (MKN45, AGS and MKN74) in vitro in conventional 2 dimensional (2D) and in 3 dimensional (3D) culture systems, in which only CSCs are able to form tumourspheres and in mouse xenograft models in vivo...
August 17, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820960/principles-of-chemical-biology-iron-and-cscs-histone-acylation-sans-enzymes-eliciting-silent-gene-clusters-and-2-deoxy-adpr-as-a-second-messenger
#2
(no author information available yet)
This month: Lysosomal iron linked to cell death in cancer stem cells, non-enzymatic catalyst SynCAc for histone acylation, cytotoxins ivermectin and etoposide bring new anti-fungals out of the crypt, and 2'-deoxy-ADPR as second messenger activating TRPM2.
August 17, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819584/the-recent-advances-on-liver-cancer-stem-cells-biomarkers-separation-and-therapy
#3
REVIEW
Yanhong Xiao, Mei Lin, Xingmao Jiang, Jun Ye, Ting Guo, Yujuan Shi, Xuefeng Bian
As the third major reason of mortality related to cancer in the world, liver cancer is also the fifth most frequent cancer. Unluckily, a majority of patients succumb and relapse though many progresses have been made in detection and therapy of liver cancer. It has been put forward that in liver cancer, cancer stem cells (CSCs) hold main responsibility for the formation, invasion, metastasis, and recurrence of tumor. Strategies that are intended to target liver CSCs are playing a more and more significant role in supervising the development of liver cancer treatment and assessing new therapeutic methods...
2017: Analytical Cellular Pathology (Amsterdam)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819441/vsv-based-virotherapy-in-ovarian-cancer-the-past-the-present-and-%C3%A2-future
#4
REVIEW
Beata Urszula Orzechowska, Marcin Jędryka, Katarzyna Zwolińska, Rafał Matkowski
The standard approach to treating patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) after primary debulking surgery remains taxane and platinum-based chemotherapy. Despite treatment with this strategy, the vast majority of patients relapse and develop drug-resistant metastatic disease that may be driven by cancer stem cells (CSCs) or cancer initiating cells (CICs). Oncolytic viruses circumvent typical drug-resistance mechanisms, therefore they may provide a safe and effective alternative treatment for chemotherapy-resistant CSCs/CICs...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819374/variant-cd44-expression-is-enriching-for-a-cell-population-with-cancer-stem-cell-like-characteristics-in-human-lung-adenocarcinoma
#5
Makoto Nishino, Mari Ozaki, Ahmed E Hegab, Junko Hamamoto, Shizuko Kagawa, Daisuke Arai, Hiroyuki Yasuda, Katsuhiko Naoki, Kenzo Soejima, Hideyuki Saya, Tomoko Betsuyaku
Background: Preliminary studies have identified cancer stem cells (CSCs) in various cancers and there are several ongoing clinical studies targeting these cells. CD44 (standard or variant isoforms) and/or aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) expression is the most commonly used markers for the identification of CSCs. The goal of the current study was to examine the ability of CD44v, either alone or in combination with ALDH, to identify CSCs within human lung cancer cells lines. Methods: We examined several lung adenocarcinoma cell lines for the ability of CD44v and/or ALDH expression to enrich for cells with CSC characteristics such as in vitro differential proliferation rate, chemotherapeutic-resistance, tumorsphere formation, and in vivo tumorigenicity...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819364/the-crosstalk-between-ovarian-cancer-stem-cell-niche-and-the-tumor-microenvironment
#6
REVIEW
Manuel Varas-Godoy, Gregory Rice, Sebastián E Illanes
Ovarian cancer is one of the most important causes of cancer-related death among women in the world. Despite advances in ovarian cancer treatment, 70-80% of women who initially respond to therapy eventually relapse and die. There is evidence that a small population of cells within the tumors called cancer stem cells (CSCs) could be responsible for treatment failure due to their enhanced chemoresistance and tumorigenicity. These cells reside in a niche that maintains the principal properties of CSCs. These properties are associated with the capacity of CSCs to interact with different cells of the tumor microenvironment including mesenchymal stem cells, endothelial cells, immune cells, and fibroblasts, promoting cancer progression...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817737/myc-mediates-cancer-stem-like-cells-and-emt-changes-in-triple-negative-breast-cancers-cells
