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NOD like receptor

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714877/alternative-pre-mrna-splicing-in-mammals-and-teleost-fish-a-effective-strategy-for-the-regulation-of-immune-responses-against-pathogen-infection
#1
REVIEW
Ming Xian Chang, Jie Zhang
Pre-mRNA splicing is the process by which introns are removed and the protein coding elements assembled into mature mRNAs. Alternative pre-mRNA splicing provides an important source of transcriptome and proteome complexity through selectively joining different coding elements to form mRNAs, which encode proteins with similar or distinct functions. In mammals, previous studies have shown the role of alternative splicing in regulating the function of the immune system, especially in the regulation of T-cell activation and function...
July 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714351/activation-of-nlrp3-inflammasome-in-peripheral-nerve-contributes-to-paclitaxel-induced-neuropathic-pain
#2
Min Jia, Caihua Wu, Fang Gao, Hongchun Xiang, Ning Sun, Ping Peng, Jingjing Li, Xiaocui Yuan, Hongping Li, Xianfang Meng, Bo Tian, Jing Shi, Man Li
Background Paclitaxel is commonly used as a cancer chemotherapy drug that frequently causes peripheral neuropathic pain. Inflammasome is a multiprotein complex consisting of Nod-like receptor proteins (NLRPs), apoptosis-associated speck-like protein, and caspase-1, which functions to switch on the inflammatory process and the release of interleukin-1β. Growing evidences have supported that peripheral interleukin-1β is critical in enhancing paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain. However, whether activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in peripheral nerve contributes to paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain is still unclear...
January 2017: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711285/anti-il-21-monoclonal-antibody-combined-with-liraglutide-effectively-reverses-established-hyperglycemia-in-mouse-models-of-type-1-diabetes
#3
Anna K Rydén, Nikole R Perdue, Philippe P Pagni, Claire B Gibson, Sowbarnika S Ratliff, Rikke K Kirk, Travis J Friesen, Claus Haase, Ken Coppieters, Matthias G von Herrath, Tamar E Boursalian
Immunotherapy for type 1 diabetes (T1D) has previously focused on suppressing the autoimmune response against pancreatic beta cells to preserve endogenous insulin production and regulate glucose levels. With increased attention toward combination therapy strategies, studies indicate the multifunctional cytokine interleukin-21 (IL-21) may be a suitable target as an immuno-modulatory arm, while glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists may be appropriate as a beta cell protective arm in combination therapy for T1D...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710289/nutritional-modulation-of-metabolic-inflammation
#4
REVIEW
Anna M Kirwan, Yvonne M Lenighan, Marcella E O'Reilly, Fiona C McGillicuddy, Helen M Roche
Metabolic inflammation is a very topical area of research, wherein aberrations in metabolic and inflammatory pathways probably contribute to atherosclerosis, insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes. Metabolic insults arising from obesity promote inflammation, which in turn impedes insulin signalling and reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). Key cells in the process are metabolically activated macrophages, which up-regulate both pro- and anti-inflammatory pathways in response to lipid spillover from adipocytes...
July 14, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704394/genome-wide-host-gene-expression-analysis-in-mice-experimentally-infected-with-pasteurella-multocida
#5
G Bhuvana Priya, Viswas Konasagara Nagaleekar, A Arun Prince Milton, M Saminathan, Amod Kumar, Amit Ranjan Sahoo, Sajad Ahmad Wani, Amit Kumar, S K Gupta, Aditya P Sahoo, A K Tiwari, R K Agarwal, Ravi Kumar Gandham
Pasteurella multocida causes acute septicemic and respiratory diseases, including haemorrhagic septicaemia, in cattle and buffalo with case fatality of 100%. In the present study, mice were infected with P. multocida (1.6 × 103 cfu, intraperitoneal) to evaluate host gene expression profile at early and late stages of infection using high throughput microarray transcriptome analyses. Several differentially expressed genes (DEGs) at both the time points were identified in P.multocida infected spleen, liver and lungs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691886/salivary-levels-of-nlrp3-inflammasome-related-proteins-as-potential-biomarkers-of-periodontal-clinical-status
#6
Diana M Isaza-Guzmán, Verónica M Medina-Piedrahíta, Carolina Gutiérrez-Henao, Sergio I Tobón-Arroyave
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests that the activation of inflammasomes plays a central mechanism in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. This study aimed to compare the salivary levels of nod-like receptor family pyrin domain containing protein 3 (NLRP3), apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC), cysteine aspartase-1 (caspase-1), and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) from individuals with aggressive (AgP) or chronic periodontitis (CP) and healthy controls (HC), as well as elucidate its association with the periodontal clinical status...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691210/e3-ligase-saul1-serves-as-a-positive-regulator-of-pamp-triggered-immunity-and-its-homeostasis-is-monitored-by-immune-receptor-soc3
#7
Meixuezi Tong, Tanja Kotur, Wanwan Liang, Katja Vogelmann, Tatjana Kleine, Dario Leister, Catharina Brieske, Shuhua Yang, Daniel Lüdke, Marcel Wiermer, Yuelin Zhang, Xin Li, Stefan Hoth
In both plants and animals, intracellular nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat proteins (NLRs; or Nod-like receptors) serve as immune receptors to recognize pathogen-derived molecules and mount effective immune responses against microbial infections. Plant NLRs often guard the presence or activity of other host proteins, which are the direct virulence targets of pathogen effectors. These guardees are sometimes immune-promoting components such as those in a mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade. Plant E3 ligases serve many roles in immune regulation, but it is unclear whether they can also be guarded by NLRs...
