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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332539/whole-body-oxygen-16o-ion-exposure-induced-impairments-in-social-odor-recognition-memory-in-rats-are-dose-and-time-dependent
#1
Ami Mange, Yuqing Cao, SiYuan Zhang, Robert D Hienz, Catherine M Davis
Future long-duration space missions will involve travel outside of the Earth's magnetosphere, which will result in increased radiation exposure for astronauts. Exposure could permanently damage multiple tissues, including the central nervous system (CNS), and result in deleterious effects on cognition and behavior during and beyond the mission. Here, we assessed the effects of whole-body oxygen ion (16O; 1,000 MeV/n) exposure (5 or 25 cGy) on social odor recognition memory in male Long-Evans rats at one and six months after exposure...
January 13, 2018: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327060/optical-coherence-tomography-analysis-of-the-optic-nerve-head-and-surrounding-structures-in-long-duration-international-space-station-astronauts
#2
Nimesh Patel, Anastas Pass, Sara Mason, Charles R Gibson, Christian Otto
Importance: After long-duration spaceflight, morphological changes in the optic nerve head (ONH) and surrounding tissues have been reported. Objective: To develop methods to quantify ONH and surrounding tissue changes using preflight and postflight optical coherence tomographic scans of the ONH region. Design, Setting, and Participants: Two separate analyses were done on retrospective data, with the first comparing a preflight group with a control group, followed by preflight to postflight analysis...
January 11, 2018: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320953/spaceflight-activates-protein-kinase-c-alpha-signaling-and-modifies-the-developmental-stage-of-human-neonatal-cardiovascular-progenitor-cells
#3
Jonathan Baio, Aida F Martinez, Leonard L Bailey, Nahidh Hasaniya, Michael Pecaut, Mary Kearns-Jonker
Spaceflight impacts cardiovascular function in astronauts; however, its impact on cardiac development and the stem cells that form the basis for cardiac repair is unknown. Accordingly, further research is needed to uncover the potential relevance of such changes to human health. Using simulated microgravity (SMG) generated via two-dimensional clinorotation and culture aboard the International Space Station (ISS), we assessed the effects of mechanical unloading on human neonatal cardiovascular progenitor cell (CPC) developmental properties and signaling...
January 10, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298650/potential-application-of-centrifuges-to-protect-the-cns-in-space-and-on-earth
#4
Yoshiki Takamatsu, Gilbert Ho, Yuki Shimizu, Shuei Sugama, Takato Takenouchi, Masaaki Waragai, Jianshe Wei, Makoto Hashimoto
BACKGROUND: Centrifuges are the principal means of generating physiological hypergravity and have been used for many medical purposes, including the therapy of psychiatric diseases and evaluation of vestibular system in the pilots. In particular, modern centrifuges have evolved into mechanically sophisticated precision instruments compared to primitive ones in old times, indicating that centrifuges might possess great potential in modern medicine. Indeed, studies are in progress to apply centrifuges to musculoskeletal degenerative diseases, such as osteoporosis and sarcopenia...
December 29, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276139/ultrasound-monitoring-of-jugular-venous-pulse-during-space-missions-proof-of-concept
#5
Paolo Zamboni, Francesco Sisini, Erica Menegatti, Angelo Taibi, Giacomo Gadda, Valentina Tavoni, Anna Maria Malagoni, Mirko Tessari, Sergio Gianesini, Mauro Gambaccini
The jugular venous pulse (JVP) is one of the main parameters of cardiac function and is used by cardiologists in diagnosing heart failure. Its waveform comprises three positive waves (a, c and v) and two negative waves (x and y). Recently, it was found that JVP can be extrapolated from an ultrasound (US) video recording of the internal jugular vein (IJV), suggesting its application in space missions, on which US scanners are already widely used. To date, the feasibility of assessing JVP in microgravity (microG) has not been investigated...
