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NOD like receptor

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205387/fructose-down-regulates-mir-330-to-induce-renal-inflammatory-response-and-insulin-signaling-impairment-attenuation-by-morin
#1
Ting-Ting Gu, Lin Song, Tian-Yu Chen, Xin Wang, Xiao-Juan Zhao, Xiao-Qin Ding, Yan-Zi Yang, Ying Pan, Dong-Mei Zhang, Ling-Dong Kong
SCOPE: Fructose induces insulin resistance with kidney inflammation and injury. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are emerged as key regulators of insulin signaling. Morin has insulin-mimetic effect with the improvement of insulin resistance and kidney injury. This study investigated the protective mechanisms of morin against fructose-induced kidney injury, with particular focus on miR-330 expression change, inflammatory response and insulin signaling impairment. METHODS AND RESULTS: miR-330, sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1)/sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)/S1P receptor (S1PR)1/3 signaling, NF-κB/NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome and insulin signaling were detected in kidney cortex of fructose-fed rats and fructose-exposed HK-2 cells, respectively...
February 16, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203237/activation-of-the-wnt-pathway-by-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-a-wnt-wnt-situation
#2
REVIEW
Tomás Villaseñor, Edgardo Madrid-Paulino, Rafael Maldonado-Bravo, Antonio Urbán-Aragón, Leonor Pérez-Martínez, Gustavo Pedraza-Alva
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), an intracellular pathogenic Gram-positive bacterium, is the cause of tuberculosis (TB), a major worldwide human infectious disease. The innate immune system is the first host defense against M. tuberculosis. The recognition of this pathogen is mediated by several classes of pattern recognition receptors expressed on the host innate immune cells, including Toll-like receptors, Nod-like receptors, and C-type lectin receptors like Dectin-1, the Mannose receptor, and DC-SIGN...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202617/the-bacterial-peptidoglycan-sensing-molecules-nod1-and-nod2-promote-cd8-thymocyte-selection
#3
Marianne M Martinic, Irina Caminschi, Meredith O'Keeffe, Therese C Thinnes, Raelene Grumont, Steve Gerondakis, Dianne B McKay, David Nemazee, Amanda L Gavin
Nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors NOD1 and NOD2 are cytosolic innate immune receptors that recognize microbial peptidoglycans. Although studies have addressed the role of NOD proteins in innate immune responses, little attention has been given to their impact on the developing adaptive immune system. We have assessed the roles of NOD1 and NOD2 deficiency on T cell development in mice. Our results demonstrate that NOD1 and NOD2 promote the positive selection/maturation of CD8 single-positive thymocytes in a thymocyte-intrinsic manner...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201982/transcriptome-profile-of-rat-genes-in-injured-spinal-cord-at-different-stages-by-rna-sequencing
#4
Ling-Ling Shi, Nan Zhang, Xiu-Mei Xie, Yue-Juan Chen, Rui Wang, Lin Shen, Jian-Sheng Zhou, Jian-Guo Hu, He-Zuo Lü
BACKGROUND: Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in fatal damage and currently has no effective treatment. The pathological mechanisms of SCI remain unclear. In this study, genome-wide transcriptional profiling of spinal cord samples from injured rats at different time points after SCI was performed by RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq). The transcriptomes were systematically characterized to identify the critical genes and pathways that are involved in SCI pathology. RESULTS: RNA-Seq results were obtained from total RNA harvested from the spinal cords of sham control rats and rats in the acute, subacute, and chronic phases of SCI (1 day, 6 days and 28 days after injury, respectively; n = 3 in every group)...
February 15, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197210/orientin-ameliorates-lps-induced-inflammatory-responses-through-the-inhibitory-of-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-and-nlrp3-inflammasome
#5
Qingfei Xiao, Zhihui Qu, Ying Zhao, Liming Yang, Pujun Gao
Inflammation is a complex response to diverse pathological conditions, resulting in negative rather than protective effects when uncontrolled. Orientin (Ori), a flavonoid component isolated from natural plants, possesses abundant properties. Thus, we aimed to discover the potential therapeutic effects of orientin on lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced inflammation in RAW 264.7 cells and the underlying mechanisms. In our studies, we evaluated the effects of Ori on proinflammatory mediator production stimulated by LPS, including tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α, interleukin- (IL-) 6, IL-18, and IL-1β, along with prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and NO...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193546/contribution-of-guanine-nucleotide-exchange-factor-vav2-to-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-in-mouse-podocytes-during-hyperhomocysteinemia
#6
Sabena M Conley, Justine M Abais-Battad, Xinxu Yuan, Qinghua Zhang, Krishna M Boini, Pin-Lan Li
NADPH oxidase (NOX)-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been demonstrated to mediate the activation of NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasomes in podocytes in response to elevated levels of homocysteine (Hcys). However, it remains unknown how NLRP3 inflammasome activation is triggered by NOX. The present study tested whether the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Vav2 mediates Rac1-mediated NOX activation in response to elevated Hcys leading to NLRP3 inflammasome activation in podocytes and consequent glomerular injury...
