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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337221/cancer-stem-cells-and-their-microenvironment-biology-and-therapeutic-implications
#1
REVIEW
Eunice Yuen-Ting Lau, Nicole Pui-Yu Ho, Terence Kin-Wah Lee
Tumor consists of heterogeneous cancer cells including cancer stem cells (CSCs) that can terminally differentiate into tumor bulk. Normal stem cells in normal organs regulate self-renewal within a stem cell niche. Likewise, accumulating evidence has also suggested that CSCs are maintained extrinsically within the tumor microenvironment, which includes both cellular and physical factors. Here, we review the significance of stromal cells, immune cells, extracellular matrix, tumor stiffness, and hypoxia in regulation of CSC plasticity and therapeutic resistance...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336807/pmp22-regulates-self-renewal-and-chemoresistance-of-gastric-cancer-cells
#2
Wangyu Cai, Gang Chen, Qicong Luo, Jun Liu, Xiaofeng Guo, Tian Zhang, Fei Ma, Liang Yuan, Boan Li, Jianchun Cai
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) possess self-renewal and chemoresistance activities. However, the manner in which these features are maintained remains obscure. We sought to identify cell surface protein(s) that mark self-renewing and chemoresistant gastric cancer cells using the Explorer Antibody Microarray. We identified PMP22, a target gene of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, as the most upregulated cell surface protein in gastric cancer xenografts exposed to cisplatin (DDP). PMP22 expression was markedly upregulated in tumorspheric cells and declined with differentiation...
March 23, 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334765/the-operational-context-of-care-sport-connectors-in-the-netherlands
#3
K E F Leenaars, E C van der Velden-Bollemaat, E Smit, A Wagemakers, G R M Molleman, M A Koelen
To stimulate physical activity (PA) and guide primary care patients towards local sport facilities, Care Sport Connectors (CSCs), to whom a broker role has been ascribed, were introduced in 2012 in the Netherlands. The aim of this study is to describe CSCs' operational context. A theoretical framework was developed and used as the starting point for this study. Group interviews were held with policymakers in nine participating municipalities, and, when applicable, the CSC's manager was also present. Prior to the interviews, a first outline of the operational context was mapped, based on the analysis of policy documents and a questionnaire completed by the policymakers...
February 22, 2017: Health Promotion International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328815/strobe-compliant-integrin-through-focal-adhesion-involve-in-cancer-stem-cell-and-multidrug-resistance-of-ovarian-cancer
#4
Luwei Wei, Fuqiang Yin, Wei Zhang, Li Li
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are considered to be the root of carcinoma relapse and drug resistance in ovarian cancer. Hunting for the potential CSC genes and explain their functions would be a feasible strategy to meet the challenge of the drug resistance in ovarian cancer. In this study, we performed bioinformatic approaches such as biochip data extraction and pathway enrichment analyses to elucidate the mechanism of the CSC genes in regulation of drug resistance. Potential key genes, integrins, were identified to be related to CSC in addition to their associations with drug resistance and prognosis in ovarian cancer...
March 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323021/the-challenge-of-targeting-cancer-stem-cells-to-halt-metastasis
#5
REVIEW
Alice Agliano, Alfonso Calvo, Carol Box
Despite a continuing debate about the existence of cancer stem cells (CSCs), recent discoveries have provided further support for their existence and their roles in drug resistance, cancer recurrence and metastasis. CSC characteristics, such as self-renewal and tumour initiation, and supporting cellular processes, particularly the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, are attracting a great deal of attention from cancer researchers as they offer opportunities for discovering novel therapeutic targets for future drug development...