#7
Shuping Yin, Vino T Cheryan, Liping Xu, Arun K Rishi, Kaladhar B Reddy
Women with triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) have poor prognosis compared to other breast cancer subtypes. There were several reports indicating racial disparity in breast cancer outcomes between African American (AA) and European American (EA) women. For example, the mortality rates of AA breast cancer patients were three times higher than of EA patients, even though, the incidence is lower in AA women. Our in vitro studies indicate that cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) derived from AA TNBC cell lines have significantly higher self-renewal potential (mammosphere formation) than CSCs derived from EA cell lines...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816557/cd44-as-a-cancer-stem-cell-marker-and-its-prognostic-value-in-patients-with-ovarian-carcinoma
#8
Alena Bartakova, Kveta Michalova, Jiri Presl, Pavel Vlasak, Jan Kostun, Jiri Bouda
The aim of our study was to clarify whether the CD44 adhesion molecule as a cancer stem cell marker could also serve as a prognostic factor in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). A retrospective study was performed on 87 patients with histologically verified EOC. Specimens of both primary tumour and implantation metastases were tested from 48 of them. CD44 expression was detected by immunohistochemistry. We looked for the cut-off levels of CD44 expression using the Cox regression model. We confirmed statistically significant prognostic factors for overall survival (OS) and disease-free interval (DFI) to be: stage of the disease, postoperative residual tumour and papillary serous histological type...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802057/hmgb1-released-by-autophagic-cancer-associated-fibroblasts-maintains-the-stemness-of-luminal-breast-cancer-cells
#9
Xi-Long Zhao, Yong Lin, Jun Jiang, Zhuo Tang, Shuai Yang, Lu Lu, Yan Liang, Xue Liu, Jiao Tan, Xu-Gang Hu, Qin Niu, Wen-Juan Fu, Ze-Xuan Yan, De-Yu Guo, Yi-Fang Ping, Ji Ming Wang, Xia Zhang, Hsiang-Fu Kung, Xiu-Wu Bian, Xiao-Hong Yao
Cancer stem/initiating cells (CSCs/CICs) and their microenvironmental niche play a vital role in malignant tumour recurrence and metastasis. Cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are major components of the niche of breast cancer initiating cells (BCICs) and their interactions may profoundly affect breast cancer progression. Autophagy has been considered as a critical process for CIC maintenance, but whether it is involved in the cross-talk between CAFs and CICs to affect tumourigenesis and pathological significance remains elusive...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800308/cancer-stem-cells-as-functional-biomarkers
#10
Vito D'Andrea, Alessandra Panarese, Maya Tonda, Marco Biffoni, Massimo Monti
According to the American Association of Cancer Research (AACR), a Cancer Stem Cell is a cell within a tumor that possesses the capacity to self-renew and to cause the heterogeneous lineages of cancer cells that constitutes the tumor [1]. Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs) are involved in the metastatic process, in the resistance to therapeutic treatments of many types of human cancers and consequently in the onset of recurrences. Numerous translational studies have been conducted to understand CSC characteristics and evaluate association between CSC-related biomarkers and clinical outcomes...
July 31, 2017: Cancer Biomarkers: Section A of Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800128/adult-cardiac-stem-cells-are-multipotent-and-robustly-myogenic-c-kit-expression-is-necessary-but-not-sufficient-for-their-identification
#11
Carla Vicinanza, Iolanda Aquila, Mariangela Scalise, Francesca Cristiano, Fabiola Marino, Eleonora Cianflone, Teresa Mancuso, Pina Marotta, Walter Sacco, Fiona C Lewis, Liam Couch, Victoria Shone, Giulia Gritti, Annalaura Torella, Andrew J Smith, Cesare Mn Terracciano, Domenico Britti, Pierangelo Veltri, Ciro Indolfi, Bernardo Nadal-Ginard, Georgina M Ellison-Hughes, Daniele Torella
Multipotent adult resident cardiac stem cells (CSCs) were first identified by the expression of c-kit, the stem cell factor receptor. However, in the adult myocardium c-kit alone cannot distinguish CSCs from other c-kit-expressing (c-kit(pos)) cells. The adult heart indeed contains a heterogeneous mixture of c-kit(pos) cells, mainly composed of mast and endothelial/progenitor cells. This heterogeneity of cardiac c-kit(pos) cells has generated confusion and controversy about the existence and role of CSCs in the adult heart...