December 21, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233246/intraocular-lens-use-in-an-astronaut-during-long-duration-spaceflight
#6
Thomas H Mader, C Robert Gibson, Josef F Schmid, William Lipsky, Ashot E Sargsyan, Kathleen Garcia, Jeffrey N Williams
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this paper is to report the first use of an intraocular lens (IOL) in an astronaut during long duration spaceflight (LDSF). An astronaut developed a unilateral cataract and underwent phacoemulsification with insertion of an acrylic IOL. Approximately 15 mo later he flew on a Soyuz spacecraft to the International Space Station (ISS), where he successfully completed a 6-mo mission. CASE REPORT: Ocular examination, including ultrasound (US), was performed before, during, and after his mission and he was questioned regarding visual changes during each portion of his flight...
January 1, 2018: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233245/occupational-specific-strength-predicts-astronaut-related-task-performance-in-a-weighted-suit
#7
Andrew Taylor, Christopher J Kotarsky, Colin W Bond, Kyle J Hackney
BACKGROUND: Future space missions beyond low Earth orbit will require deconditioned astronauts to perform occupationally relevant tasks within a planetary spacesuit. The prediction of time-to-completion (TTC) of astronaut tasks will be critical for crew safety, autonomous operations, and mission success. This exploratory study determined if the addition of task-specific strength testing to current standard lower body testing would enhance the prediction of TTC in a 1-G test battery. METHODS: Eight healthy participants completed NASA lower body strength tests, occupationally specific strength tests, and performed six task simulations (hand drilling, construction wrenching, incline walking, collecting weighted samples, and dragging an unresponsive crewmember to safety) in a 48-kg weighted suit...
January 1, 2018: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233242/preflight-in-flight-and-postflight-imaging-of-the-cervical-and-lumbar-spine-in-astronauts
#8
Michael F Harrison, Kathleen M Garcia, Ashot E Sargsyan, Douglas Ebert, Roy F Riascos-Castaneda, Scott A Dulchavsky
BACKGROUND: Back pain is a common complaint during spaceflight that is commonly attributed to intervertebral disc swelling in microgravity. Ultrasound (US) represents the only imaging modality on the International Space Station (ISS) to assess its etiology. The present study investigated: 1) The agreement and correlation of spinal US assessments as compared to results of pre- and postflight MRI studies; and 2) the trend in intervertebral disc characteristics over the course of spaceflight to ISS...
January 1, 2018: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232383/low-doses-of-oxygen-ion-irradiation-cause-long-term-damage-to-bone-marrow-hematopoietic-progenitor-and-stem-cells-in-mice
#9
Yingying Wang, Jianhui Chang, Xin Li, Rupak Pathak, Vijayalakshmi Sridharan, Tamako Jones, Xiao Wen Mao, Gregory Nelson, Marjan Boerma, Martin Hauer-Jensen, Daohong Zhou, Lijian Shao
During deep space missions, astronauts will be exposed to low doses of charged particle irradiation. The long-term health effects of these exposures are largely unknown. We previously showed that low doses of oxygen ion (16O) irradiation induced acute damage to the hematopoietic system, including hematopoietic progenitor and stem cells in a mouse model. However, the chronic effects of low dose 16O irradiation remain undefined. In the current study, we investigated the long-term effects of low dose 16O irradiation on the mouse hematopoietic system...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206597/quantitative-proteomic-analysis-of-the-hippocampus-of-rats-with-gcr-induced-spatial-memory-impairment
#10
Sucharita M Dutta, Melissa M Hadley, Scott Peterman, Jessica S Jewell, Vania D Duncan, Richard A Britten
NASA is planning future missions to Mars, which will result in astronauts being exposed to ∼13 cGy/year of galactic cosmic radiation (GCR). Previous ground-based experiments have demonstrated that low (15 cGy) doses of 1 GeV/n 56Fe ions impair hippocampus-dependent spatial memory in rats. However, some irradiated rats maintain a spatial memory performance comparable to that seen in the sham-irradiated rats, suggesting that some of these animals are able to ameliorate the deleterious effects of the GCR, while others are not...