July 10, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679969/incidence-of-spontaneous-lymphomas-in-non-experimental-nod-shi-scid-il-2r%C3%AE-null-nog-mice
#8
Masahiko Yasuda, Tomoyuki Ogura, Takayuki Goto, Mika Yagoto, Yoko Kamai, Chie Shimomura, Nobuhito Hayashimoto, Yukito Kiyokawa, Hideki Shinohara, Riichi Takahashi, Kenji Kawai
Severely immunodeficient NOD/Shi-scid, IL-2Rγ(null) (NOG) mice provide an in vivo model for human cell/tissue transplantation studies. NOG mice were established by combining interleukin-2 receptor-γ chain knockout mice and NOD/Shi-scid mice. They exhibit a high incidence of thymic lymphomas and immunoglobulin (Ig) leakiness. In this study, we assessed the incidence of malignant lymphomas and the occurrence of leakiness in 2,184 non-experimental NOG retired breeder mice aged 16-40 weeks. We established that the total incidence of lymphomas was only 0...
July 6, 2017: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669901/maternal-alcohol-binge-drinking-induces-persistent-neuroinflammation-associated-with-myelin-damage-and-behavioural-dysfunctions-in-offspring-mice
#9
Lídia Cantacorps, Silvia Alfonso-Loeches, Maria Moscoso-Castro, Javier Cuitavi, Irene Gracia-Rubio, Raúl López-Arnau, Elena Escubedo, Consuelo Guerri, Olga Valverde
Alcohol binge drinking is on the increase in the young adult population, and consumption during pregnancy can be deleterious for foetal development. Maternal alcohol consumption leads to a wide range of long-lasting morphological and behavioural deficiencies known as foetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), associated with neurodevelopmental disabilities. We sought to test the effects of alcohol on neuroimmune system activation and its potential relation to alcohol-induced neurodevelopmental and persistent neurobehavioural effects in offspring after maternal alcohol binge drinking during the prenatal period or in combination with lactation...
June 29, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656530/deficiency-of-nalp3-signaling-impairs-liver-regeneration-after-partial-hepatectomy
#10
Tatsuya Ando, Hiroyasu Ito, Ayumu Kanbe, Akira Hara, Mitsuru Seishima
Inflammatory response is required to proceed the optimal liver regeneration after liver injury. Recent reports demonstrated that inflammasomes are involved in the innate immune response. Several NOD-Like receptors (NLRs) participated in the formation of the inflammasomes. NACHT, LRR, and PYD domain-containing protein 3 (NALP3) belongs to the NLR families and recognizes adenosine triphosphate (ATP), crystals, and reactive oxygen species. The present study examined the effect of inflammasomes on the process of liver regeneration using NALP3 knockout (KO) mice...
June 28, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655577/nod1-is-the-innate-immune-receptor-for-ie-dap-and-can-activate-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-in-teleost-fish
#11
Dekun Bi, Yunhang Gao, Qing Chu, Junxia Cui, Tianjun Xu
The innate immune system is the first line for organisms defense against microbial infection, and NOD-like receptors (NLRs) protein family is an important member of innate immunity effector molecules. It has been proved that NLRs are located in the endochylema and can senses of microbial products. NOD1 is one of the representatives of this family, it has been proved that in mammals, NOD1 can distinguish a specific muropeptide (G-d-glutamyl-meso-diaminopimelic acid, iE-DAP) which was derived from bacterial peptidoglycans...
