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metabolic response to trauma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755574/branched-chain-amino-acids-in-health-and-disease-metabolism-alterations-in-blood-plasma-and-as-supplements
#1
REVIEW
Milan Holeček
Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs; valine, leucine, and isoleucine) are essential amino acids with protein anabolic properties, which have been studied in a number of muscle wasting disorders for more than 50 years. However, until today, there is no consensus regarding their therapeutic effectiveness. In the article is demonstrated that the crucial roles in BCAA metabolism play: (i) skeletal muscle as the initial site of BCAA catabolism accompanied with the release of alanine and glutamine to the blood; (ii) activity of branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKD); and (iii) amination of branched-chain keto acids (BCKAs) to BCAAs...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751949/platelet-storage-lesions-what-more-do-we-know-now
#2
REVIEW
Monica Suet Ying Ng, John-Paul Tung, John Francis Fraser
Platelet concentrate (PC) transfusions are a lifesaving adjunct to control and prevent bleeding in cancer, hematologic, surgical, and trauma patients. Platelet concentrate availability and safety are limited by the development of platelet storage lesions (PSLs) and risk of bacterial contamination. Platelet storage lesions are a series of biochemical, structural, and functional changes that occur from blood collection to transfusion. Understanding of PSLs is key for devising interventions that prolong PC shelf life to improve PC access and wastage...
April 17, 2018: Transfusion Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736569/osteoarthritis-trauma-vs-disease
#3
Gema Jiménez, Jesús Cobo-Molinos, Cristina Antich, Elena López-Ruiz
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most prevalent joint disease characterized by pain and degenerative lesions of the cartilage, subchondral bone, and other joint tissues. The causes of OA remain incompletely understood. Over the years, it has become recognized that OA is a multifactorial disease. In particular, aging and trauma are the main risk factors identified for the development of OA; however, other factors such as genetic predisposition, obesity, inflammation, gender and hormones, or metabolic syndrome contribute to OA development and lead to a more severe outcome...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696020/extracellular-vesicles-packages-sent-with-complement
#4
REVIEW
Ebru Karasu, Steffen U Eisenhardt, Julia Harant, Markus Huber-Lang
Cells communicate with other cells in their microenvironment by transferring lipids, peptides, RNA, and sugars in extracellular vesicles (EVs), thereby also influencing recipient cell functions. Several studies indicate that these vesicles are involved in a variety of critical cellular processes including immune, metabolic, and coagulatory responses and are thereby associated with several inflammatory diseases. Furthermore, EVs also possess anti-inflammatory properties and contribute to immune regulation, thus encouraging an emerging interest in investigating and clarifying mechanistic links between EVs and innate immunity...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664527/-perioperative-nutrition-in-eras-protocols
#5
Andrés Sánchez C, Karin Papapietro V
The trauma involved in any surgical procedure, even if elective, causes a metabolic stress response characterized by postoperative insulin resistance (PIR). PIR is considered a surgical stress marker and is associated with increased morbidity and postoperative length of stay. PIR worsens when the patient is operated in a state of prolonged preoperative fasting or when postoperative feeding is delayed. The ERAS Protocols (Enhanced Recovery After Surgery) includes anesthetic, surgical, kinesiology, nutritional and nursing interventions aimed to modulate PIR...
November 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618839/metformin-adapts-its-cellular-effects-to-bioenergetic-status-in-a-model-of-metabolic-dysfunction
#6
Christopher Auger, Thibacg Sivayoganathan, Abdikarim Abdullahi, Alexandra Parousis, Bo Wen Pang, Marc G Jeschke
Thermal injury induces a complex immunometabolic response, characterized by hyperglycemia, extensive inflammation and persistent hypermetabolism. It has been suggested that attenuation of the hypermetabolic response is beneficial for patient wellbeing. To that effect, metformin represents an attractive therapeutic agent, as its effects on glycemia, inflammation and bioenergetics can improve outcomes in burn patients. Therefore, we studied metformin and its effects on mitochondrial bioenergetics in a murine model of thermal injury...
April 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616230/anesthesia-associated-relative-hypovolemia-mechanisms-monitoring-and-treatment-considerations
#7
Jessica Noel-Morgan, William W Muir
Although the utility and benefits of anesthesia and analgesia are irrefutable, their practice is not void of risks. Almost all drugs that produce anesthesia endanger cardiovascular stability by producing dose-dependent impairment of cardiac function, vascular reactivity, and compensatory autoregulatory responses. Whereas anesthesia-related depression of cardiac performance and arterial vasodilation are well recognized adverse effects contributing to anesthetic risk, far less emphasis has been placed on effects impacting venous physiology and venous return...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544199/metabolomic-association-between-venous-thromboembolism-in-critically-ill-trauma-patients-and-kynurenine-pathway-of-tryptophan-metabolism
#8
Stacy A Voils, Mohamed H Shahin, Timothy J Garrett, Reginald F Frye
OBJECTIVE: Incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in critically ill patients remains unacceptably high despite widespread use of thromboprophylaxis. A systems biology approach may be useful in understanding disease pathology and predicting response to treatment. Metabolite profile under specific environmental conditions provides the closest link to phenotype, but the relationship between metabolomics and risk of VTE in critically ill patients is unknown. In this study, metabolomics signatures are compared in patients with and without VTE...