February 10, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174726/putting-the-pieces-together-nod-like-receptor-protein-3-inflammasome-priming-and-activation-in-barrett-s-epithelial%C3%A2-cells
#7
EDITORIAL
Claudia D Andl
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167322/-nlrp3-inflammasome-blockade-reduces-liver-inflammation-and-fibrosis-in-experimental-nash-in-mice
#8
Auvro R Mridha, Alexander Wree, Avril A B Robertson, Matthew M Yeh, Casey D Johnson, Derrick M Van Rooyen, Fahrettin Haczeyni, Narci C-H Teoh, Christopher Savard, George N Ioannou, Seth L Masters, Kate Schroder, Matthew A Cooper, Ariel E Feldstein, Geoffrey C Farrell
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation occurs in NAFLD. We used the first small molecule NLRP3 inhibitor, MCC950, to test whether inflammasome blockade alters inflammatory recruitment and liver fibrosis in two murine models of steatohepatitis. METHODS: We fed foz/foz and wildtype (Wt) mice atherogenic diet 16 weeks, gavaged MCC950 or vehicle until 24 weeks, then determining NAFLD phenotype. In mice fed methionine/choline deficient (MCD) diet, we gavaged MCC950 or vehicle 6 weeks and determined effects on liver fibrosis...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159904/innate-immune-cell-recovery-is-positively-regulated-by-nlrp12-during-emergency-hematopoiesis
#9
Brandon M L Linz, Crystal J Neely, Laurel B Kartchner, April E Mendoza, Amal L Khoury, Agnieszka Truax, Gregory Sempowski, Timothy Eitas, June Brickey, Jenny P Y Ting, Bruce A Cairns, Robert Maile
With enhanced concerns of terrorist attacks, dual exposure to radiation and thermal combined injury (RCI) has become a real threat with devastating immunosuppression. NLRP12, a member of the NOD-like receptor family, is expressed in myeloid and bone marrow cells and was implicated as a checkpoint regulator of inflammatory cytokines, as well as an inflammasome activator. We show that NLRP12 has a profound impact on hematopoietic recovery during RCI by serving as a checkpoint of TNF signaling and preventing hematopoietic apoptosis...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157451/the-role-of-nod-like-receptors-in-pulmonary-infection
#10
Kristin M Wiese, Bria M Coates, Karen M Ridge
Pneumonia is caused by both viral and bacterial pathogens and is responsible for a significant health burden in the Unites States. The innate immune system is the human body's first line of defense against these pathogens. The recognition of invading pathogens via pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) leads to proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine production followed by recruitment and activation of effector immune cells. The nonspecific inflammatory nature of the innate immune response can result in immunopathology that is detrimental to the host...
February 3, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157391/microbes-associate-with-host-innate-immune-response-in-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#11
Yong Huang, Shwu-Fan Ma, Milena S Espindola, Rekha Vij, Justin M Oldham, Gary B Huffnagle, John R Erb-Downward, Kevin R Flaherty, Beth B Moore, Eric S White, Tong Zhou, Jianrong Li, Yves A Lussier, MeiLan K Han, Naftali Kaminski, Joe G N Garcia, Cory M Hogaboam, Fernando J Martinez, Imre Noth
RATIONALE: Differences in the lung microbial community influence idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) progression. Whether the lung microbiome influences IPF host defense remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: To explore the host immune response and microbial interaction in IPF, as they relate to progression-free survival (PFS), fibroblast function, and leukocyte phenotypes. METHODS: Paired microarray gene expression data from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and 16s rRNA sequencing data from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) obtained as part of the COMET-IPF study were used to conduct association pathway analyses...
February 3, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143791/kidney-and-innate-immunity
#12
REVIEW
Ying-Hui Wang, Yu-Gen Zhang
Innate immune system is an important modulator of the inflammatory response during infection and tissue injury/repair. The kidney as a vital organ with high energy demand plays a key role in regulating the disease related metabolic process. Increasing research interest has focused on the immune pathogenesis of many kidney diseases. However, innate immune cells such as dendritic cells, macrophages, NK cells and a few innate lymphocytes, as well as the complement system are essential for renal immune homeostasis and ensure a coordinated balance between tissue injury and regeneration...
January 28, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138020/the-type-ii-secretion-system-of-legionella-pneumophila-dampens-the-myd88-and-tlr2-signaling-pathway-in-infected-human-macrophages
#13
Celeste A Mallama, Kessler McCoy-Simandle, Nicholas P Cianciotto
Previously, we reported that mutants of L. pneumophila lacking a type II secretion (T2S) system elicit higher levels of cytokines (e.g., IL-6) following infection of U937 cells, a human macrophage-like cell line. We now show that this effect of T2S is also manifest upon infection of human THP-1 cell macrophages and peripheral blood monocytes but does not occur during infection of murine macrophages. Supporting the hypothesis that T2S acts to dampen the triggering of an innate immune response, we observed that the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB) pathways are more highly stimulated upon infection with the T2S mutant compared to wild-type...
