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Peripheral nerve surgery

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822735/-the-care-of-skin-lesions-caused-by-extravasation-of-intravenous-fluids-in-peripheral-venous-perfusion
#1
C Ly
INTRODUCTION: Infiltration and extravasation account for 23-78 % of the complications stemming from peripheral venous perfusions in neonatal intensive care units. Their consequences, sometimes dramatic, can be pain, infections, or even loss of skin, which can lead to nerve and/or muscle damage, particularly severe for preterm neonates. Today there are no recommendations on the care of these lesions, which can lead to an erroneous choice or to a delay in the possible treatments. OBJECTIVE: This review of the literature aims to explore and propose elements of therapeutic care collected in the scientific literature...
August 16, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820842/-upper-extremity-innervation-patterns-and-clinical-implications-for-nerve-and-tendon-transfer
#2
Ellen Y Lee, Sandeep J Sebastin, Andre Cheah, V P Kumar, Aymeric Y T Lim
BACKGROUND: We previously studied the intramuscular innervation of 150 upper limb muscles and demonstrated that certain patterns of intramuscular innervation allowed muscles to be split into compartments with independent function. This study aims to determine the location, extra-muscular course, and number of motor nerve branches of upper limb peripheral nerves. We want to combine this information with our previous work to create a blueprint of upper limb neuromuscular anatomy that would be useful in reconstructive surgery...
August 8, 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820803/perioperative-breast-analgesia-a-qualitative-review-of-anatomy-and-regional-techniques
#3
Glenn E Woodworth, Ryan M J Ivie, Sylvia M Nelson, Cameron M Walker, Robert B Maniker
Breast surgery is exceedingly common and may result in significant acute as well as chronic pain. Numerous options exist for the control of perioperative breast pain, including several newly described regional anesthesia techniques, but anesthesiologists have an insufficient understanding of the anatomy of the breast, the anatomic structures disrupted by the various breast surgeries, and the theoretical and experimental evidence supporting the use of the various analgesic options. In this article, we review the anatomy of the breast, common breast surgeries and their potential anatomic sources of pain, and analgesic techniques for managing perioperative pain...
September 2017: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813199/hypoglossal-canal-lesions-distinctive-imaging-features-and-simple-diagnostic-algorithm
#4
Steven M Weindling, Christopher P Wood, Joseph M Hoxworth
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to compare the prevalence of hypoglossal canal lesions and identify differentiating imaging features. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 15-year retrospective review of lesions of the hypoglossal nerve and hypoglossal canal, excluding those in patients with metastasis or prior head and neck cancer and those treated with radiation or surgery, was performed. Clinical findings and lesion imaging features were documented. The contrast-enhanced T1-weighted non-enhancing cystic component of hypoglossal schwannomas was compared with size-matched pathologically proven vestibular schwannomas...
August 16, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811061/surgical-demographics-of-carpal-tunnel-syndrome-and-cubital-tunnel-syndrome-over-5-years-at-a-single-institution
#5
Dafang Zhang, Jamie E Collins, Brandon E Earp, Philip Blazar
PURPOSE: Carpal tunnel and cubital tunnel syndrome are the 2 most common upper-limb compressive neuropathies. However, whether the characteristics of patient populations undergoing surgery for these conditions are similar is unclear in terms of demographics and concomitant pathologies. Our null hypothesis was that there are no identifiable differences between these patient populations. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed by billing system query using Common Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes for all patients who underwent open carpal tunnel release (CTR) (CPT code 64721) and/or open cubital tunnel surgery (CPT code 64718) by 1 of 4 hand surgeons from August 2008 to July 2013...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807786/dexmedetomidine-prolongs-levobupivacaine-analgesia-via-inhibition-of-inflammation-and-p38-mapk-phosphorylation-in-rat-dorsal-root-ganglion
#6
Shunsuke Yamakita, Megumi Matsuda, Yosuke Yamaguchi, Teiji Sawa, Fumimasa Amaya
Following tissue injury, phosphorylation of p38 MAPK in the primary afferent neurons drives sensitization of peripheral nerve. Dexmedetomidine extends the duration of reginal analgesia by local anesthetics. The effect of regional analgesia on the peripheral nerve sensitization is not known. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of regional analgesia by levobupivacaine with or without dexmedetomidine on the p38 MAPK phosphorylation in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and inflammatory reaction in the peripheral tissue...
