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Vaccinations

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30024986/antibody-to-poly-n-acetyl-glucosamine-provides-protection-against-intracellular-pathogens-mechanism-of-action-and-validation-in-horse-foals-challenged-with-rhodococcus-equi
#1
Colette Cywes-Bentley, Joana N Rocha, Angela I Bordin, Mariana Vinacur, Safia Rehman, Tanweer S Zaidi, Mark Meyer, Sarah Anthony, McKenzie Lambert, Daniel R Vlock, Steeve Giguère, Noah D Cohen, Gerald B Pier
Immune correlates of protection against intracellular bacterial pathogens are largely thought to be cell-mediated, although a reasonable amount of data supports a role for antibody-mediated protection. To define a role for antibody-mediated immunity against an intracellular pathogen, Rhodococcus equi, that causes granulomatous pneumonia in horse foals, we devised and tested an experimental system relying solely on antibody-mediated protection against this host-specific etiologic agent. Immunity was induced by vaccinating pregnant mares 6 and 3 weeks prior to predicted parturition with a conjugate vaccine targeting the highly conserved microbial surface polysaccharide, poly-N-acetyl glucosamine (PNAG)...
July 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30024868/notes-from-the-field-widespread-transmission-of-circulating-vaccine-derived-poliovirus-identified-by-environmental-surveillance-and-immunization-response-horn-of-africa-2017-2018
#2
Victor A Eboh, Jeevan K Makam, Rohit A Chitale, Chukwuma Mbaeyi, Jaume Jorba, Derek Ehrhardt, Elias Durry, Tracie Gardner, Kamil Mohamed, Christopher Kamugisha, Peter Borus, Eltayeb Ahmed Elsayed
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 20, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30024861/th1-memory-differentiates-recombinant-from-live-herpes-zoster-vaccines
#3
Myron J Levin, Miranda E Kroehl, Michael J Johnson, Andrew Hammes, Dominik Reinhold, Nancy Lang, Adriana Weinberg
The adjuvanted varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein E (VZV gE) subunit herpes zoster vaccine (HZ/su) confers higher protection against HZ than the live attenuated zoster vaccine (ZV). To understand the immunologic basis for the different efficacies of the vaccines, we compared immune responses to the vaccines in adults 50- to 85-year-old. gE-specific T cells were very low/undetectable before vaccination when analyzed by FluoroSpot and flow cytometry. Both ZV and HZ/su increased gE-specific responses, but at peak memory response (PMR) after vaccination (30 days after ZV or after the second dose of HZ/su) gE-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses were ≥ 10-fold higher in HZ/su compared with ZV recipients...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30024840/human-vaccines-immunotherapeutics-news
#4
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 3, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30024831/live-attenuated-influenza-vaccine-viral-vector-induces-functional-cytotoxic-t-cell-immune-response-against-foreign-cd8-t-cell-epitopes-inserted-into-na-and-ns1-genes-using-the-2a-self-cleavage-site
#5
Tatiana Kotomina, Daniil Korenkov, Victoria Matyushenko, Polina Prokopenko, Larisa Rudenko, Irina Isakova-Sivak
The development of viral vector vaccines against various pathogens for which conventional vaccination approaches are not applicable has been a priority for a number of years. One promising approach is the insertion of immunodominant conservative cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) epitopes into the genome of a viral vector, which then delivers these epitopes to target cells, inducing immunity. Many different viruses have been assessed as viral vectors for CTL-based vaccines, but only a few of them are clinically relevant, mainly because of safety issues and limited knowledge about their performance in humans...
July 19, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30024829/age-appropriate-compliance-and-completion-of-up-to-five-doses-of-pertussis-vaccine-in-us-children
#6
Girishanthy Krishnarajah, Elisabetta Malangone-Monaco, Liisa Palmer, Ellen Riehle, Philip O Buck
BACKGROUND: In the United States (US), diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccination is recommended at 2, 4, and 6 months (doses 1-3), 15-18 months (dose 4), and 4-6 years (dose 5). The objective of this study (GSK study identifier: HO-14-14383) was to examine DTaP completion and compliance rates among commercially insured and Medicaid-enrolled children. Secondarily, the study aimed at identifying predictors of compliance/completion. METHODS: Truven Health MarketScan Commercial and Multi-State Medicaid databases (2005-2013) were analyzed separately...
July 19, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30024828/readability-of-online-information-about-hpv-immunization
#7
Sarah A MacLean, Corey H Basch, Danna Ethan, Phillip Garcia
The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is highly effective in preventing anogenital cancers, but vaccination rates in the United States remain low. In deciding whether to vaccinate their children, parents are increasingly using the internet to gather information. This study aimed to examine the level of readability of information on HPV vaccines written on 100 websites that were found via an internet search. To create the website sample, the first 50 websites from the search "HPV immunization" were recorded, followed by the first 50 non-duplicated websites from the search "Gardasil...
