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metabolic response to trauma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327206/brain-photobiomodulation-therapy-a-narrative-review
#1
REVIEW
Farzad Salehpour, Javad Mahmoudi, Farzin Kamari, Saeed Sadigh-Eteghad, Seyed Hossein Rasta, Michael R Hamblin
Brain photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy using red to near-infrared (NIR) light is an innovative treatment for a wide range of neurological and psychological conditions. Red/NIR light is able to stimulate complex IV of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (cytochrome c oxidase) and increase ATP synthesis. Moreover, light absorption by ion channels results in release of Ca2+ and leads to activation of transcription factors and gene expression. Brain PBM therapy enhances the metabolic capacity of neurons and stimulates anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and antioxidant responses, as well as neurogenesis and synaptogenesis...
January 11, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297363/critical-illness-and-flat-batteries
#2
REVIEW
Mervyn Singer
An exaggerated, dysregulated host response to insults such as infection (i.e. sepsis), trauma and ischaemia-reperfusion injury can result in multiple organ dysfunction and death. While the focus of research in this area has largely centred on inflammation and immunity, a crucial missing link is the precise identification of mechanisms at the organ level that cause this physiological-biochemical failure. Any hypothesis must reconcile this functional organ failure with minimal signs of cell death, availability of oxygen, and (often) minimal early local inflammatory cell infiltrate...
December 28, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296771/red-blood-cells-in-hemorrhagic-shock-a-critical-role-for-glutaminolysis-in-fueling-alanine-transamination-in-rats
#3
Julie A Reisz, Anne L Slaughter, Rachel Culp-Hill, Ernest E Moore, Christopher C Silliman, Miguel Fragoso, Erik D Peltz, Kirk C Hansen, Anirban Banerjee, Angelo D'Alessandro
Red blood cells (RBCs) are the most abundant host cell in the human body and play a critical role in oxygen transport and systemic metabolic homeostasis. Hypoxic metabolic reprogramming of RBCs in response to high-altitude hypoxia or anaerobic storage in the blood bank has been extensively described. However, little is known about the RBC metabolism following hemorrhagic shock (HS), the most common preventable cause of death in trauma, the global leading cause of total life-years lost. Metabolomics analyses were performed through ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry on RBCs from Sprague-Dawley rats undergoing HS (mean arterial pressure [MAP], <30 mm Hg) in comparison with sham rats (MAP, >80 mm Hg)...
July 25, 2017: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280924/metabolomics-and-precision-medicine-in-trauma-the-state-of-the-field
#4
Sudha P Jayaraman, Rahul J Anand, Jonathan H DeAntonio, Martin Mangino, Michel B Aboutanos, Vigneshwar Kasirajan, Rao Ivatury, Alex B Valadka, Olena Glushakova, Ronald L Hayes, Lorin M Bachmann, Gretchen M Brophy, Daniel Contaifer, Urszula O Warncke, Donald F Brophy, Dayanjan S Wijesinghe
Trauma is a major problem in the United States. Mortality from trauma is the number one cause of death under the age of 45 in the US and is the third leading cause of death for all age groups. There are nearly 200,000 deaths per year due to trauma in the US at a cost of over $671 billion in combined health care costs and lost productivity. Unsurprisingly, trauma accounts for about 30% of all life-years lost in the US. Due to immense development of trauma systems, a large majority of trauma patients survive the injury but then go on to die from complications arising from the injury...
December 26, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239310/micrornas-as-diagnostic-markers-and-therapeutic-targets-for-traumatic-brain-injury
#5
REVIEW
Bridget Martinez, Philip V Peplow
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is characterized by primary damage to the brain from the external mechanical force and by subsequent secondary injury due to various molecular and pathophysiological responses that eventually lead to neuronal cell death. Secondary brain injury events may occur minutes, hours, or even days after the trauma, and provide valuable therapeutic targets to prevent further neuronal degeneration. At the present time, there is no effective treatment for TBI due, in part, to the widespread impact of numerous complex secondary biochemical and pathophysiological events occurring at different time points following the initial injury...