March 16, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322181/epithelial-mesenchymal-and-hybrid-epithelial-mesenchymal-phenotypes-and-their-clinical-relevance-in-cancer-metastasis
#6
Minal Garg
Cancer metastasis occurs through local invasion of circulating tumour cells (CTCs), intravasation, transportation to distant sites, and their extravasation followed by colonisation at secondary sites. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a normal developmental phenomenon, but its aberrant activation confers tumour cells with enhanced cell motility, metastatic properties, resistant to therapies and cancer stem cell (CSC) phenotype in epithelium-derived carcinoma. Experimental studies from various research papers have been reviewed to determine the factors, which interlink cancer stemness and cellular plasticity with EMT...
March 21, 2017: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321397/the-identification-of-three-cancer-stem-cell-subpopulations-within-moderately-differentiated-lip-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#7
Rachna Ram, Helen D Brasch, Jonathan C Dunne, Paul F Davis, Swee T Tan, Tinte Itinteang
AIM: To identify and characterize cancer stem cells (CSCs) in moderately differentiated lip squamous cell carcinoma (MDLSCC). METHOD: MDLSCC samples underwent 3,3-diaminobenzidine (DAB) immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for squamous cell carcinoma marker EMA, CSC marker CD44 and embryonic stem cell markers NANOG, octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4), spalt-like transcription factor 4 (SALL4), sex-determining region Y-box 2 (SOX2), and phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (pSTAT3)...
2017: Frontiers in Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321046/tobacco-nitrosamine-nnk-increases-aldh-positive-cells-via-ros-wnt-signaling-pathway-in-a549-human-lung-cancer-cells
#8
Naoya Hirata, Shigeru Yamada, Yuko Sekino, Yasunari Kanda
Epidemiological studies suggest that lung cancer, which is a major cause of cancer death, has a critical association with cigarette smoking. Tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) in cigarette smoke is a major risk factor for carcinogenesis. However, the mechanisms by which NNK promotes cancer development have not been fully elucidated. Growing evidence suggests that lung cancer originates from cancer stem cells (CSCs), which are a minor population of lung cancer cells...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301871/a-unified-model-of-the-hierarchical-and-stochastic-theories-of-gastric-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Yanjing Song, Yao Wang, Chuan Tong, Hongqing Xi, Xudong Zhao, Yi Wang, Lin Chen
Gastric cancer (GC) is a life-threatening disease worldwide. Despite remarkable advances in treatments for GC, it is still fatal to many patients due to cancer progression, recurrence and metastasis. Regarding the development of novel therapeutic techniques, many studies have focused on the biological mechanisms that initiate tumours and cause treatment resistance. Tumours have traditionally been considered to result from somatic mutations, either via clonal evolution or through a stochastic model. However, emerging evidence has characterised tumours using a hierarchical organisational structure, with cancer stem cells (CSCs) at the apex...
March 16, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300837/a-cd44v-subpopulation-of-breast-cancer-stem-like-cells-with-enhanced-lung-metastasis-capacity
#10
Jing Hu, Gang Li, Peiyuan Zhang, Xueqian Zhuang, Guohong Hu
Cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) are a subpopulation of cancer cells responsible for tumor growth, and recent evidence suggests that CSCs also contribute to cancer metastasis. However, the heterogeneity of CSCs in metastasis capacities is still unclear in breast cancer. Here we show that among the CD24(-)/CD44(+) breast CSCs, a subset expressing the variant isoform of CD44 (CD44v) displays significantly higher capacity of lung metastasis than that expressing the standard CD44 isoform CD44s. Increasing or reducing the CD44v/CD44s ratio of breast cancer cells by regulating the expression of epithelial splicing regulatory protein 1 (ESRP1) leads to promotion or suppression of lung metastasis without influencing cancer cell stemness...