March 8, 2018: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461267/a-prospective-transcranial-doppler-ultrasound-based-evaluation-of-the-effects-of-repetitive-subconcussive-head-trauma-on-neurovascular-coupling-dynamics
#9
Alexander D Wright, Jonathan D Smirl, Kelsey Bryk, Michael Jakovac, Paul van Donkelaar
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of repetitive subconcussive head trauma on neurovascular coupling (NVC) responses. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study collected between September 2013 and December 2016. SETTING: University laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred seventy-nine elite, junior-level (age, 19.6 ± 1.5 years) contact sport (ice hockey, American football) athletes recruited for preseason testing. Fifty-two nonconcussed athletes returned for postseason testing...
February 14, 2018: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445230/investigation-of-biomarkers-alterations-after-an-acute-tissue-trauma-in-human-trapezius-muscle-using-microdialysis
#10
Line Bay Sørensen, Parisa Gazerani, Karin Wåhlén, Nazdar Ghafouri, Björn Gerdle, Bijar Ghafouri
Alterations in muscle milieu are suggested as important activity of peripheral drive in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain (CMP). Microdialysis (MD) has been used in monitoring altered metabolic response pattern in muscles. However, the insertion of MD probe causes a local tissue trauma. Whether and how metabolites in trapezius muscle are affected by acute tissue trauma is unknown. Hence, this study investigated the metabolic response and nociceptive reaction of the tissue following MD probe insertion in patients with CMP and healthy individuals...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424792/in-depth-characterization-of-the-effects-of-cigarette-smoke-exposure-on-the-acute-trauma-response-and-hemorrhage-in-mice
#11
Clair Hartmann, Michael Gröger, Jan-Philipp Noirhomme, Angelika Scheuerle, Peter Möller, Ulrich Wachter, Markus Huber-Lang, Benedikt Nussbaum, Birgit Jung, Tamara Merz, Oscar McCook, Sandra Kress, Bettina Stahl, Enrico Calzia, Michael Georgieff, Peter Radermacher, Martin Wepler
INTRODUCTION: Hemorrhagic shock accounts for a large amount of trauma-related mortality. The severity of trauma can be further aggravated by an additional blunt chest trauma (TxT), which independently contributes to mortality upon the development of an acute lung injury (ALI). Besides, cigarette smoke (CS) exposure before TxT enhanced posttraumatic inflammation, thereby aggravating ALI. We therefore aimed to characterize the impact of an acute and/or chronic lung injury on organ dysfunction in a murine model of traumatic hemorrhagic shock (HS)...
February 8, 2018: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394142/hypermetabolism-and-nutritional-support-in-sepsis
#12
John C Alverdy
BACKGROUND: Surgical metabolism has been a founding field of investigation in surgery without which the boundaries of critical care, trauma, and surgical oncology could not have advanced. Traditionally, understanding the shifts in electrolytes, carbohydrates, fats, and amino acids that could explain the rapidly evolving proteolysis after catabolic stress and tumor growth has been a major focus of research that led to our current approach to maintaining homeostasis over the course of major surgical intervention and injury...
February 2018: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327206/brain-photobiomodulation-therapy-a-narrative-review
#13
REVIEW
Farzad Salehpour, Javad Mahmoudi, Farzin Kamari, Saeed Sadigh-Eteghad, Seyed Hossein Rasta, Michael R Hamblin
Brain photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy using red to near-infrared (NIR) light is an innovative treatment for a wide range of neurological and psychological conditions. Red/NIR light is able to stimulate complex IV of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (cytochrome c oxidase) and increase ATP synthesis. Moreover, light absorption by ion channels results in release of Ca2+ and leads to activation of transcription factors and gene expression. Brain PBM therapy enhances the metabolic capacity of neurons and stimulates anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and antioxidant responses, as well as neurogenesis and synaptogenesis...
January 11, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297363/critical-illness-and-flat-batteries
#14
REVIEW
Mervyn Singer
An exaggerated, dysregulated host response to insults such as infection (i.e. sepsis), trauma and ischaemia-reperfusion injury can result in multiple organ dysfunction and death. While the focus of research in this area has largely centred on inflammation and immunity, a crucial missing link is the precise identification of mechanisms at the organ level that cause this physiological-biochemical failure. Any hypothesis must reconcile this functional organ failure with minimal signs of cell death, availability of oxygen, and (often) minimal early local inflammatory cell infiltrate...