November 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206761/skeletal-muscle-mitochondrial-function-is-determined-by-burn-severity-sex-and-sepsis-and-is-associated-with-glucose-metabolism-and-functional-capacity-in-burned-children
#6
Victoria G Rontoyanni, Ioannis Malagaris, David N Herndon, Eric Rivas, Karel D Capek, Anahi D Delgadillo, Nisha Bhattarai, Armando Elizondo, Charles D Voigt, Celeste C Finnerty, Oscar E Suman, Craig Porter
BACKGROUND: Restoring normal mitochondrial function represents a new target for strategies aimed at mitigating the stress response to severe burn trauma and hastening recovery. Our objective was to investigate the determinants of skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiratory capacity and function and its association with glucose metabolism and functional capacity in burned children. METHODS: Data from burned children enrolled in the placebo arm of an ongoing prospective clinical trial were analyzed...
December 4, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189977/efficacy-and-safety-of-atypical-antipsychotics-for-behavioral-symptoms-of-dementia-among-patients-residing-in-long-term-care
#7
A S Sturm, K E Trinkley, K Porter, Milap C Nahata
Background There are limited options for the treatment of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). Objective Evaluate the efficacy and safety of using atypical antipsychotics for BPSD among patients residing in long-term care. Setting Long term care community facility in the United States. Methods Retrospective observational study of patients residing in a long-term care facility with a diagnosis of dementia not trauma-induced with documented BPSD treated with an atypical antipsychotic for at least 2 weeks...
November 30, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180997/inherent-x-linked-genetic-variability-and-cellular-mosaicism-unique-to-females-contribute-to-sex-related-differences-in-the-innate-immune-response
#8
Zoltan Spolarics, Geber Peña, Yong Qin, Robert J Donnelly, David H Livingston
Females have a longer lifespan and better general health than males. Considerable number of studies also demonstrated that, after trauma and sepsis, females present better outcomes as compared to males indicating sex-related differences in the innate immune response. The current notion is that differences in the immuno-modulatory effects of sex hormones are the underlying causative mechanism. However, the field remains controversial and the exclusive role of sex hormones has been challenged. Here, we propose that polymorphic X-linked immune competent genes, which are abundant in the population are important players in sex-based immuno-modulation and play a key role in causing sex-related outcome differences following trauma or sepsis...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175959/disrupted-neuro-glial-metabolic-coupling-after-peripheral-surgery
#9
Teresa Femenía, Alfredo Giménez-Cassina, Simone Codeluppi, Teresa Fernández-Zafra, Yurika Katsu-Jiménez, Niccolò Terrando, Lars I Eriksson, Marta Gómez-Galán
Immune-related events in the periphery can remotely affect brain function, contributing to neurodegenerative processes and cognitive decline. In mice, peripheral surgery induces a systemic inflammatory response associated with changes in hippocampal synaptic plasticity and transient cognitive decline, however the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Here we investigated the effect of peripheral surgery on neuronal-glial function within hippocampal neuronal circuits of relevance to cognitive processing in male mice at 6, 24, and 72h post-surgery...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175878/ionised-calcium-levels-in-major-trauma-patients-who-received-blood-en-route-to-a-military-medical-treatment-facility
#10
Tony Kyle, Ian Greaves, Anthony Beynon, Vicky Whittaker, Mike Brewer, Jason Smith
BACKGROUND: Hypocalcaemia is a common metabolic derangement in critically ill patients. Blood transfusion can also contribute to depleted calcium levels. The aims of this study were to identify the incidence of hypocalcaemia in military trauma patients receiving blood products en route to a deployed hospital facility and to determine if intravenous calcium, given during the prehospital phase, has an effect on admission calcium levels. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of patients transported by the UK Medical Emergency Response Team in Afghanistan between January 2010 and December 2014 who were treated with blood products in the prehospital setting...
