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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671772/oncolytic-virotherapy-versus-cancer-stem-cells-a-review-of-approaches-and-mechanisms
#1
REVIEW
Shyambabu Chaurasiya, Nanhai G Chen, Susanne G Warner
A growing body of evidence suggests that a subset of cells within tumors are resistant to conventional treatment modalities and may be responsible for disease recurrence. These cells are called cancer stem cells (CSC), which share properties with normal stem cells including self-renewal, pluripotency, drug resistance, and the ability to maintain quiescence. While most conventional therapies can efficiently destroy rapidly dividing cancer cells comprising the bulk of a tumor, they often fail to kill the less abundant and quiescent CSCs...
April 19, 2018: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667344/concise-review-aggressive-colorectal-cancer-role-of-epithelial-cell-adhesion-molecule-in-cancer-stem-cells-and-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition
#2
REVIEW
Maximilian Boesch, Gilbert Spizzo, Andreas Seeber
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. In spite of various attempts to ameliorate outcome by escalating treatment, significant improvement is lacking particularly in the adjuvant setting. It has been proposed that cancer stem cells (CSCs) and the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) are at least partially responsible for therapy resistance in CRC. The epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) was one of the first CSC antigens to be described. Furthermore, an EpCAM-specific antibody (edrecolomab) has the merit of having launched the era of monoclonal antibody treatment in oncology in the 1990s...
April 17, 2018: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663476/mir-200c-a-tumor-suppressor-that-modulate-the-expression-of-cancer-stem-cells-markers-and-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-colorectal-cancer
#3
Fateme Karimi Dermani, Razieh Amini, Massoud Saidijam, Rezvan Najafi
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the most common gastrointestinal cancer worldwide. Due to the presence of populations of cancer stem cells (CSCs) that cause recurrence, the possibility of cancer treatment is very low. The aim of current study was to evaluate the inhibitory role of miR-200c on EMT, CSCs markers and β-catenin in HCT-116 and SW48 cell lines. The expression of miR-200c, EMT-related genes, CSCs markers, and β-catenin were quantified by qRT-PCR. Further, expression of β-catenin and EMT-related proteins, and migration were analyzed by Western blot, and migration assay kit, respectively...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663359/lncrna-dgcr5-contributes-to-csc-like-properties-via-modulating-mir-330-5p-cd44-in-nsclc
#4
Ren Wang, Hui-Xing Dong, Jian Zeng, Jing Pan, Xiao-Yan Jin
Non-coding RNAs can exert significant roles various cancers, including NSCLC. Previously, we indicated that lncRNA DGCR5 can promote lung cancer progression through inhibiting hsa-mir-22-3p. In our current study, we investigated the role of DGCR5 in cancer stem cell-like properties of NSCLC. CSCs have been recognized as the frequent cause of tumor metastasis, tumor recurrence, and chemotherapy resistance. Here, lung cancer stem cells were successfully enriched from the parental NSCLC A549, H460, and H1299 cells by using tumor sphere formation assays and side population (SP) assays...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663357/hpv16-increases-the-number-of-migratory-cancer-stem-cells-and-modulates-their-mirna-expression-profile-in-oropharyngeal-cancer
#5
Martin Hufbauer, Margaret Maltseva, Jeannine Meinrath, Axel Lechner, Dirk Beutner, Christian U Huebbers, Baki Akgül
Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) is a major risk for development of oropharyngeal squamous-cell-carcinoma (OPSCC). Although HPV+ OPSCC metastasize faster than HPV- tumors, they have a better prognosis. The molecular and cellular alterations underlying this pathobiology of HPV+ OPSCC remain elusive. In this study we examined whether expression of HPV16-E6E7 targets the number of migratory and stationary cancer-stem-cells (CSC). Furthermore, we wanted to elucidate if aberrantly expressed miRNAs in migratory CSC may be responsible for progression of OPSCCs and whether they may serve as potential novel biomarkers for increased potential of metastasis...
