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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820730/knowledge-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-and-its-control-practices-among-dental-students-in-an-indian-city
#1
Vishal Khandelwal, Sushma Khandelwal, Neetu Gupta, Ullal Anand Nayak, Namrata Kulshreshtha, Sudhindra Baliga
Background Hepatitis B virus infection is a general cause of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepato-cellular carcinoma worldwide. It is highly contagious. It is an important reason for morbidity and mortality in the Indian population. Oral health professionals are at the highest risk. Vaccination for hepatitis B can prevent this deadly disease. Methods The present study was designed to evaluate the degree of awareness, knowledge of hepatitis B infection and status of hepatitis B vaccination among dental students...
August 18, 2017: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820715/limited-transmission-potential-of-takeda-s-tetravalent-dengue-vaccine-candidate-by-aedes-albopictus
#2
Elizabeth A Dietrich, Yee Tsuey Ong, Janae L Stovall, Hansi Dean, Claire Y-H Huang
Recombinant live-attenuated chimeric tetravalent dengue vaccine viruses, TDV-1, -2, -3, and -4, contain the premembrane and envelope genes of dengue virus serotypes 1-4 in the replicative background of the attenuated dengue virus type-2 (DENV-2) PDK-53 vaccine strain. Previous results have shown that these recombinant vaccine viruses demonstrate limited infection and dissemination in Aedes aegypti and are unlikely to be transmitted by the primary mosquito vector of DENVs. In this report, we expand this analysis by assessing vector competence of all four serotypes of the TDV virus in Aedes albopictus, the secondary mosquito vector of DENVs...
August 14, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820694/differential-neurovirulence-of-african-and-asian-genotype-zika-virus-isolates-in-outbred-immunocompetent-mice
#3
Nisha K Duggal, Jana M Ritter, Erin M McDonald, Hannah Romo, Farshad Guirakhoo, Brent S Davis, Gwong-Jen J Chang, Aaron C Brault
Although first isolated almost 70 years ago, Zika virus (ZIKV; Flavivirus, Flaviviridae) has only recently been associated with significant outbreaks of disease in humans. Several severe ZIKV disease manifestations have also been recently documented, including fetal malformations, such as microcephaly, and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults. Although principally transmitted by mosquitoes, sexual transmission of ZIKV has been documented. Recent publications of several interferon receptor knockout mouse models have demonstrated ZIKV-induced disease...
August 14, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820470/adaption-of-fmdv-asia-1-to-suspension-culture-cell-resistance-is-overcome-by-virus-capsid-alterations
#4
Veronika Dill, Bernd Hoffmann, Aline Zimmer, Martin Beer, Michael Eschbaumer
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes a highly contagious disease with catastrophic economic impact for affected countries. BHK21 suspension cells are preferred for the industrial production of FMDV vaccine antigen, but not all virus strains can be successfully propagated in these cells. Serotype Asia-1 is often affected by this phenomenon. In this study, the Asia-1 strain Shamir was used to examine viral, cellular and environmental factors that contribute to resistance to cell culture infection. Cell media composition, pH and ammonium chloride concentration did not affect Asia-1 differently than other serotypes...
August 18, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820433/targeting-persistent-human-papillomavirus-infection
#5
REVIEW
Srinidhi Shanmugasundaram, Jianxin You
While the majority of Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are transient and cleared within a couple of years following exposure, 10-20% of infections persist latently, leading to disease progression and, ultimately, various forms of invasive cancer. Despite the clinical efficiency of recently developed multivalent prophylactic HPV vaccines, these preventive measures are not effective against pre-existing infection. Additionally, considering that the burden associated with HPV is greatest in regions with limited access to preventative vaccination, the development of effective therapies targeting persistent infection remains imperative...