March 16, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298340/pre-clinical-validation-of-a-selective-anti-cancer-stem-cell-therapy-for-numb-deficient-human-breast-cancers
#11
Daniela Tosoni, Sarah Pambianco, Blanche Ekalle Soppo, Silvia Zecchini, Giovanni Bertalot, Giancarlo Pruneri, Giuseppe Viale, Pier Paolo Di Fiore, Salvatore Pece
The cell fate determinant Numb is frequently downregulated in human breast cancers (BCs), resulting in p53 inactivation and an aggressive disease course. In the mouse mammary gland, Numb/p53 downregulation leads to aberrant tissue morphogenesis, expansion of the stem cell compartment, and emergence of cancer stem cells (CSCs). Strikingly, CSC phenotypes in a Numb-knockout mouse model can be reverted by Numb/p53 restoration. Thus, targeting Numb/p53 dysfunction in Numb-deficient human BCs could represent a novel anti-CSC therapy...
March 15, 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298252/reduced-circulating-stem-cells-associate-with-excess-fasting-and-post-load-nefa-exposure-in-healthy-adults-with-normal-glucose-tolerance
#12
Gian Paolo Fadini, Andrea Tura, Giovanni Pacini, Angelo Avogaro, Saula Vigili de Kreutzenberg
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Reduced levels of circulating stem cells (CSCs) predict cardiovascular events and death, but the factors underlying variability of CSCs in healthy adults are mostly unknown. Previous studies detected associations of CSCs with glucose tolerance or insulin resistance, while the role of fatty acids has been overlooked. We herein aimed to describe in better detail the metabolic abnormalities associated with a reduced CSC level. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study on 94 healthy male and female individuals with normal glucose tolerance, aged 18-65 years...
March 6, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297639/enhanced-directional-migration-of-cancer-stem-cells-in-3d-aligned-collagen-matrices
#13
Arja Ray, Zachary M Slama, Rachel K Morford, Samantha A Madden, Paolo P Provenzano
Directed cell migration by contact guidance in aligned collagenous extracellular matrix (ECM) is a critical enabler of breast cancer dissemination. The mechanisms of this process are poorly understood, particularly in 3D, in part because of the lack of efficient methods to generate aligned collagen matrices. To address this technological gap, we propose a simple method to align collagen gels using guided cellular compaction. Our method yields highly aligned, acellular collagen constructs with predictable microstructural features, thus providing a controlled microenvironment for in vitro experiments...
March 14, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290053/targeting-cancer-stem-cells-by-using-chimeric-antigen-receptor-modified-t-cells-a-potential-and-curable-approach-for-cancer-treatment
#14
REVIEW
Yelei Guo, Kaichao Feng, Yao Wang, Weidong Han
Cancer stem cells (CSCs), a subpopulation of tumor cells, have self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation abilities that play an important role in cancer initiation, maintenance, and metastasis. An accumulation of evidence indicates that CSCs can cause conventional therapy failure and cancer recurrence because of their treatment resistance and self-regeneration characteristics. Therefore, approaches that specifically and efficiently eliminate CSCs to achieve a durable clinical response are urgently needed...
March 13, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289331/screening-of-breast-cancer-stem-cell-inhibitors-using-a-protein-kinase-inhibitor-library
#15
Hack Sun Choi, Dal-Ah Kim, Heesung Chung, In Ho Park, Bo Hye Kim, Eok-Soo Oh, Duk-Hee Kang
BACKGROUND: Cancer stem cells (CSCs), a subpopulation in tumors, are known to cause drug resistance, tumor recurrence and metastasis. Based on the characteristic formation of mammospheres in in vitro conditions, the mammosphere formation assay has become an essential tool for quantifying CSC activity in breast cancer research. However, manual counting of mammospheres is a time-consuming process that is not amenable to high-throughput screening, and there are occasional inaccuracies in the process of determining the mammosphere diameter...
2017: Cancer Cell International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289330/the-heterogeneity-of-cancer-stem-like-cells-at-the-invasive-front
#16
Go J Yoshida
Cancer stem-like cells exhibit the multi-functional roles to survive and persist for a long period in the minimal residual disease after the conventional anti-cancer treatments. Cancer stem-like cells of solid malignant tumors which highly express CD44v8-10, the variant isoform of CD44 generated by alternative splicing, has a resistance to redox stress by the robust production of glutathione mediated by ESRP1-CD44v-xCT (cystine/glutamate antiporter) axis. It has been reported that CD44v and c-Myc tend to show the inversed expression pattern at the invasive front of the aggressive tumors...