April 16, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662326/cd133-promotes-adhesion-to-the-ovarian-cancer-metastatic-niche
#6
Lynn Roy, Alexander Bobbs, Rachel Sattler, Jeffrey L Kurkewich, Paige B Dausinas, Prakash Nallathamby, Karen D Cowden Dahl
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are an attractive therapeutic target due to their predicted role in both metastasis and chemoresistance. One of the most commonly agreed on markers for ovarian CSCs is the cell surface protein CD133. CD133+ ovarian CSCs have increased tumorigenicity, resistance to chemotherapy, and increased metastasis. Therefore, we were interested in defining how CD133 is regulated and whether it has a role in tumor metastasis. Previously we found that overexpression of the transcription factor, ARID3B , increased the expression of PROM1 (CD133 gene) in ovarian cancer cells in vitro and in xenograft tumors...
2018: Cancer Growth and Metastasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660733/an-analysis-of-belgian-cannabis-social-clubs-supply-practices-a-shapeshifting-model
#7
Mafalda Pardal
BACKGROUND AND RESEARCH QUESTIONS: Cannabis Social Clubs (CSCs) are associations of cannabis users that collectively organize the cultivation and distribution of cannabis. As this middle ground supply model has been active in Belgium for over a decade, this paper aims to examine CSCs' supply practices, noting any shifts from previously reported features of the model. METHODS: We draw on interviews with directors of seven currently active Belgian CSCs (n = 21) and their cannabis growers (n = 23)...
April 13, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660692/aggressive-phenotype-of-cells-disseminated-via-hematogenous-and-lymphatic-route-in-breast-cancer-patients
#8
Aleksandra Markiewicz, Anna Nagel, Jolanta Szade, Hanna Majewska, Jaroslaw Skokowski, Barbara Seroczynska, Tomasz Stokowy, Marzena Welnicka-Jaskiewicz, Anna J Zaczek
Intratumoral heterogeneity of breast cancer remains a major challenge in successful treatment. Failure of cancer therapies can also be accredited to inability to systemically eradicate cancer stem cells (CSCs). Recent evidence points to the role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in expanding the pool of tumor cells with CSCs features. Thus, we assessed expression level as well as heterogeneity of CSCs markers in primary tumors (PT), lymph node metastasis (LNM), and circulating tumor cells (CTCs)-enriched blood fractions in order to correlate them with signs of EMT activation as well as clinicopathological data of breast cancer patients...
April 13, 2018: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660229/extracellular-matrix-composition-modulates-pdac-parenchymal-and-stem-cell-plasticity-and-behavior-through-the-secretome
#9
Giulia Biondani, Katrine Zeeberg, Maria Raffaella Greco, Stefania Cannone, Ilaria Dando, Elisa Dalla Pozza, Maria Mastrodonato, Stefania Forciniti, Valeria Casavola, Marta Palmieri, Stephan Joel Reshkin, Rosa Angela Cardone
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal cancers. Its aggressiveness is driven by an intense fibrotic desmoplastic reaction in which the increasingly collagen I-rich extracellular matrix (ECM) and several cell types, including cancer stem cells (CSCs), create a tumor-supportive environment. However, how ECM composition regulates CSC dynamics and their relationship to the principal parenchymal tumor population to promote early invasive growth is not yet characterized. For this we utilized a platform of 3D organotypic cultures composed of laminin-rich Matrigel, representative of an early tumor, plus increasing concentrations of collagen I to simulate malignant stroma progression...
April 16, 2018: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658109/pge-2-ep-4-antagonism-enhances-tumor-chemosensitivity-by-inducing-extracellular-vesicle-mediated-clearance-of-cancer-stem-cells
#10
Meng-Chieh Lin, Shih-Yin Chen, Pei- Lin He, Harvey Herschman, Hua-Jung Li
Cells expressing mesenchymal/basal phenotypes in tumors have been associated with stem cell properties. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are often resistant to conventional chemotherapy. We explored overcoming mesenchymal CSC resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. Our goal was to reduce CSC numbers in vivo, in conjunction with chemotherapy, to reduce tumor burden. Analysis of clinical samples demonstrated that COX-2/PGE2 /EP4 signaling is elevated in basal-like and chemoresistant breast carcinoma and is correlated with survival and relapse of breast cancer...