July 19, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30024827/a-post-hoc-analysis-utilizing-the-fda-toxicity-grading-scale-to-assess-injection-site-adverse-events-following-immunization-with-the-live-attenuated-zoster-vaccine-zvl
#8
Zoran Popmihajlov, Lei Pang, Elizabeth Brown, Amita Joshi, Shu-Chih Su, Susan S Kaplan, English D Willis
BACKGROUND: ZOSTAVAX (ZVL; Zoster Virus Live), is a single dose, live, attenuated vaccine licensed for the prevention of herpes zoster (HZ) and post herpetic neuralgia (PHN) in adults ≥ 50 years of age. Injection site adverse events (AEs) of erythema, swelling and pain were solicited within 5 days post vaccination in the 2 pivotal studies of ZVL; ZEST (ZOSTAVAX Efficacy and Safety Trial) and SPS (Shingles Prevention Study). Protocol specified criteria were used to report the frequency and intensity of injection site AEs in ZEST and SPS studies...
July 19, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30024825/exploring-immunisation-inequities-among-migrant-and-refugee-children-in-new-zealand
#9
Nadia A Charania, Janine Paynter, Arier C Lee, Ms Donna G Watson, Nikki M Turner
Migrants may experience immunisation inequities compared with the host population related to barriers with accessing immunisations in their home countries, while migrating and/or post-arrival. This retrospective cohort study explored vaccination rates among migrant and non-migrant children in New Zealand (NZ). Linked de-identified data from various government sources from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2015 were analysed using Statistic NZ's Integrated Data Infrastructure. Vaccination rates were compared between three cohorts of children aged up to 5 years: foreign-born children who migrated to NZ; children born in NZ of migrant mothers; and a comparator group of children born in NZ to non-migrant mothers...
July 19, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30024823/should-human-papillomavirus-vaccination-target-women-over-age-26-heterosexual-men-and-men-who-have-sex-with-men-a-targeted-literature-review-of-cost-effectiveness
#10
Nyi Nyi Soe, Jason J Ong, Xiaomeng Ma, Christopher K Fairley, Phyu Mon Latt, Jun Jing, Feng Cheng, Lei Zhang
Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination for young women up to age 26 is highly cost-effective and has been implemented in 65 countries globally. We investigate the cost-effectiveness for HPV vaccination program in older women (age > 26 years), heterosexual men and men who have sex with men (MSM). Method A targeted literature review was conducted on PubMed for publications between January 2000 and January 2017 according to the PRISMA guidelines. We included English-language articles that reported the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of HPV vaccination programs for women over age 26, heterosexual men, and MSM and identified the underlying factors for its cost-effectiveness...
July 19, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30024822/experience-and-challenges-on-influenza-and-pertussis-vaccination-in-pregnant-women
#11
Shabir A Madhi, Marta C Nunes
Young infants contribute to relatively high burden of vaccine-preventable diseases, including infections by influenza virus and Bordetella pertussis. Vaccination of pregnant women can enhance transplacental transfer of protective antibody to the fetus and protect the infant against disease during the first few months of life. Pregnant women are a priority group for seasonal influenza vaccination, due to third-trimester pregnancy being a risk-factor for severe influenza illness. Furthermore, randomized controlled trials confirmed that influenza vaccination during pregnancy confers protection against influenza-confirmed illness in the women, and their infants up to 3 months of age; and is also associated with 20% reduction in all-cause pneumonia among young-infants...
July 19, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30024816/transmission-transmissible-hepatitis-b-virus-markers-of-infection-among-sickle-cell-disease-patients-receiving-care-at-a-tertiary-health-facility-in-ibadan-southwest-nigeria
#12
Adeleye Solomon Bakarey, Inioluwa Oyindamola Akinboade, Yetunde Adebisi Aken'Ova
INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis B virus infection attacks the liver and can cause both acute and chronic disease. Sickle cell disease (SCD) patients are at risk of transmission transmissible viral hepatitis due to their constant need for blood transfusion. However, these patients could have been infected with HBV but may not know their status due to asymptomatic nature of the infection. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the burden of HBV markers of infection among SCD patients attending the hematology clinic at a tertiary health facility in Ibadan, Nigeria...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Immunoassay & Immunochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30024803/human-papillomavirus-vaccine-initiation-for-adolescents-following-rhode-island-s-school-entry-requirement-2010-2016
#13
Erika L Thompson, Melvin D Livingston, Ellen M Daley, Gregory D Zimet
OBJECTIVES: To assess changes in human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine initiation for adolescent girls and boys in Rhode Island compared with all other states. METHODS: We estimated the gender-specific effects of Rhode Island's school-entry HPV vaccination policy on self-reported HPV vaccination initiation by using a difference-in-differences design with the National Immunization Survey-Teen from 2010 through 2016. RESULTS: Compared with boys in other states, boys in Rhode Island increased their HPV vaccine initiation rate by 11% (b = 0...