August 12, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803901/the-cubital-tunnel-syndrome-caused-by-the-intraneural-or-extraneural-ganglion-cysts-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#7
Wen Kai Chang, Yong Ping Li, Deng Feng Zhang, Bing Sheng Liang
Cubital tunnel syndrome is the second most common nerve compression syndrome in peripheral nerve compression disease. Although potential ulnar nerve entrapment can occur at multiple points along its course, such as the arcade of struthers, the medial intermuscular septum, the medial epicondyle, the cubital tunnel, and the deep flexor pronator aponeurosis, the most common site of entrapment is the cubital tunnel. However, cubital tunnel syndrome could also be caused by the occupying masses along the course of ulnar nerve, such as intraneural or extraneural ganglia...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796579/effects-of-localized-x-ray-irradiation-on-peripheral-nerve-regeneration-in-transected-sciatic-nerve-in-rats
#8
Bo Jiang, Yong Zhang, Jiaju Zhao, Chang She, Xiaozhong Zhou, Qirong Dong, Peiji Wang
Low-dose radiation has been used in clinical and experimental models for the prevention of scarring and for fracture healing. There is evidence that low-dose radiation improves the hormesis of various cell types but little is known about its effects on peripheral nerve tissue. In this study, we investigated the beneficial effects of low-dose radiation on the regeneration of transectional peripheral nerve injury in an experimental rat model. Seventy-two male Sprague-Dawley rats received transection injury to the left sciatic nerves, and the nerves were subsequently sutured by epineurium end-to-end anastomosis to restore continuity...
August 10, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795197/ultrasound-guided-interscalene-brachial-plexus-block-in-a%C3%A2-child-with-acute-upper-respiratory-infection-a%C3%A2-case-report
#9
T Ergönenç, H Can, S Gökhan Beyaz
The brachial plexus is commonly blocked at the interscalene level for shoulder and proximal humeral surgery. There are only a few publications about the interscalene technique in pediatric patients for a peripheral nerve block. Ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve block has become increasingly more popular for pediatric patients because of high success rates and safety concerns. We used ultrasound-guided interscalene brachial plexus block in an 18-month-old child with an acute upper respiratory infection who had a supracondylar fracture of the humerus...
August 9, 2017: Der Anaesthesist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790970/structural-and-functional-substitution-of-deleted-primary-sensory-neurons-by-new-growth-from-intrinsic-spinal-cord-nerve-cells-an-alternative-concept-in-reconstruction-of-spinal-cord-circuits
#10
Nicholas D James, Maria Angéria, Elizabeth J Bradbury, Peter Damberg, Stephen B McMahon, Mårten Risling, Thomas Carlstedt
In a recent clinical report, return of the tendon stretch reflex was demonstrated after spinal cord surgery in a case of total traumatic brachial plexus avulsion injury. Peripheral nerve grafts had been implanted into the spinal cord to reconnect to the peripheral nerves for motor and sensory function. The dorsal root ganglia (DRG) containing the primary sensory nerve cells had been surgically removed in order for secondary or spinal cord sensory neurons to extend into the periphery and replace the deleted DRG neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781804/schwannoma-of-the-hypoglossal-nerve-review-of-the-literature-based-on-an-illustrative-case
#11
Rosario Fornaro, Alexander Salerno, David Constantin Filip, Elisa Caratto, Michela Caratto, Marco Casaccia
Schwannomas are benign tumours that originate from the myelin sheath of peripheral nerves. They are characterised by a slow growth tendency. Benign schwannomas represent 35% of the head and neck district tumours. Hypoglossal schwannomas account for 5% of non-vestibular schwannomas, and malignant schwannomas occur very rarely. In the present case report, the case of a 49-year-old man who presented with paraesthesias in the left parotid and submandibular region, associated with sensation of foreign bodies and dysphagia for solids, is described...