April 15, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653339/natural-killer-cells-target-and-differentiate-cancer-stem-like-cells-undifferentiated-tumors-strategies-to-optimize-their-growth-and-expansion-for-effective-cancer-immunotherapy
#11
REVIEW
Kawaljit Kaur, Milica Perišić Nanut, Meng-Wei Ko, Tahmineh Safaie, Janko Kos, Anahid Jewett
Natural killer (NK) cells are known to select and differentiate cancer stem-like cells/undifferentiated tumors via lysis, and secreted/membrane bound IFN-γ and TNF-α respectively, resulting in the control of tumor growth. Several in vivo mouse models including humanized-BLT mice have been used to study the biology and significance of NK cells in selection/differentiation of stem-like tumors within the context of a reconstituted human immune system. In addition, we discuss the evidence and significance of NK cell loss at the pre-neoplastic stage...
April 10, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653268/bbi608-inhibits-cancer-stemness-and-reverses-cisplatin-resistance-in-nsclc
#12
Lauren MacDonagh, Steven G Gray, Eamon Breen, Sinead Cuffe, Stephen P Finn, Kenneth J O'Byrne, Martin P Barr
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While partial or complete tumor regression can be achieved in patients, particularly with cisplatin-based strategies, these initial responses are frequently short-lived and are followed by tumor relapse and chemoresistance. Identifying the root of cisplatin resistance in NSCLC and elucidating the mechanism(s) of tumor relapse, is of critical importance in order to determine the point of therapeutic failure, which in turn, will aid the discovery of novel therapeutics, new combination strategies and a strategy to enhance the efficacy of current chemotherapeutics...
April 10, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651165/the-mitochondrial-citrate-carrier-slc25a1-drives-stemness-and-therapy-resistance-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#13
Harvey R Fernandez, Shreyas M Gadre, Mingjun Tan, Garrett T Graham, Rami Mosaoa, Martin S Ongkeko, Kyu Ah Kim, Rebecca B Riggins, Erika Parasido, Iacopo Petrini, Simone Pacini, Amrita Cheema, Rency Varghese, Habtom W Ressom, Yuwen Zhang, Christopher Albanese, Aykut Üren, Mikell Paige, Giuseppe Giaccone, Maria Laura Avantaggiati
Therapy resistance represents a clinical challenge for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), which still remains an incurable disease. There is growing evidence that cancer-initiating or cancer stem cells (CSCs) provide a reservoir of slow-growing dormant populations of cells with tumor-initiating and unlimited self-renewal ability that are left behind by conventional therapies reigniting post-therapy relapse and metastatic dissemination. The metabolic pathways required for the expansion of CSCs are incompletely defined, but their understanding will likely open new therapeutic opportunities...
April 12, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650269/current-perspectives-on-the-crosstalk-between-lung-cancer-stem-cells-and-cancer-associated-fibroblasts
#14
REVIEW
Cristina Alguacil-Núñez, Inés Ferrer-Ortiz, Elena García-Verdú, Pilar López-Pirez, Irene Maria Llorente-Cortijo, Bruno Sainz
Lung cancer, in particular non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), is the second most common cancer in both men and women and the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Its prognosis and diagnosis are determined by several driver mutations and diverse risk factors (e.g. smoking). While immunotherapy has proven effective in some patients, treatment of NSCLC using conventional chemotherapy is largely ineffective. The latter is believed to be due to the existence of a subpopulation of stem-like, highly tumorigenic and chemoresistant cells within the tumor population known as cancer stem cells (CSC)...
May 2018: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649113/new-and-old-genes-associated-with-primary-and-established-responses-to-paclitaxel-treatment-in-ovarian-cancer-cell-lines
#15
Monika Świerczewska, Andrzej Klejewski, Maciej Brązert, Dominika Kaźmierczak, Dariusz Iżycki, Michał Nowicki, Maciej Zabel, Radosław Januchowski
Development of drug resistance is the main reason for low chemotherapy effectiveness in treating ovarian cancer. Paclitaxel (PAC) is a chemotherapeutic drug used in the treatment of this cancer. We analysed the development of PAC resistance in two ovarian cancer cell lines. Exposure of drug-sensitive cell lines (A2780 and W1) to PAC was used to determine the primary response. An established response was determined in PAC-resistant sublines of the A2780 and W1 cell lines. qRT-PCR was performed to measure the expression levels of specific genes...