August 11, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800012/quality-assessment-of-prognostic-studies-using-cancer-stem-cell-markers-in-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#12
Marina G Teixeira, Luciana Corrêa
Cancer stem cells (CSC) have been investigated as prognostic markers in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). However, an assessment of the reporting quality of these studies has not been performed yet. The aim of this study was to describe the reporting quality of prognostic studies involving CSCs and OSCC, focusing mainly on the immunohistochemical reproducibility. By means a systematic review, 34 articles were selected. Analyses of both general reporting quality and immunohistochemistry technique were performed by using checklists for multiple aspects related to study reproducibility...
August 9, 2017: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797843/blockade-of-stearoyl-coa-desaturase-1-activity-reverts-resistance-to-cisplatin-in-lung-cancer-stem-cells
#13
Maria Elena Pisanu, Alessia Noto, Claudia De Vitis, Stefania Morrone, Giosuè Scognamiglio, Gerardo Botti, Federico Venuta, Daniele Diso, Ziga Jakopin, Fabrizio Padula, Alberto Ricci, Salvatore Mariotta, Maria Rosaria Giovagnoli, Enrico Giarnieri, Ivano Amelio, Massimiliano Agostini, Gerry Melino, Gennaro Ciliberto, Rita Mancini
Poor prognosis in lung cancer has been attributed to the presence of lung cancer stem cells (CSCs) which resist chemotherapy and cause disease recurrence. Hence, the strong need to identify mechanisms of chemoresistance and to develop new combination therapies. We have previously shown that Stearoyl-CoA-desaturase 1 (SCD1), the enzyme responsible for the conversion of saturated to monounsaturated fatty acids is upregulated in 3D lung cancer spheroids and is an upstream activator of key proliferation pathways β-catenin and YAP/TAZ...
August 7, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794264/liquid-phase-electron-microscopy-of-molecular-drug-response-in-breast-cancer-cells-reveals-irresponsive-cell-subpopulations-related-to-lack-of-her2-homodimers
#14
Diana B Peckys, Ulrike Korf, Stefan Wiemann, Niels de Jonge
The development of drug resistance in cancer poses a major clinical problem. An example is human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) overexpressing breast cancer often treated with anti-HER2 antibody therapies, such as trastuzumab. Since drug resistance is rooted mainly in tumor cell heterogeneity, we examined the drug effect in different subpopulations of SKBR3 breast cancer cells, and compared the results with a drug resistant cell line, HCC1954. Correlative light microscopy and liquid-phase scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) were used to quantitatively analyze HER2 responses upon drug binding, whereby many tens of whole cells were imaged...
August 9, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794048/hepatitis-c-virus-core-protein-modulates-endoglin-cd105-signaling-pathway-for-liver-pathogenesis
#15
Young-Chan Kwon, Reina Sasaki, Keith Meyer, Ranjit Ray
Endoglin is part of the TGF-β receptor complex and has a crucial role in fibrogenesis and angiogenesis. It is also an important protein for tumor growth, survival, and cancer cell metastasis. In our previous study, we have shown that hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition state (EMT) and cancer stem-like cell (CSC) properties in human hepatocytes. Our array data suggested that endoglin (CD105) mRNA is significantly upregulated in HCV associated CSCs. In this study, we have observed increased endoglin expression on the cell surface of HCV core expressing hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell line or immortalized human hepatocytes (IHH) and activation of its downstream signaling molecules...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793245/sox2-is-a-marker-for-stem-like-tumor-cells-in-bladder-cancer
#16
Fengyu Zhu, Weiqing Qian, Haojie Zhang, Yu Liang, Mingqing Wu, Yingyin Zhang, Xiuhong Zhang, Qian Gao, Yang Li
It has been reported that functionally distinct cancer stem cells (CSCs) exist in human bladder cancer (BCa). Here, we found that Sox2, a transcription factor that is well characterized as a marker for stem cells, is upregulated in both mouse and human BCa. Sox2 expression is absent in normal urothelial cells, but it begins to be expressed in pre-neoplastic bladder tumors and continues to be expressed in invasive mouse BCa. Using s as a reporter of Sox2 transcriptional expression, we demonstrated that Sox2-expressing cells mark a subpopulation of tumor cells that fuel the growth of established BCa...