August 2017: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776638/a-novel-combination-of-peripheral-nerve-blocks-for-arthroscopic-shoulder-surgery
#12
D Musso, S Flohr-Madsen, K Meknas, T Wilsgaard, L M Ytrebø, Ø Klaastad
BACKGROUND: Interscalene brachial plexus block is currently the gold standard for intra- and post-operative pain management for patients undergoing arthroscopic shoulder surgery. However, it is associated with block related complications, of which effect on the phrenic nerve have been of most interest. Side effects caused by general anesthesia, when this is required, are also a concern. We hypothesized that the combination of superficial cervical plexus block, suprascapular nerve block, and infraclavicular brachial plexus block would provide a good alternative to interscalene block and general anesthesia...
August 4, 2017: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774246/iatrogenic-injuries-of-the-palmar-branch-of-the-median-nerve-following-volar-plate-fixation-of-the-distal-radius
#13
Deepak Samson, Dominic M Power
BACKGROUND: Our aims were to identify iatrogenous injuries to the palmar branch of the median nerve sustained during volar plate fixation of the distal radius, make the clinician aware of this relatively uncommon complication of distal radius fixation, to emphasise common threads in symptomatology and to propose an algorithm for evaluation and management. METHODS: Retrospectively interrogating our database over a 5 year period, the case records, neurophysiology records, operative records, therapy records were reviewed...
September 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery Asian-Pacific Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767456/effects-of-anaesthesia-and-analgesia-on-long-term-outcome-after-total-knee-replacement-a-prospective-observational-multicentre-study
#14
Dario Bugada, Massimo Allegri, Marco Gemma, Andrea L Ambrosoli, Giuseppe Gazzerro, Fernando Chiumiento, Doriana Dongu, Fiorella Nobili, Andrea Fanelli, Paolo Ferrua, Massimo Berruto, Gianluca Cappelleri
BACKGROUND: Perioperative regional anaesthesia may protect from persistent postsurgical pain (PPSP) and improve outcome after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). OBJECTIVES: Aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of regional anaesthesia on PPSP and long-term functional outcome after TKA. DESIGN: A web-based prospective observational registry. SETTING: Five Italian Private and University Hospitals from 2012 to 2015. PATIENTS: Undergoing primary unilateral TKA, aged more than 18 years, informed consent, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status classes 1 to 3, no previous knee surgery...
August 1, 2017: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761434/brain-injury-in-combination-with-tacrolimus-promotes-the-regeneration-of-injured-peripheral-nerves
#15
Xin-Ze He, Jian-Jun Ma, Hao-Qi Wang, Tie-Min Hu, Bo Sun, Yun-Feng Gao, Shi-Bo Liu, Wei Wang, Pei Wang
Both brain injury and tacrolimus have been reported to promote the regeneration of injured peripheral nerves. In this study, before transection of rat sciatic nerve, moderate brain contusion was (or was not) induced. After sciatic nerve injury, tacrolimus, an immunosuppressant, was (or was not) intraperitoneally administered. At 4, 8 and 12 weeks after surgery, Masson's trichrome, hematoxylin-eosin, and toluidine blue staining results revealed that brain injury or tacrolimus alone or their combination alleviated gastrocnemius muscle atrophy and sciatic nerve fiber impairment on the experimental side, simultaneously improved sciatic nerve function, and increased gastrocnemius muscle wet weight on the experimental side...