December 28, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296771/red-blood-cells-in-hemorrhagic-shock-a-critical-role-for-glutaminolysis-in-fueling-alanine-transamination-in-rats
#15
Julie A Reisz, Anne L Slaughter, Rachel Culp-Hill, Ernest E Moore, Christopher C Silliman, Miguel Fragoso, Erik D Peltz, Kirk C Hansen, Anirban Banerjee, Angelo D'Alessandro
Red blood cells (RBCs) are the most abundant host cell in the human body and play a critical role in oxygen transport and systemic metabolic homeostasis. Hypoxic metabolic reprogramming of RBCs in response to high-altitude hypoxia or anaerobic storage in the blood bank has been extensively described. However, little is known about the RBC metabolism following hemorrhagic shock (HS), the most common preventable cause of death in trauma, the global leading cause of total life-years lost. Metabolomics analyses were performed through ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry on RBCs from Sprague-Dawley rats undergoing HS (mean arterial pressure [MAP], <30 mm Hg) in comparison with sham rats (MAP, >80 mm Hg)...
July 25, 2017: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280924/metabolomics-and-precision-medicine-in-trauma-the-state-of-the-field
#16
Sudha P Jayaraman, Rahul J Anand, Jonathan H DeAntonio, Martin Mangino, Michel B Aboutanos, Vigneshwar Kasirajan, Rao Ivatury, Alex B Valadka, Olena Glushakova, Ronald L Hayes, Lorin M Bachmann, Gretchen M Brophy, Daniel Contaifer, Urszula O Warncke, Donald F Brophy, Dayanjan S Wijesinghe
Trauma is a major problem in the United States. Mortality from trauma is the number one cause of death under the age of 45 in the US and is the third leading cause of death for all age groups. There are nearly 200,000 deaths per year due to trauma in the US at a cost of over $671 billion in combined health care costs and lost productivity. Unsurprisingly, trauma accounts for about 30% of all life-years lost in the US. Due to immense development of trauma systems, a large majority of trauma patients survive the injury but then go on to die from complications arising from the injury...
December 26, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239310/micrornas-as-diagnostic-markers-and-therapeutic-targets-for-traumatic-brain-injury
#17
REVIEW
Bridget Martinez, Philip V Peplow
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is characterized by primary damage to the brain from the external mechanical force and by subsequent secondary injury due to various molecular and pathophysiological responses that eventually lead to neuronal cell death. Secondary brain injury events may occur minutes, hours, or even days after the trauma, and provide valuable therapeutic targets to prevent further neuronal degeneration. At the present time, there is no effective treatment for TBI due, in part, to the widespread impact of numerous complex secondary biochemical and pathophysiological events occurring at different time points following the initial injury...
November 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206761/skeletal-muscle-mitochondrial-function-is-determined-by-burn-severity-sex-and-sepsis-and-is-associated-with-glucose-metabolism-and-functional-capacity-in-burned-children
#18
Victoria G Rontoyanni, Ioannis Malagaris, David N Herndon, Eric Rivas, Karel D Capek, Anahi D Delgadillo, Nisha Bhattarai, Armando Elizondo, Charles D Voigt, Celeste C Finnerty, Oscar E Suman, Craig Porter
BACKGROUND: Restoring normal mitochondrial function represents a new target for strategies aimed at mitigating the stress response to severe burn trauma and hastening recovery. Our objective was to investigate the determinants of skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiratory capacity and function and its association with glucose metabolism and functional capacity in burned children. METHODS: Data from burned children enrolled in the placebo arm of an ongoing prospective clinical trial were analyzed...
December 4, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189977/efficacy-and-safety-of-atypical-antipsychotics-for-behavioral-symptoms-of-dementia-among-patients-residing-in-long-term-care
#19
A S Sturm, K E Trinkley, K Porter, Milap C Nahata
Background There are limited options for the treatment of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). Objective Evaluate the efficacy and safety of using atypical antipsychotics for BPSD among patients residing in long-term care. Setting Long term care community facility in the United States. Methods Retrospective observational study of patients residing in a long-term care facility with a diagnosis of dementia not trauma-induced with documented BPSD treated with an atypical antipsychotic for at least 2 weeks...
February 2018: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180997/inherent-x-linked-genetic-variability-and-cellular-mosaicism-unique-to-females-contribute-to-sex-related-differences-in-the-innate-immune-response
#20
Zoltan Spolarics, Geber Peña, Yong Qin, Robert J Donnelly, David H Livingston
Females have a longer lifespan and better general health than males. Considerable number of studies also demonstrated that, after trauma and sepsis, females present better outcomes as compared to males indicating sex-related differences in the innate immune response. The current notion is that differences in the immuno-modulatory effects of sex hormones are the underlying causative mechanism. However, the field remains controversial and the exclusive role of sex hormones has been challenged. Here, we propose that polymorphic X-linked immune competent genes, which are abundant in the population are important players in sex-based immuno-modulation and play a key role in causing sex-related outcome differences following trauma or sepsis...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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