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Khalea Hayward, Abigail Cline, Angela Stephens, Linda Street
An infection with the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes both varicella and herpes zoster (HZ). Although rare, the development of HZ does occur during pregnancy. Maternal HZ does not result in increased foetal mortality, and the passage of VZV to the foetus rarely occurs. However, HZ does increase maternal morbidity. Upon infection with HZ, patients typically present with a viral prodrome preceding the appearance of the characteristic zoster rash. HZ is usually diagnosed clinically by the zoster rash, but can also be confirmed by a polymerase chain reaction and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
J F Gruber, S Becker-Dreps, M G Hudgens, M A Brookhart, J C Thomas, M Jonsson Funk
Delays in rotavirus vaccine schedule could improve performance in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, delaying the first dose could be detrimental if infants experience severe rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) early in life. Our objective was to describe the timing and predictors of severe RVGE in unvaccinated children in LMICs. We analysed the placebo arms from two clinical trials (cohort 1: NCT00241644; cohort 2: NCT00362648). We estimated the rate, cumulative incidence (per 1000 infants) and age distribution of severe RVGE episodes...
March 22, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
A Kirolos, C Waugh, K Templeton, D McCormick, R Othieno, L J Willocks, J Stevenson
In September 2016, an imported case of measles in Edinburgh in a university student resulted in a further 17 confirmed cases during October and November 2016. All cases were genotype D8 and were associated with a virus strain most commonly seen in South East Asia. Twelve of the 18 cases were staff or students at a university in Edinburgh and 17 cases had incomplete or unknown measles mumps rubella (MMR) vaccination status. The public health response included mass follow-up of all identified contacts, widespread communications throughout universities in Edinburgh and prompt vaccination clinics at affected campuses...
March 22, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
M Fernández-Prada, O D Rodríguez-Fonseca, A M Brandy-García, P Alonso-Penanes, I Huerta-González, F Fernández-Noval
OBJECTIVE: Co-infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) increases associated morbidity and mortality. Vaccination against HBV has been shown to be the most effective method to prevent this situation. Standard vaccination schemes used in this population do not appear to be effective enough. The objective is to identify the response rate following the use of AS04C-adjuvanted hepatitis B vaccine in HIV patients as well as the possible associated adverse reactions...
March 19, 2018: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
Chelsea Ryan, Kathryn L Duvall, Emily C Weyant, Kiana R Johnson, David Wood
Though vaccine uptake and public support have risen since the release of the first HPV vaccines, the United States has far lower initiation and completion rates for the HPV vaccine series in comparison to other vaccines indicated for youth. Disparities are even greater in the Appalachian regions. Understanding factors contributing to these discrepancies is vital to improving vaccine rates in Appalachia. A comprehensive literature search identified all articles pertaining to HPV vaccination in children and adolescents living in Appalachia...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Community Health
Chuan Loo Wong, Chean Yeah Yong, Azira Muhamad, Amir Syahir, Abdul Rahman Omar, Chin Chin Sieo, Wen Siang Tan
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a major threat to the livestock industry worldwide. Despite constant surveillance and effective vaccination, the perpetual mutations of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) pose a huge challenge to FMD diagnosis. The immunodominant region of the FMDV VP1 protein (residues 131-170) displayed on phage T7 has been used to detect anti-FMDV in bovine sera. In the present study, the functional epitope was further delineated using amino acid sequence alignment, homology modelling and phage display...
March 21, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
P Martijn den Reijer, Mehri Tavakol, Nicole Lemmens-den Toom, Dikra Allouch, Sheila Thomas, Vannakambadi K Ganesh, Ya-Ping Ko, Henri A Verbrugh, Willem J B van Wamel
The fibronectin-binding protein A (FnBPA) is a cell surface-associated protein of Staphylococcus aureus which mediates adherence to the host extracellular matrix and is important for bacterial virulence. Previously, substantial sequence diversity was found among strains in the fibrinogen-binding A domain of this protein, and 7 different isotypes were described. The effect of this sequence diversity on the human antibody response, in terms of both antibody production and antibody function, remains unclear. In this study, we identify five different FnBPA A domain isotypes based on the sequence results of 22 clinical S...