June 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761096/electrophysiological-evidence-for-pre-attention-information-processing-improvement-in-patients-with-central-hemiplegic-after-peripheral-nerve-rewiring-a-pilot-study
#16
Tie Li, Xu-Yun Hua, Mou-Xiong Zheng, Yu-Lan Zhu, Yan-Qun Qiu, Yun-Dong Shen, Jian-Guang Xu, Yu-Dong Gu, Wen-Dong Xu
Central neurologic injury (CNI) causes dysfunctions not only in limbs but also in cognitive ability. We applied a novel peripheral nerve rewiring (PNR) surgical procedure to restore limb function. Here, we conducted a prospective study to develop estimates for the extent of preattentive processes to cognitive function changes in CNI patients after PNR. Auditory mismatch negativity (MMN) was measured in CNI patients who received the PNR surgery plus conventional rehabilitation treatment. During the 2-year follow-up, the MMN was enhanced with increased amplitude in the PNR plus rehabilitation group compared to the rehabilitation-only group as the experiment progressed, and progressive improvement in behavioural examination tests was also observed...
July 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758088/lipoma-compressing-the-sciatic-nerve-in-a-patient-with-suspicious-central-post-stroke-pain
#17
Ju Yong Kim, Hyun Jung Koo, Geun-Young Park, Yongmin Choi
Lipomas are mostly located in the subcutaneous tissues and rarely cause symptoms. Occasionally, peripheral nerve compression by lipomas is reported. We describe a case of a 59-year-old man with a left-middle cerebral artery infarction who was newly diagnosed as right basal ganglia and thalamic intracranial hemorrhage. He had neuropathic pain in the left arm and leg that was suspected to be central post-stroke pain. The administration of pain medication brought only temporary symptom relief. Nerve conduction and electromyography studies revealed left L5 radiculopathy and he showed a positive 'sign of the buttock' in the left hip...
June 2017: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745442/modification-of-pedicle-lengthening-through-perforator-transposition-in-free-anterolateral-thigh-flaps-with-pedicle-size-discrepancy-a-case-report
#18
Hyun Ho Han, Daiwon Jun, Goo Hyun Mun, Suk-Ho Moon
In spite of thorough presurgical planning, emergency situations requiring longer pedicle length may arise during anterolateral thigh (ALT) free flap surgeries. While performing vessel graft for pedicle lengthening, discrepancy may occur because of a certain genetic predisposition or vascular variation at the anastomosis site of the graft vessel and the flap pedicle. A 76-year-old male patient with neurofibromatosis type I had a 15 x 10 cm defect, which was caused by radical excision of a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor on his back...
July 26, 2017: Microsurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737561/a-cadaver-study-to-assess-the-feasibility-of-a-cross-nerve-transfer-of-the-infraorbital-nerve-for-patients-with-peripheral-infraorbital-nerve-injury
#19
Tomoyuki Yano, Keiichi Akita, Kumiko Yamaguchi, Masayuki Sawaizumi
BACKGROUND: Patients with facial fracture or head and neck surgery sometimes suffer from infraorbital nerve injury. This injury results in severe hemilateral numbness in the midfacial area. The infraorbital nerve ends with two major branches; the infra nasal branch (INB) and superior labial branch (SLB). In this study, we assessed the feasibility of cross-nerve transfer of the INB and SLB based on a cadaver study. METHODS: The INB/SLB from a total 20 sides of 10 cadavers (2 men and 8 women; average age, 79...
July 22, 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735556/quantitative-sensory-testing-and-current-perception-threshold-testing-in-patients-with-chronic-pain-following-lower-extremity-fracture
#20
Mari A Griffioen, Joel D Greenspan, Meg Johantgen, Kathryn Von Rueden, Robert V O'Toole, Susan G Dorsey, Cynthia L Renn
BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is a significant problem for patients with lower extremity injuries. While pain hypersensitivity has been identified in many chronic pain conditions, it is not known whether patients with chronic pain following lower extremity fracture report pain hypersensitivity in the injured leg. PURPOSE: To quantify and compare peripheral somatosensory function and sensory nerve activation thresholds in persons with chronic pain following lower extremity fractures with a cohort of persons with no history of lower extremity fractures...
January 1, 2017: Biological Research for Nursing
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