December 5, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198554/research-on-rat-s-pulmonary-acute-injury-induced-by-lunar-soil-simulant
#11
Yan Sun, Jin-Guo Liu, Yong-Chun Zheng, Chun-Ling Xiao, Bing Wan, Li Guo, Xu-Guang Wang, Wei Bo
BACKGROUND: The steps to the moon never stopped after the Apollo Project. Lessons from manned landings on the moon have shown that lunar dust has great influence on the health of astronauts. In this paper, comparative studies between the lunar soil simulant (LSS) and PM2.5 were performed to discover their harm to human biological systems and explore the methods of prevention and treatment of dust poisoning for future lunar manned landings. METHODS: Rats were randomly divided into the control group, two CAS-1 lunar soil simulant groups (tracheal perfusion with 7 mg and 0...
November 30, 2017: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198316/exploring-innovative-radiation-shielding-approaches-in-space-a-material-and-design-study-for-a-wearable-radiation-protection-spacesuit
#12
M Vuolo, G Baiocco, S Barbieri, L Bocchini, M Giraudo, T Gheysens, C Lobascio, A Ottolenghi
We present a design study for a wearable radiation-shielding spacesuit, designed to protect astronauts' most radiosensitive organs. The suit could be used in an emergency, to perform necessary interventions outside a radiation shelter in the space habitat in case of a Solar Proton Event (SPE). A wearable shielding system of the kind we propose has the potential to prevent the onset of acute radiation effects in this scenario. In this work, selection of materials for the spacesuit elements is performed based on the results of dedicated GRAS/Geant4 1-dimensional Monte Carlo simulations, and after a trade-off analysis between shielding performance and availability of resources in the space habitat...
November 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198314/t-cell-resistance-to-activation-by-dendritic-cells-requires-long-term-culture-in-simulated-microgravity
#13
Jillian H Bradley, Rachel Stein, Brad Randolph, Emily Molina, Jennifer P Arnold, Randal K Gregg
Immune impairment mediated by microgravity threatens the success of space exploration requiring long-duration spaceflight. The cells of most concern, T lymphocytes, coordinate the host response against microbial and cancerous challenges leading to elimination and long-term protection. T cells are activated upon recognition of specific microbial peptides bound on the surface of antigen presenting cells, such as dendritic cells (DC). Subsequently, this engagement results in T cell proliferation and differentiation into effector T cells driven by autocrine interleukin-2 (IL-2) and other cytokines...
November 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198311/comparison-of-methods-for-individualized-astronaut-organ-dosimetry-morphometry-based-phantom-library-versus-body-contour-autoscaling-of-a-reference-phantom
#14
Michelle M Sands, David Borrego, Matthew R Maynard, Amir A Bahadori, Wesley E Bolch
One of the hazards faced by space crew members in low-Earth orbit or in deep space is exposure to ionizing radiation. It has been shown previously that while differences in organ-specific and whole-body risk estimates due to body size variations are small for highly-penetrating galactic cosmic rays, large differences in these quantities can result from exposure to shorter-range trapped proton or solar particle event radiations. For this reason, it is desirable to use morphometrically accurate computational phantoms representing each astronaut for a risk analysis, especially in the case of a solar particle event...