August 8, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792135/gene-expression-profiling-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-derived-cancer-stem-like-cell-under-hypoxia
#17
Sung Hoon Choi, Sang Woo Lee, Minseon Ok, Kyung Sik Kim, Sungsik Kim, Sang Hoon Ahn
PURPOSE: Cancer stem like cells (CSCs), with unlimited self-renewal potential and other stem cell characteristics, occur in several cancers including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Although CSCs can initiate tumors, malignant proliferation, relapse and multi-drug resistance, the ways how to activate them still remain unknown. This study aims to evaluate whether CSC acquire tumorigenic characters under tumor hypoxia, analyzed by microarray analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CSCs were purified from HCC patients and Affymetrix microarray was used to investigate their gene expression profiles...
September 2017: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783177/autophagy-dependent-generation-of-axin2-cancer-stem-like-cells-promotes-hepatocarcinogenesis-in-liver-cirrhosis
#18
J Li, S B Hu, L Y Wang, X Zhang, X Zhou, B Yang, J H Li, J Xiong, N Liu, Y Li, Y Z Wu, Q C Zheng
Autophagy is a pathophysiological phenomenon in liver cirrhosis that can further progress into hepatocarcinoma. Liver cancer stem cells (CSCs) are believed to initiate hepatocarcinogenesis. To investigate the precise mechanism related to the origin of CSCs in liver cirrhosis and hepatocarcinogenesis, we labeled Axin2+ hepatic cells with EGFP in Axin2Cre;Rosa26EGFP transgenic rats, and then stratified clinical and rat liver cirrhosis samples by autophagy flux. Clinical follow-up and lineage tracing in transgenic rat liver cirrhosis revealed that while Axin2/EGFP+ hepatic cells were present in normal livers and cirrhotic livers without aberrant autophagy, hepatic Axin2/EGFP+CD90+ cells were generated exclusively in cirrhotic livers with aberrant autophagy and promoted hepatocarcinogenesis...
August 7, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782245/development-of-a-novel-robotic-platform-with-controllable-stiffness-manipulation-arms-for-laparoendoscopic-single-site-surgery-less
#19
Jianchen Wang, Shuxin Wang, Jinhua Li, Xiangyun Ren, Randall Miller Briggs
BACKGROUND: For current LESS robotic systems, the trade-off between dexterity and payload capability is always present. This paper presents a novel LESS robotic platform equipped with controllable stiffness manipulation arms. METHODS: Each manipulation arm with an articulated section and a controllable stiffness continuum section (CSCS) can be switched between a 7-DoF compliant status and 5-DoF rigid status according to the operation requirement. Screw theory and product exponential formula are used to quantify the kinematic performance...
August 6, 2017: International Journal of Medical Robotics + Computer Assisted Surgery: MRCAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779846/immune-modulation-by-a-cellular-network-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-breast-cancer-cell-subsets-implication-for-cancer-therapy
#20
Hussam S Eltoukhy, Garima Sinha, Caitlyn A Moore, Oleta A Sandiford, Pranela Rameshwar
The immune modulatory properties of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are mostly controlled by the particular microenvironment. Cancer stem cells (CSCs), which can initiate a clinical tumor, have been the subject of intense research. This review article discusses investigative studies of the roles of MSCs on cancer biology including on CSCs, and the potential as drug delivery to tumors. An understanding of how MSCs behave in the tumor microenvironment to facilitate the survival of tumor cells would be crucial to identify drug targets...
August 1, 2017: Cellular Immunology
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