November 24, 2017: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162266/plasma-free-carnitine-in-severe-trauma-influence-of-the-association-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#11
Fanny Vardon Bounes, Géraldine Faure, Antoine Rouget, Jean-Marie Conil, Bernard Georges, Thomas Geeraerts, Olivier Fourcade, Vincent Minville, Clément Delmas
BACKGROUND: Metabolic response to severe trauma requires early nutritional resuscitation. Carnitine is essential for lipolysis, the energy source during this hypercatabolic phase. However l-carnitine is not present in nutritional replacement solutions. Furthermore, free carnitine depletion, defined as carnitine plasma level under 36μmol/L, was not adequately reported in adult patients with severe trauma. The aim of this study was to assess plasma free carnitine levels and factors of variation in severe trauma...
November 15, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147123/acute-necrotizing-pancreatitis-following-coronary-artery-angiography-a-case-report
#12
Majid Hajimaghsoudi, Faezeh Zeinali, Mehrdad Mansouri, Mohammad Hosein Dehghani
BACKGROUND: Acute pancreatitis has different etiologies from biliary stone to metabolic disturbances. Coronary angiography is one of the newly understood etiologies. CASE REPORT: This paper is about a women suffering from acute pancreatitis after coronary angiography. CONCLUSION: Embolization of cholesterol crystals due to vessel wall trauma during coronary angiography as well as contrast medium are responsible for such side effect.
May 2017: ARYA Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146453/cellular-and-biochemical-parameters-following-autotomy-and-ablation-mediated-cheliped-loss-in-the-chinese-mitten-crab-eriocheir-sinensis
#13
Xiao-Zhen Yang, Cong Zhang, Gen-Yong Huang, Min-Jie Xu, Yong-Xu Cheng, Zhi-Gang Yang, Qian Zhang, Yi-Yue Wang
In the pond culture of juvenile Eriocheir sinensis, various factors have frequently led to a high rate of autotomy and limb impairments. This study evaluated the differential effects of cheliped loss with autotomy and ablation on the short-term cellular and biochemical parameters of juvenile E. sinensis. In this study, compared with the crabs before treatment, the total hemocyte counts (THC), granulocyte counts (GC), hemocyte agglutination, phosphatase activity and glucose metabolism levels were significantly increased, while hyalinocyte counts (HC) and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) were significantly decreased within 3 h...
November 13, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132580/the-kids-are-alright-pediatric-trauma-pearls
#14
REVIEW
Angelo Mikrogianakis, Vincent Grant
Pediatric patients with trauma pose unique challenges, both practical and cognitive, to front-line care providers. The combination of anatomic, physiologic, and metabolic factors leads to unique injury patterns with different approaches and responses to treatment compared with adults. A similar traumatic mechanism can lead to slightly different internal injuries with unique management and treatment strategies between the two groups. This article is intended for community, nonpediatric trauma centers, and emergency physicians who are frequently required to assess, resuscitate, and stabilize injured children before they can be safely transferred to a pediatric trauma center for ongoing definitive care and rehabilitation...
February 2018: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129636/inflammation-mediated-muscle-metabolic-dysregulation-local-and-remote-to-the-site-of-major-abdominal-surgery
#15
Krishna K Varadhan, Dumitru Constantin-Teodosiu, Despina Constantin, Paul L Greenhaff, Dileep N Lobo
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Postoperative hyperglycaemia is common in patients having major surgery and is associated with adverse outcomes. This study aimed to determine whether bacteraemia contributed to postoperative systemic inflammation, and whether increases in the expression of muscle mRNAs and proteins reflecting increased muscle inflammation, atrophy and impaired carbohydrate oxidation were evident at the time of surgery, and both local and distant to the site of trauma, and could be associated with impaired glucoregulation...