March 2018: MSphere
Cheng Chen, Mukil Natarajan, David Bianchi, Georg Aue, John H Powers
We present a case of acute epiglottitis in a 16-year-old with severe aplastic anemia. He was admitted with a history suggestive of a severe upper airway infection and an absolute neutrophil count of 0 per cubic millimeter. Despite his immunocompromised state, he presented with the classical signs and symptoms of epiglottitis. We review here the presentation and comorbidities of immunocompromised patients with epiglottitis. In addition, the appropriate choice of empirical antibiotic therapy is important for the management of epiglottitis in immunocompromised patients, especially in the post- Haemophilus influenza type B vaccination era...
March 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Aparna Kalyan, Sheetal Kircher, Hiral Shah, Mary Mulcahy, Al Benson
Despite significant advances in standard of care therapies, the 5-year survival rate for metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) remains around 12%. Immunotherapy has not provided the stellar advances in colorectal cancer that has been seen in other malignancies. Immunotherapy appears to play a pivotal role in microsatellite unstable CRC tumors where the response rates are profound. These results have led to FDA approval of pembrolizumab for MSI-H CRC tumors. Additional research into several new immune agents including IDO inhibitors, vaccine therapy and combinatorial agents are being evaluated for CRC...
February 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
Ari Rosenberg, Devalingam Mahalingam
Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAC) remains one of the leading causes of cancer-related death. Despite multiple advances in targeted and immune therapies, the 5-year survival in advanced PAC remains poor. In this review, we discuss some of the unique aspects of the tumor microenvironment (TME) in PAC that may contribute to its resistance to immune therapies, as well as opportunities to potentially overcome some of these inherent barriers. Furthermore, we discuss strategies to enable immune therapies in PAC such as cytotoxic chemotherapy and radiation therapy, cancer vaccines, cytokine based therapy, oncolytic viruses, and adoptive T-cell therapy...
February 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
Joanna Morrison, Issarapa Chunsuwan, Petch Bunnag, Petra C Gronholm, Georgia Lockwood Estrin
Introduction: In low-income and middle-income countries, it is estimated that one in every three preschool-age children are failing to meet cognitive or socioemotional developmental milestones. Thailand has implemented a universal national developmental screening programme (DSPM) for young children to enable detection of developmental disorders and early intervention that can improve child health outcomes. DSPM implementation is being hampered by low attendance at follow-up appointments when children fail the initial screening...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Wee Ming Koh, Hishamuddin Badaruddin, Hanh La, Mark I-Cheng Chen, Alex R Cook
Background: Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) affects millions of children across Asia annually, leading to an increase in implemented control policies such as surveillance, isolation and social distancing in affected jurisdictions. However, limited knowledge of disease burden and severity causes difficulty in policy optimisation as the associated economic cost cannot be easily estimated. We use a data synthesis approach to provide a comprehensive picture of HFMD disease burden, estimating infection risk, symptomatic rates, the risk of complications and death, and overall disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) losses, along with associated uncertainties...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Seung Woo Jeong, Do Hee Kim, Mi Young Han, Sung-Ho Cha, Kyung Lim Yoon
Kawasaki disease (KD) is a childhood vascular disorder of unknown etiology. Concerns have recently been raised regarding vaccinations as a potential risk factor for KD. In addition, various forms of vasculitis have been reported as adverse events following administration after various vaccines. Patients exhibiting post vaccination KD have previously been described; however, thus far, to the best of our knowledge, only one patient exhibiting post influenza vaccination KD has been reported in Japan. The present study describes a case of KD 24 h after immunization with influenza in an infant (age, 18 months) following 6 days of high fever, a body rash that had persisted for 2 days and nonsuppurative bilateral conjunctivitis...