August 18, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820373/identification-of-clade-e-avipoxvirus-mozambique-2016
#6
Lourenço P Mapaco, Zeiss Lacerda, Iolanda V A Monjane, Esayas Gelaye, Afonso H Sussuro, Gerrit J Viljoen, William G Dundon, Sara J Achá
Analysis of scab samples collected from poultry during outbreaks of fowlpox in Mozambique in 2016 revealed the presence of clade E avipoxviruses. Infected poultry were from flocks that had been vaccinated against fowlpox virus. These findings require urgent reevaluation of the vaccine formula and control strategies in this country.
September 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820298/surveillance-for-hemorrhagic-septicemia-in-buffalo-bubalus-bubalis-as-an-aid-to-range-expansion-of-the-javan-rhinoceros-rhinoceros-sondaicus-in-ujung-kulon-national-park-indonesia
#7
Kurnia Oktavia Khairani, Daryl Nydam, M Julia Felippe, Pat McDonough, Jason Barry, Rois Mahmud, M Haryono, Robin W Radcliffe
The Javan rhinoceros (Rhinoceros sondaicus) of Ujung Kulon National Park (UKNP) is the crown jewel of Indonesia's rich natural history. The park lies on a peninsula surrounded by coastline and agriculture-dominated landscapes. The invasion of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) into the park carries a substantial health risk to the Javan rhinoceros and threatens plans to establish a new population outside of its only current range in UKNP. Hemorrhagic septicemia (HS), known locally as septicemia epizootica and caused by Pasteurella multocida B:2, could thwart Indonesia's efforts to expand the range of the Javan rhinoceros...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820138/processes-underlying-rabies-virus-incursions-across-us-canada-border-as-revealed-by-whole-genome-phylogeography
#8
Hannah Trewby, Susan A Nadin-Davis, Leslie A Real, Roman Biek
Disease control programs aim to constrain and reduce the spread of infection. Human disease interventions such as wildlife vaccination play a major role in determining the limits of a pathogen's spatial distribution. Over the past few decades, a raccoon-specific variant of rabies virus (RRV) has invaded large areas of eastern North America. Although expansion into Canada has been largely prevented through vaccination along the US border, several outbreaks have occurred in Canada. Applying phylogeographic approaches to 289 RRV whole-genome sequences derived from isolates collected in Canada and adjacent US states, we examined the processes underlying these outbreaks...
September 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820072/structural-design-and-physicochemical-foundations-of-hydrogels-for-biomedical-and-pharmaceutical-applications
#9
Qingyong Li, Wen Li, Jie Xu, Zhengxiang Ning, Jiaoyan Ren, Wenzhen Liao
Biomedical research, known as medical research, is conducive to support and promote the development of knowledge in the field of medicine. Hydrogels have been extensively used in many biomedical fields due to theirs highly absorbent and flexible properties. The smart hydrogels, especially, can respond to a broad range of external stimuli such as temperature, pH value, light, electric and magnetic fields. With excellent biocompatibility, tunable rheology, mechanical properties, porosity, and hydrated molecular structure, hydrogels are considered as promising candidate for simulating local tissue microenvironment...
August 17, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819703/novel-prostate-cancer-immunotherapy-with-a-dna-encoded-anti-prostate-specific-membrane-antigen-monoclonal-antibody
#10
Kar Muthumani, Liron Marnin, Sagar B Kudchodkar, Alfredo Perales-Puchalt, Hyeree Choi, Sangya Agarwal, Veronica L Scott, Emma L Reuschel, Faraz I Zaidi, Elizabeth K Duperret, Megan C Wise, Kimberly A Kraynyak, Kenneth E Ugen, Niranjan Y Sardesai, J Joseph Kim, David B Weiner
Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is expressed at high levels on malignant prostate cells and is likely an important therapeutic target for the treatment of prostate carcinoma. Current immunotherapy approaches to target PSMA include peptide, cell, vector or DNA-based vaccines as well as passive administration of PSMA-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAb). Conventional mAb immunotherapy has numerous logistical and practical limitations, including high production costs and a requirement for frequent dosing due to short mAb serum half-life...