2017: Cancer Cell International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288873/a-3d-model-of-tumour-angiogenic-microenvironment-to-monitor-hypoxia-effects-on-cell-interactions-and-cancer-stem-cell-selection
#17
Krzysztof Klimkiewicz, Kazimierz Weglarczyk, Guillaume Collet, Maria Paprocka, Alan Guichard, Michal Sarna, Alicja Jozkowicz, Jozef Dulak, Tadeusz Sarna, Catherine Grillon, Claudine Kieda
Tumour microenvironment determines the fate of treatments. Reconstitution of tumour conditions is mandatory for alternative in vitro methods devoted to cancer development and the selection of therapeutic strategies. This work describes a 3D model of melanoma growth in its environment. Introducing means to mimic tumour angiogenesis, which turns on tumour progression, the model shows that melanoma tumour spheroids allow reconstitution of solid tumours with stromal cells. Angiogenesis evidenced the differential recruitment of endothelial cells (EC) from early progenitors (EEPCs) to mature ECs...
March 10, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288645/mesothelin-promotes-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-and-tumorigenicity-of-human-lung-cancer-and-mesothelioma-cells
#18
Xiaoqing He, Liying Wang, Heimo Riedel, Kai Wang, Yong Yang, Cerasela Zoica Dinu, Yon Rojanasakul
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer and pleural mesothelioma are two of the most deadly forms of cancer. The prognosis of lung cancer and mesothelioma is extremely poor due to limited treatment modalities and lack of understanding of the disease mechanisms. We have identified mesothelin as a potentially unique therapeutic target that as a specific advantage appears nonessential in most cell types. Mesothelin (MSLN), a plasma membrane differentiation antigen, is expressed at a high level in many human solid tumors, including 70% of lung cancer and nearly all mesotheliomas...
March 14, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287611/fam83a-is-amplified-and-promotes-cancer-stem-cell-like-traits-and-chemoresistance-in-pancreatic-cancer
#19
S Chen, J Huang, Z Liu, Q Liang, N Zhang, Y Jin
Cancer stem cells (CSCs), also known as tumor-initiating cells (TICs), contribute to tumorigenesis, resistance to chemoradiotherapy and recurrence in human cancers, suggesting targeting CSCs may represent a potential therapeutic strategy. In the current study, we found family with sequence similarity 83, member A (FAM83A) is significantly overexpressed and associated with poorer overall survival and disease-free survival in pancreatic cancer. Overexpression of FAM83A markedly promoted, whereas inhibition of FAM83A decreased, CSC-like traits and chemoresistance both in vitro and in an in vivo mouse model of pancreatic cancer...
March 13, 2017: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285905/targeting-bmi1-cancer-stem-cells-overcomes-chemoresistance-and-inhibits-metastases-in-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#20
Demeng Chen, Mansi Wu, Yang Li, Insoon Chang, Quan Yuan, Mari Ekimyan-Salvo, Peng Deng, Bo Yu, Yongxin Yu, Jiaqiang Dong, John M Szymanski, Sivakumar Ramadoss, Jiong Li, Cun-Yu Wang
Squamous cell carcinoma in the head and neck (HNSCC) is a common yet poorly understood cancer, with adverse clinical outcomes due to treatment resistance, recurrence, and metastasis. Putative cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been identified in HNSCC, and BMI1 expression has been linked to these phenotypes, but optimal treatment strategies to overcome chemotherapeutic resistance and eliminate metastases have not yet been identified. Here we show through lineage tracing and genetic ablation that BMI1(+) CSCs mediate invasive growth and cervical lymph node metastasis in a mouse model of HNSCC...
March 8, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
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