June 24, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654770/md-2-regulates-lps-induced-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-and-il-1beta-secretion-by-a-myd88-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-dependent-pathway-in-alveolar-macrophages-cell-line
#12
Man Luo, Lijuan Hu, Dandan Li, Yanying Wang, Yuting He, Lei Zhu, Weiying Ren
Myeloid differentiation protein 2 (MD-2) is required in the recognition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) by toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and participates in LPS-induced alveolar macrophage (AM) inflammation during acute lung injury (ALI). Activation of the NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome aggravates inflammation in LPS-induced ALI. However, there is currently little known about the relationship between MD-2 signaling and the NLRP3 inflammasome. This study showed that NLRP3 expression, IL-1beta (IL-1β) secretion, and pyroptosis were up-regulated after LPS stimulation in the NR8383 AM cell-line...
June 24, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653829/development-and-characterization-of-a-hydroxyl-sulfonamide-analogue-5-chloro-n-2-4-hydroxysulfamoyl-phenyl-ethyl-2-methoxy-benzamide-as-a-novel-nlrp3-inflammasome-inhibitor-for-potential-treatment-of-multiple-sclerosis
#13
Chunqing Guo, Jacob W Fulp, Yuqi Jiang, Xia Li, Jeremy E Chojnacki, Jingde Wu, Xiang-Yang Wang, Shijun Zhang
In our efforts to develop novel small-molecule inhibitors for the NOD-like receptor family pyrin-domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome as potential disease-modifying agents to treat neurological disorders including multiple sclerosis (MS), a hydroxyl sulfonamide analogue JC-171 has been rationally designed and biologically characterized both in vitro and in vivo. Our studies established that JC-171 dose dependently inhibited LPS/ATP-induced interleukin-1β (IL-1β) release from J774A.1 macrophages with an IC50 of 8...
July 13, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652394/lack-of-both-nucleotide-binding-oligomerization-domain-containing-proteins-1-and-2-primes-t-cells-for-activation-induced-cell-death
#14
Sashi G Kasimsetty, Alana A Shigeoka, Andrew A Scheinok, Amanda L Gavin, Richard J Ulevitch, Dianne B McKay
Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (Nod)-containing proteins Nod1 and Nod2 play important roles in the innate immune response to pathogenic microbes, but mounting data suggest these pattern recognition receptors might also play key roles in adaptive immune responses. Targeting Nod1 and Nod2 signaling pathways in T cells is likely to provide a new strategy to modify inflammation in a variety of disease states, particularly those that depend on Ag-induced T cell activation. To better understand how Nod1 and Nod2 proteins contribute to adaptive immunity, this study investigated their role in alloantigen-induced T cell activation and asked whether their absence might impact in vivo alloresponses using a severe acute graft versus host disease model...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646872/role-of-p2x7r-in-the-development-and-progression-of-pulmonary-hypertension
#15
Jie Yin, Shuling You, Haopeng Liu, Li Chen, Chengdong Zhang, Hesheng Hu, Mei Xue, Wenjuan Cheng, Ye Wang, Xinran Li, Yugen Shi, Nannan Li, Suhua Yan, Xiaolu Li
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a devastating disease that lacks sufficient treatment. Studies have shown that the Nod-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome contributes to PAH pathogenesis, but the role of the upstream molecular P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) has remained unexplored. We investigated the role of P2X7R in the pathogenesis of PAH. METHODS AND RESULTS: PH was induced by a single subcutaneous injection of monocrotaline (MCT) (60 mg/kg) on left pneumonectomised Sprague-Dawley rats, as validated by significant increases in pulmonary artery pressure and vessel wall thickness...
June 24, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645296/myd88-dependent-pro-interleukin-1%C3%AE-induction-in-dendritic-cells-exposed-to-food-grade-synthetic-amorphous-silica
#16
Hans Christian Winkler, Julian Kornprobst, Peter Wick, Lea Maria von Moos, Ioannis Trantakis, Elisabeth Maria Schraner, Barbara Bathke, Hubertus Hochrein, Mark Suter, Hanspeter Naegeli
BACKGROUND: Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialized first-line sensors of foreign materials invading the organism. These sentinel cells rely on pattern recognition receptors such as Nod-like or Toll-like receptors (TLRs) to launch immune reactions against pathogens, but also to mediate tolerance to self-antigens and, in the intestinal milieu, to nutrients and commensals. Since inappropriate DC activation contributes to inflammatory diseases and immunopathologies, a key question in the evaluation of orally ingested nanomaterials is whether their contact with DCs in the intestinal mucosa disrupts this delicate homeostatic balance between pathogen defense and tolerance...