August 17, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819692/molecular-characterization-of-atypical-antigenic-variants-of-canine-rabies-virus-reveals-its-reintroduction-by-wildlife-vectors-in-southeastern-mexico
#11
Fabiola Garcés-Ayala, Nidia Aréchiga-Ceballos, Joanna M Ortiz-Alcántara, Elizabeth González-Durán, Sandra I Pérez-Agüeros, Alfonso Méndez-Tenorio, Belem Torres-Longoria, Irma López-Martínez, Lucía Hernández-Rivas, José Alberto Díaz-Quiñonez, José Ernesto Ramírez-González
Rabies is an infectious viral disease that is practically always fatal following the onset of clinical signs. In Mexico, the last case of human rabies transmitted by dogs was reported in 2006 and canine rabies has declined significantly due to vaccination campaigns implemented in the country. Here we report on the molecular characterization of six rabies virus strains found in Yucatan and Chiapas, remarkably, four of them showed an atypical reaction pattern when antigenic characterization with a reduced panel of eight monoclonal antibodies was performed...
August 17, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819634/cervical-cancer-control-in-hiv-infected-women-past-present-and-future
#12
REVIEW
Rahel G Ghebre, Surbhi Grover, Melody J Xu, Linus T Chuang, Hannah Simonds
Since the initial recognition of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in 1981, an increased burden of cervical cancer was identified among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive women. Introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) decreased risks of opportunistic infections and improved overall survival. HIV-infected women are living longer. Introduction of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, cervical cancer screening and early diagnosis provide opportunities to reduce cervical cancer associated mortality...
August 2017: Gynecologic Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819524/impact-of-vaccine-mandate-on-tdap-vaccination-coverage-among-illinois-students-2014-15
#13
Yaa Karikari, Oyinade Akinyede, Vanessa Davis, Kenneth Soyemi
In response to recent pertussis resurgence, a multi-agency recommendation that students receive a one-time Tdap vaccine was introduced. Post mandate there was sequential increase in the Tdap vaccine uptake in the targeted population.
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819502/pattern-and-outcome-of-dog-bite-injuries-among-children-in-ado-ekiti-southwest-nigeria
#14
Ezra Olatunde Ogundare, Oladele Simeon Olatunya, Isaac Oluwadare Oluwayemi, Adekoya Joshua Inubile, Adekunle Bamidele Taiwo, Oyinkansola Tolulope Agaja, Alfred Airemionkhale, Adewale Fabunmi
INTRODUCTION: Dog bites in humans are a major public health problem. Globally, millions of people are bitten by dogs but most of the fatal cases occur in children. There is paucity of data on dog bite related diseases among Nigerian children. Objectives: to determine the pattern of dog bite injuries and associated health problems among children seen at Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital. METHODS: This is a retrospective study on the clinical data of patients managed for dog bite related injuries between January 2010 and June 2014...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819449/self-assembly-dna-polyplex-vaccine-inside-dissolving-microneedles-for-high-potency-intradermal-vaccination
#15
Jing-Fong Liao, Jin-Ching Lee, Chun-Kuang Lin, Kuo-Chen Wei, Pin-Yuan Chen, Hung-Wei Yang
The strong immunogenicity induction is the powerful weapon to prevent the virus infections. This study demonstrated that one-step synthesis of DNA polyplex vaccine in microneedle (MN) patches can induce high immunogenicity through intradermal vaccination and increase the vaccine stability for storage outside the cold chain. More negative charged DNA vaccine was entrapped into the needle region of MNs followed by DNA polyplex formation with branched polyethylenimine (bPEI) pre-coated in the cavities of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) molds that can deliver more DNA vaccine to immune-cell rich epidermis with high transfection efficiency...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819380/phase-ii-trial-of-adjuvant-immunotherapy-with-autologous-tumor-derived-gp96-vaccination-in-patients-with-gastric-cancer
#16