April 12, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644941/role-of-micrornas-in-treatment-response-in-prostate-cancer
#16
Anshuli Razdan, Paul de Souza, Tara Laurie Roberts
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common non-skin cancer in men worldwide, resulting in significant mortality and morbidity. Depending on the grade and stage of the cancer, patients may be given radiation therapy, hormonal therapy, or chemotherapy. However, more than half these patients develop resistance to treatment, leading to disease progression and metastases, often with lethal consequences. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, non-coding RNAs, which regulate numerous physiological as well as pathological processes, including cancer...
March 15, 2018: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644711/outlining-involvement-of-stem-cell-program-in-regulation-of-o6-methylguanine-dna-methyltransferase-and-development-of-temozolomide-resistance-in-glioblastoma-an-editorial-highlight-for-transcriptional-control-of-o-6-methylguanine-dna-methyltransferase-expression
#17
EDITORIAL
Anastasia Chumakova, Justin D Lathia
Glioblastoma is a malignant brain tumor that inevitably develops resistance to standard of care drug temozolomide (TMZ) due to a population of cells called cancer stem cells (CSCs). These cells utilize progenitor cell signaling programs and develop robust DNA repair machinery. In this editorial highlight we focus on stem cell regulation of TMZ resistance and discuss findings of Happold et al. () that outline direct transcriptional regulation of DNA repair enzyme O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) in glioblastoma CSCs through NFkB activation...
March 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29630108/expression-of-embryonic-liver-fodrin-elf-and-stem-cell-markers-in-cd13-liver-cancer-stem-cells
#18
G Yu, Q Wen
OBJECTIVE: Investigating the molecular signaling pathways using CD13 as a marker for Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs) in human liver cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In the present study, liver carcinoma biopsies were obtained from the liver cancer patients, as well as healthy controls. Immunohistochemistry and Immunoblotting experiments were performed accordingly to conclude the data. RESULTS: Immunohistochemistry along with immunoblot data showed the expression of Oct-4, STAT3 and interestingly Embryonic Liver Fodrin (ELF) in the CD13 positive liver cancer stem cells...
March 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627827/lgr5-cd44-epcam-strictly-defines-cancer-stem-cells-in-human-colorectal-cancer
#19
Zhengwei Leng, Qinghua Xia, Jinhuang Chen, Yong Li, Jiqian Xu, Ende Zhao, Hai Zheng, Walden Ai, Jiangchuan Dong
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Although EpCAM+CD44+ cells exhibit more stem-like properties than did EpCAM-CD44- cells, the specificity of EpCAM combined with CD44 in defining CSCs needs further improvement. Lgr5 is used as a biomarker to isolate cancer stem cells (CSCs) in colorectal cancer. However, it remains unclear whether Lgr5, along with EpCAM and CD44, can further identify and define CSCs in colorectal cancer. METHODS: Lgr5+CD44+EpCAM+, Lgr5+CD44+EpCAM-, Lgr5+CD44-EpCAM+, Lgr5-CD44+EpCAM+, and Lgr5-CD44-EpCAM-cells were separately isolated using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS)...
March 29, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627822/gambogic-acid-efficiently-kills-stem-like-colorectal-cancer-cells-by-upregulating-zfp36-expression
#20
Fang Wei, Tong Zhang, Zhi Yang, Jian-Chang Wei, Hong-Fen Shen, Dong Xiao, Qiang Wang, Ping Yang, Hua-Cui Chen, He Hu, Zhuan-Peng Chen, Qing Huang, Wang-Lin Li, Jie Cao
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Gambogic acid (GA), the main active compound of Gamboge hanburyi, has been reported to be a potential novel antitumor drug. Whether GA inhibits putative cancer stem cells (CSCs), which are considered to be the major cause of cancer treatment failure, remains largely unknown. This study investigated whether GA inhibits the CSCs of colorectal cancer (CRC) and its possible mechanisms. METHODS: We performed CCK8 and tumor sphere formation assays, percentage analysis of both side population and CD133+CD44+ cells, and the detection of stem cells markers, in order to assess the role of GA in inhibiting the stem celllike features of CRC...
March 29, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
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