June 23, 2017: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637398/what-do-we-know-about-nod-like-receptors-in-plant-immunity
#17
Xiaoxiao Zhang, Peter N Dodds, Maud Bernoux
The first plant disease resistance (R) genes were identified and cloned more than two decades ago. Since then, many more R genes have been identified and characterized in numerous plant pathosystems. Most of these encode members of the large family of intracellular NLRs (NOD-like receptors), which also includes animal immune receptors. New discoveries in this expanding field of research provide new elements for our understanding of plant NLR function. But what do we know about plant NLR function today? Genetic, structural, and functional analyses have uncovered a number of commonalities and differences in pathogen recognition strategies as well as how NLRs are regulated and activate defense signaling, but many unknowns remain...
May 22, 2017: Annual Review of Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636595/nlrp9b-inflammasome-restricts-rotavirus-infection-in-intestinal-epithelial-cells
#18
Shu Zhu, Siyuan Ding, Penghua Wang, Zheng Wei, Wen Pan, Noah W Palm, Yi Yang, Hua Yu, Hua-Bing Li, Geng Wang, Xuqiu Lei, Marcel R de Zoete, Jun Zhao, Yunjiang Zheng, Haiwei Chen, Yujiao Zhao, Kellie A Jurado, Ningguo Feng, Liang Shan, Yuval Kluger, Jun Lu, Clara Abraham, Erol Fikrig, Harry B Greenberg, Richard A Flavell
Rotavirus, a leading cause of severe gastroenteritis and diarrhoea in young children, accounts for around 215,000 deaths annually worldwide. Rotavirus specifically infects the intestinal epithelial cells in the host small intestine and has evolved strategies to antagonize interferon and NF-κB signalling, raising the question as to whether other host factors participate in antiviral responses in intestinal mucosa. The mechanism by which enteric viruses are sensed and restricted in vivo, especially by NOD-like receptor (NLR) inflammasomes, is largely unknown...
June 29, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632753/mait-cells-launch-a-rapid-robust-and-distinct-hyperinflammatory-response-to-bacterial-superantigens-and-quickly-acquire-an-anergic-phenotype-that-impedes-their-cognate-antimicrobial-function-defining-a-novel-mechanism-of-superantigen-induced-immunopathology
#19
Christopher R Shaler, Joshua Choi, Patrick T Rudak, Arash Memarnejadian, Peter A Szabo, Mauro E Tun-Abraham, Jamie Rossjohn, Alexandra J Corbett, James McCluskey, John K McCormick, Olivier Lantz, Roberto Hernandez-Alejandro, S M Mansour Haeryfar
Superantigens (SAgs) are potent exotoxins secreted by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. They target a large fraction of T cell pools to set in motion a "cytokine storm" with severe and sometimes life-threatening consequences typically encountered in toxic shock syndrome (TSS). Given the rapidity with which TSS develops, designing timely and truly targeted therapies for this syndrome requires identification of key mediators of the cytokine storm's initial wave. Equally important, early host responses to SAgs can be accompanied or followed by a state of immunosuppression, which in turn jeopardizes the host's ability to combat and clear infections...
June 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631886/nlrp3-expression-and-urinary-hsp72-in-relation-to-biomarkers-of-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress-in-diabetic-nephropathy-patients
#20
Hemat El-Sayed El-Horany, Rania Nagi Abd-Ellatif, Mona Watany, Yasser M Hafez, Hanaa Ibrahim Okda
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the major causes of end-stage renal disease. Nod-like receptors nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat pyrin-3 domain (NLRP3) inflammasome displays a considerable role in the chronic inflammatory state observed in diabetic patients. Urinary heat shock protein 72 (uHSP72) is a sensitive and specific biomarker for the early detection of acute kidney injury. The aim of this study was to evaluate NLRP3 relative gene expression, its correlation with inflammatory and oxidative stress markers, and to assess the value of uHSP72 in the early detection of DN in type 2 diabetic patients with different degrees of DN...
June 20, 2017: IUBMB Life
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