July 19, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30024802/hiv-preexposure-prophylaxis-as-a-gateway-to-primary-care
#14
Julia L Marcus, Kenneth Levine, Chris Grasso, Douglas S Krakower, Victoria Powell, Kyle T Bernstein, Stephen Boswell, Kenneth H Mayer
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use is associated with use of non-HIV-related health care. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of potential PrEP candidates at a Boston, Massachusetts, community health clinic during 2012 to 2016, comparing the proportion of PrEP users and non-PrEP users receiving primary care. RESULTS: Of 5857 PrEP candidates, 2047 (35%) were prescribed PrEP. After adjustment for demographics and number of visits, more PrEP users received influenza vaccination (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1...
July 19, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30024696/can-we-better-protect-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-against-infections-patient-attitude-and-personal-immunization-knowledge
#15
Karolina Waszczuk, Ewa Waszczuk, Leszek Szenborn
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) predisposes patients to a severe course of infections yet adherence to vaccination guidelines is low. Little is known about IBD patient attitude towards immunizations. We aimed to investigate patient attitude towards vaccinations and its influence on personal immunization coverage. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A self-completed survey was completed by 195 IBD patients. The author-designed questionnaire comprised: demographic data, IBD medical history, vaccination history, reasons of influenza vaccine refusal, and the most reliable source of information about immunizations...
April 2018: Acta Gastro-enterologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30024549/prior-vaccinations-improve-immunogenicity-of-inactivated-influenza-vaccine-in-young-children-aged-6-months-to-3-years-a-cohort-study
#16
Kazuya Ito, Ayumi Mugitani, Shin Irie, Motoki Ishibashi, Yoshio Takasaki, Shizuo Shindo, Takashi Yokoyama, Yuji Yamashita, Keigo Shibao, Hideki Koyanagi, Wakaba Fukushima, Satoko Ohfuji, Akiko Maeda, Tetsuo Kase, Yoshio Hirota
In young children, infrequent antigen exposure, which is partly characterized by fewer vaccinations, may be a factor impairing the immunogenicity of inactivated influenza vaccine.We assessed the effects of prior vaccinations on age-specific immune responses in Japanese children aged 6 months to 3 years, using data from a cohort study with 266 children who had received 2 doses (0.25 mL/dose for < 3 years old, 0.5 mL/dose for 3 years old) in the 2006/2007 season. Serological measures, primarily seroprotection rates, between previously vaccinated and vaccine-naïve children were compared within 1-year age strata...
July 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30024308/how-are-children-who-are-delayed-in-the-childhood-vaccination-programme-vaccinated-a-nationwide-register-based-cohort-study-of-danish-children-aged-15-24-months-and-semi-structured-interviews-with-vaccination-providers
#17
Kenneth B Pedersen, Marie E Holck, Aksel K G Jensen, Camilla H Suppli, Christine S Benn, Tyra G Krause, Signe Sørup
AIMS: Delay of childhood vaccinations is common and influences efforts to reduce targeted diseases. In Denmark, the diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio and Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTaP-IPV-Hib) vaccine is recommended at ages 3, 5 and 12 months and the first measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (MMR-1) at 15 months. Following guidelines, children delayed at age 15 months should receive MMR-1 and DTaP-IPV-Hib-3 simultaneously, unless DTaP-IPV-Hib-2 was received less than 6 months ago, when MMR-1 alone is recommended...
July 1, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30023998/polysaccharides-from-burkholderia-species-as-targets-for-vaccine-development-immunomodulation-and-chemical-synthesis
#18
REVIEW
Maude Cloutier, Kevin Muru, Gokulakrishnan Ravicoularamin, Charles Gauthier
Covering: up to 2018Burkholderia species are a vast group of human pathogenic, phytopathogenic, and plant- or environment-associated bacteria. B. pseudomallei, B. mallei, and B. cepacia complex are the causative agents of melioidosis, glanders, and cystic fibrosis-related infections, respectively, which are fatal diseases in humans and animals. Due to their high resistance to antibiotics, high mortality rates, and increased infectivity via the respiratory tract, B. pseudomallei and B. mallei have been listed as potential bioterrorism agents by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...
July 19, 2018: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30023580/multiple-techniques-for-size-determination-of-generalized-modules-for-membrane-antigens-from-salmonella-typhimurium-and-salmonella-enteritidis
#19
Gianluigi De Benedetto, Paola Cescutti, Carlo Giannelli, Roberto Rizzo, Francesca Micoli
In the last years, outer membrane vesicles have attracted a lot of attention for the development of vaccines against bacterial pathogens. Extracellular vesicles can be obtained in high yields by genetic mutations, resulting in generalized modules for membrane antigens (GMMA). Methods to check the quality, consistency of production, and stability of GMMA vaccines are of fundamental importance. In this context, analytical methods for size distribution determination and verifying the integrity and possible aggregation of GMMA particles are strongly needed...
November 30, 2017: ACS Omega
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30023303/vaccination-triggering-onset-of-m-8993t-g-associated-leigh-syndrome
#20
Josef Finsterer, Sinda Zarrouk-Mahjoub
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
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