January 30, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135669/identification-of-genetic-variation-in-nod-like-receptor-2-gene-and-influence-of-polymorphism-on-gene-structure-and-function-in-buffalo-bubalus-bubalis
#14
Asmita Dhiman, S K Mishra, P K Dubey, S Goyal, M Sehgal, S K Niranjan, M Sodhi, B P Mishra, R S Kataria
Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor 2 is one of the important mediators of innate as well as adaptive immune response to microbial infections. In this study, NOD-like receptor-2 was characterized by determining the full gene sequence and analyzing genetic diversity in Indian buffaloes. Sequence analysis of buffalo NOD2 revealed 3042 nucleotides long ORF, encoding 1013 amino acids from 12 exons. Domain structure analysis indicated existence of 8 leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domains in buffalo, cattle, sheep and mouse, along with central NACHT/NOD domain and two N-terminal CARD domains...
January 22, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129888/alzheimer-s-disease-innate-immunity-gone-awry
#15
Theodore B VanItallie
Inflammation is an immune activity designed to protect the host from pathogens and noxious agents. In its low-intensity form, presence of an inflammatory process must be inferred from appropriate biomarkers. Occult neuroinflammation is not just secondary to Alzheimer's disease (AD) but may contribute to its pathogenesis and promote its progression. A leaky blood-brain barrier (BBB) has been observed in early AD and may play a role in its initiation and development. Studies of the temporal evolution of AD's biomarkers have shown that, in AD, the brain's amyloid burden correlates poorly with cognitive decline...
January 11, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124644/differences-in-innate-immune-response-gene-regulation-in-the-middle-ear-of-children-who-are-otitis-prone-and-in-those-not-otitis-prone
#16
Ravinder Kaur, Janet Casey, Michael Pichichero
OBJECTIVE: Acute otitis media (AOM) causes an inflammatory response in the middle ear. We assessed differences in innate immune responses involved in bacterial defense at onset of AOM in children who were stringently defined as otitis prone (sOP) and children not otitis prone (NOP). STUDY DESIGN: Innate immune genes analysis from middle ear fluid (MEF) samples of children. METHODS: Genes of toll-like receptors (TLR), nod-like and retinoic acid-inducible gene-I-like receptors, downstream effectors important for inflammation and apoptosis, including cytokines and chemokines, were studied from MEF samples by using a real-time polymerase chain reaction array...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124154/dna-transfer-and-toll-like-receptor-modulation-by-helicobacter-pylori
#17
Matthew Gordon Varga, Richard M Peek
Helicobacter pylori is the most common bacterial infection worldwide, and virtually all infected persons develop co-existing gastritis. H. pylori is able to send and receive signals from the gastric mucosa, which enables both host and microbe to engage in a dynamic equilibrium. In order to persist within the human host, H. pylori has adopted dichotomous strategies to both induce inflammation as a means of liberating nutrients while simultaneously tempering the immune response to augment its survival. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and Nod proteins are innate immune receptors that are present in epithelial cells and represent the first line of defense against pathogens...
2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122660/nlrc5-polymorphism-is-associated-with-susceptibility-to-chronic-periodontitis
#18
Luisa Zupin, Chiara Ottavia Navarra, Antonietta Robino, Lorenzo Bevilacqua, Roberto Di Lenarda, Paolo Gasparini, Sergio Crovella
Periodontitis is a chronic oral pathology caused by impaired immune response against oral bacteria resulting in tissue inflammation and damage. Among the members of innate immune response, the first line of defence against pathogens, inflammasomes are macro-molecular protein complexes that can be activated by different stimuli, comprised bacteria infections. Different proteins are involved in inflammasoma formation; the most important are molecules belonging from the family of nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs)...
January 12, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105162/ubiquitin-specific-protease-21-upregulation-in-breast-cancer-promotes-cell-tumorigenic-capability-and-is-associated-with-the-nod-like-receptor-signaling-pathway
#19
Liang Peng, Yi Hu, Demeng Chen, Ruixia Linghu, Yingzhe Wang, Xiaoxue Kou, Junlan Yang, Shunchang Jiao
Ubiquitination and deubiquitination have emerged as critical regulators in cancer. In the present study, the expression pattern of 50 ubiquitin-specific proteases (USPs) was summarized in breast cancer using a bioinformatics approach, and USP21 was identified as the most altered gene in breast cancer. In particular, expression of USP21 in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell lines was greater compared with other subtypes of breast cancer. Knockdown of USP21 in TNBC cells inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion...
December 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102121/inflammasomes-in-myeloid-cells-warriors-within
#20
Sushmita Jha, W June Brickey, Jenny Pan-Yun Ting
The inflammasome is a large multimeric protein complex comprising an effector protein that demonstrates specificity for a variety of activators or ligands; an adaptor molecule; and procaspase-1, which is converted to caspase-1 upon inflammasome activation. Inflammasomes are expressed primarily by myeloid cells and are located within the cell. The macromolecular inflammasome structure can be visualized by cryo-electron microscopy. This complex has been found to play a role in a variety of disease models in mice, and several have been genetically linked to human diseases...
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
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