March 2018: Biomedical Reports
Yoko Motokawa, Michifumi Kokubo, Nobuo Kuwabara, Ken-Ichiro Tatematsu, Hideki Sezutsu, Hideyuki Takahashi, Koichi Sakakura, Kazuaki Chikamatsu, Shigeki Takeda
Recent clinical trials with the aim of developing tumor antigen (TA)-specific cancer vaccines against a number of malignancies have focused on the identification of TAs presented by tumor cells and recognized by T cells. In the present study, the TA melanoma antigen family A4 (MAGE-A4) protein was produced using a transgenic (TG) silkworm system. Using in vitro stimulation, it was subsequently determined whether MAGE-A4 protein induced MAGE-A4-specific T cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy donors...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Bokkwan Jun, Frederick W Fraunfelder
The existence of vaccine-associated optic neuritis is essentially based on the temporal relationship between the administration of a vaccine and the development of optic neuritis in patients with no other known aetiologies for infectious or non-infectious inflammation that could account for the optic neuritis. Influenza vaccine (inactivated or live attenuated) is considered to be one of vaccines that could be related to optic neuritis. The authors describe a rare case of bilateral asymmetric optic neuritis with leptomeningeal enhancement on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a previously healthy young woman who received inactivated influenza vaccination 2 weeks before the onset of symptoms...
April 2018: Neuro-ophthalmology
Blaise Corthésy, Gilles Bioley
Vaccination is the process of administering immunogenic formulations in order to induce or harness antigen (Ag)-specific antibody and T cell responses in order to protect against infections. Important successes have been obtained in protecting individuals against many deleterious pathological situations after parenteral vaccination. However, one of the major limitations of the current vaccination strategies is the administration route that may not be optimal for the induction of immunity at the site of pathogen entry, i...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Hua Zhao, Can Xu, Xiaoli Luo, Feng Wei, Ning Wang, Huiying Shi, Xiubao Ren
Since the preclinical results about chimpanzee adenovirus serotype-68 (AdC68)-based vaccine showed an encouraging results, it reminded us that AdC68 may be a suitable cancer vaccine vector. Previous study indicated that the seroprevalence of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against adenovirus was different between cancer patients and healthy volunteers. Knowledge regarding the prevalence rates of AdC68 NAbs for cancer patients is lacking. Therefore, assessing the preexistence of NAbs against AdC68 in cancer patients could provide useful insights for developing future AdC68-based cancer vaccines...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Hyun J Yu, Da S R Cha, Dong-Hun Shin, Gopinath B Nair, Eun J Kim, Dong W Kim
Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae strains arise upon infection and integration of the lysogenic cholera toxin phage, the CTX phage, into bacterial chromosomes. The V. cholerae serogroup O1 strains identified to date can be broadly categorized into three main groups: the classical biotype strains, which harbor CTX-cla; the prototype El Tor strains (Wave 1 strains), which harbor CTX-1; and the atypical El Tor strains, which harbor CTX-2 (Wave 2 strains) or CTX-3~6 (Wave 3 strains). The efficiencies of replication and transmission of CTX phages are similar, suggesting the possibility of existence of more diverse bacterial strains harboring various CTX phages and their arrays in nature...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Sarah Seton-Rogers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 22, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cancer
Joseph A Lewnard, Yonatan H Grad
After decades of declining mumps incidence amid widespread vaccination, the United States and other developed countries have experienced a resurgence in mumps cases over the last decade. Outbreaks affecting vaccinated individuals and communities with high vaccine coverage have prompted concerns about the effectiveness of the live attenuated vaccine currently in use. It is unclear whether immune protection wanes or whether the vaccine protects inadequately against currently circulating mumps virus lineages. Synthesizing data from six studies of mumps vaccine effectiveness, we estimated that vaccine-derived immune protection against mumps wanes on average 27 years (95% confidence interval, 16 to 51 years) after vaccination...
March 21, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
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