November 2, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118899/alterations-in-tendon-microenvironment-in-response-to-mechanical-load-potential-molecular-targets-for-treatment-strategies
#16
REVIEW
Mohamed B Fouda, Finosh G Thankam, Matthew F Dilisio, Devendra K Agrawal
Rotator cuff (RC) tendons could beinflicted in many ways with an eventual outcome of pain, weakness and disability, which represent a large burden on health care cost. However, optimal healing, either conservatively or with surgical intervention, remains an issue that needs further investigation. Disorders of the RC tendons may result from external factors like trauma, or internal factors through physiologic and metabolic derangement. Most RC tendon disorders may be asymptomatic and may result from an over-activity of the inflicted shoulder and its tendons...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032144/peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-ppar%C3%AE-a-master-gatekeeper-in-cns-injury-and-repair
#17
REVIEW
Wei Cai, Tuo Yang, Huan Liu, Lijuan Han, Kai Zhang, Xiaoming Hu, Xuejing Zhang, Ke-Jie Yin, Yanqin Gao, Michael V L Bennett, Rehana K Leak, Jun Chen
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is a widely expressed ligand-modulated transcription factor that governs the expression of genes involved in inflammation, redox equilibrium, trophic factor production, insulin sensitivity, and the metabolism of lipids and glucose. Synthetic PPARγ agonists (e.g. thiazolidinediones) are used to treat Type II diabetes and have the potential to limit the risk of developing brain injuries such as stroke by mitigating the influence of comorbidities. If brain injury develops, PPARγ serves as a master gatekeeper of cytoprotective stress responses, improving the chances of cellular survival and recovery of homeostatic equilibrium...
October 12, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021720/burn-injury-review-of-pathophysiology-and-therapeutic-modalities-in-major-burns
#18
I Kaddoura, G Abu-Sittah, A Ibrahim, R Karamanoukian, N Papazian
Despite a considerable decrease in their incidence worldwide, burn injuries remain one of the commonest forms of trauma and account for a weighty proportion of trauma cases in health-care emergencies around the globe. Although the latest data reveal a substantial decline in burn-related mortality and hospital admissions in the US over the past three decades, severe thermal injuries continue to trigger devastating morbidity and significant mortality while their management remains a dynamic challenge for the entire medical and paramedical community...
June 30, 2017: Annals of Burns and Fire Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935892/bioenergetic-state-regulates-innate-inflammatory-responses-through-the-transcriptional-co-repressor-ctbp
#19
Yiguo Shen, David Kapfhamer, Angela M Minnella, Ji-Eun Kim, Seok Joon Won, Yanting Chen, Yong Huang, Ley Hian Low, Stephen M Massa, Raymond A Swanson
The innate inflammatory response contributes to secondary injury in brain trauma and other disorders. Metabolic factors such as caloric restriction, ketogenic diet, and hyperglycemia influence the inflammatory response, but how this occurs is unclear. Here, we show that glucose metabolism regulates pro-inflammatory NF-κB transcriptional activity through effects on the cytosolic NADH:NAD+ ratio and the NAD(H) sensitive transcriptional co-repressor CtBP. Reduced glucose availability reduces the NADH:NAD+ ratio, NF-κB transcriptional activity, and pro-inflammatory gene expression in macrophages and microglia...
September 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920065/the-influence-of-sex-steroid-hormones-on-the-response-to-trauma-and-burn-injury
#20
REVIEW
K Al-Tarrah, N Moiemen, J M Lord
Trauma and related sequelae result in disturbance of homeostatic mechanisms frequently leading to cellular dysfunction and ultimately organ and system failure. Regardless of the type and severity of injury, gender dimorphism in outcomes following trauma have been reported, with females having lower mortality than males, suggesting that sex steroid hormones (SSH) play an important role in the response of body systems to trauma. In addition, several clinical and experimental studies have demonstrated the effects of SSH on the clinical course and outcomes following injury...
2017: Burns and trauma
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