Kecheng Zhang, Zheng Peng, Xiaohui Huang, Zhi Qiao, Xinxin Wang, Ning Wang, Hongqing Xi, Jianxin Cui, Yunhe Gao, Xijian Huang, Hua Gao, Bo Wei, Lin Chen
Background/Aims: Autologous, tumor-derived, heat shock protein gp96 peptide complexes have antitumor potential. We conducted the first Phase II trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of gp96 vaccination in adjuvant settings for patients with gastric cancer. Methods: We enrolled 73 consecutive patients from October 2012 to December 2015. Thirty-eight patients received gp96 vaccination plus chemotherapy and 35 received chemotherapy alone. The primary endpoints were disease-free survival (DFS) and toxicity...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819261/modified-vaccinia-virus-ankara-preferentially-targets-antigen-presenting-cells-in-vitro-ex-vivo-and-in-vivo
#17
Arwen F Altenburg, Carolien E van de Sandt, Bobby W S Li, Ronan J MacLoughlin, Ron A M Fouchier, Geert van Amerongen, Asisa Volz, Rudi W Hendriks, Rik L de Swart, Gerd Sutter, Guus F Rimmelzwaan, Rory D de Vries
Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is a promising vaccine vector with an excellent safety profile. However, despite extensive pre-clinical and clinical testing, surprisingly little is known about the cellular tropism of MVA, especially in relevant animal species. Here, we performed in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo experiments with recombinant MVA expressing green fluorescent protein (rMVA-GFP). In both human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and mouse lung explants, rMVA-GFP predominantly infected antigen presenting cells...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819257/cytolytic-dna-vaccine-encoding-lytic-perforin-augments-the-maturation-of-and-antigen-presentation-by-dendritic-cells-in-a-time-dependent-manner
#18
Danushka K Wijesundara, Wenbo Yu, Ben J C Quah, Preethi Eldi, John D Hayball, Kerrilyn R Diener, Ilia Voskoboinik, Eric J Gowans, Branka Grubor-Bauk
The use of cost-effective vaccines capable of inducing robust CD8(+) T cell immunity will contribute significantly towards the elimination of persistent viral infections and cancers worldwide. We have previously reported that a cytolytic DNA vaccine encoding an immunogen and a truncated mouse perforin (PRF) protein significantly augments anti-viral T cell (including CD8(+) T cell) immunity. Thus, the current study investigated whether this vaccine enhances activation of dendritic cells (DCs) resulting in greater priming of CD8(+) T cell immunity...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819247/delta-inulin-based-adjuvants-promote-the-generation-of-polyfunctional-cd4-t-cell-responses-and-protection-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#19
Claudio Counoupas, Rachel Pinto, Gayathri Nagalingam, Warwick J Britton, Nikolai Petrovsky, James A Triccas
There is an urgent need for the rational design of safe and effective vaccines to protect against chronic bacterial pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Advax™ is a novel adjuvant based on delta inulin microparticles that enhances immunity with a minimal inflammatory profile and has entered human trials to protect against viral pathogens. In this report we determined if Advax displays broad applicability against important human pathogens by assessing protective immunity against infection with M. tuberculosis...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819024/trastuzumab-increases-her2-uptake-and-cross-presentation-by-dendritic-cells
#20
Victor A Gall, Anne V Philips, Na Qiao, Karen Clise-Dwyer, Alexander A Perakis, Mao Zhang, Guy Travis Clifton, Pariya Sukhumalchandra, Qing Ma, Sangeetha M Reddy, Dihua Yu, Jeffrey J Molldrem, George E Peoples, Gheath Alatrash, Elizabeth A Mittendorf
Early phase clinical trials evaluating CD8+ T cell-eliciting, HER2-derived peptide vaccines administered to HER2-positive breast cancer patients in the adjuvant setting suggest synergy between the vaccines and trastuzumab, the monoclonal antibody targeting the HER2 protein. Among 60 patients enrolled on clinical trials evaluating the E75+GM-CSF and GP2+GM-CSF vaccines, there have been no recurrences in patients vaccinated after receiving trastuzumab as part of standard therapy in the per treatment analyses conducted after a median follow-up of greater than 34 months...
August 17, 2017: Cancer Research
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