November 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198308/payload-hardware-and-experimental-protocol-development-to-enable-future-testing-of-the-effect-of-space-microgravity-on-the-resistance-to-gentamicin-of-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli-and-its-%C3%AF-s-deficient-mutant
#15
A C Matin, J-H Wang, Mimi Keyhan, Rachna Singh, Michael Benoit, Macarena P Parra, Michael R Padgen, Antonio J Ricco, Matthew Chin, Charlie R Friedericks, Tori N Chinn, Aaron Cohen, Michael B Henschke, Timothy V Snyder, Matthew P Lera, Shannon S Ross, Christina M Mayberry, Sungshin Choi, Diana T Wu, Ming X Tan, Travis D Boone, Christopher C Beasley, Matthew E Piccini, Stevan M Spremo
Human immune response is compromised and bacteria can become more antibiotic resistant in space microgravity (MG). We report that under low-shear modeled microgravity (LSMMG), stationary-phase uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) become more resistant to gentamicin (Gm), and that this increase is dependent on the presence of σs (a transcription regulator encoded by the rpoS gene). UPEC causes urinary tract infections (UTIs), reported to afflict astronauts; Gm is a standard treatment, so these findings could impact astronaut health...
November 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186131/low-dose-proton-radiation-effects-in-a-transgenic-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-implications-for-space-travel
#16
Emil Rudobeck, John A Bellone, Attila Szücs, Kristine Bonnick, Shalini Mehrotra-Carter, Jerome Badaut, Gregory A Nelson, Richard E Hartman, Roman Vlkolinský
Space radiation represents a significant health risk for astronauts. Ground-based animal studies indicate that space radiation affects neuronal functions such as excitability, synaptic transmission, and plasticity, and it may accelerate the onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although protons represent the main constituent in the space radiation spectrum, their effects on AD-related pathology have not been tested. We irradiated 3 month-old APP/PSEN1 transgenic (TG) and wild type (WT) mice with protons (150 MeV; 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184903/international-roadmap-for-artificial-gravity-research
#17
REVIEW
Gilles Clément
In this paper, we summarize the current and future research activities that will determine the requirements for implementing artificial gravity (AG) to mitigate the effects of long duration exposure to microgravity on board exploration class space vehicles. NASA and its international partners have developed an AG roadmap that contains a common set of goals, objectives, and milestones. This roadmap includes both ground-based and space-based projects, and involves human subjects as well as animal and cell models...
2017: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170507/increased-core-body-temperature-in-astronauts-during-long-duration-space-missions
#18
Alexander C Stahn, Andreas Werner, Oliver Opatz, Martina A Maggioni, Mathias Steinach, Victoria Weller von Ahlefeld, Alan Moore, Brian E Crucian, Scott M Smith, Sara R Zwart, Thomas Schlabs, Stefan Mendt, Tobias Trippel, Eberhard Koralewski, Jochim Koch, Alexander Choukèr, Günther Reitz, Peng Shang, Lothar Röcker, Karl A Kirsch, Hanns-Christian Gunga
Humans' core body temperature (CBT) is strictly controlled within a narrow range. Various studies dealt with the impact of physical activity, clothing, and environmental factors on CBT regulation under terrestrial conditions. However, the effects of weightlessness on human thermoregulation are not well understood. Specifically, studies, investigating the effects of long-duration spaceflight on CBT at rest and during exercise are clearly lacking. We here show that during exercise CBT rises higher and faster in space than on Earth...
November 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167819/successful-amplification-of-dna-aboard-the-international-space-station
#19
Anna-Sophia Boguraev, Holly C Christensen, Ashley R Bonneau, John A Pezza, Nicole M Nichols, Antonio J Giraldez, Michelle M Gray, Brandon M Wagner, Jordan T Aken, Kevin D Foley, D Scott Copeland, Sebastian Kraves, Ezequiel Alvarez Saavedra
As the range and duration of human ventures into space increase, it becomes imperative that we understand the effects of the cosmic environment on astronaut health. Molecular technologies now widely used in research and medicine will need to become available in space to ensure appropriate care of astronauts. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is the gold standard for DNA analysis, yet its potential for use on-orbit remains under-explored. We describe DNA amplification aboard the International Space Station (ISS) through the use of a miniaturized miniPCR system...
2017: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156538/combined-effects-of-simulated-microgravity-and-radiation-exposure-on-osteoclast-cell-fusion
#20
Srinivasan Shanmugarajan, Ye Zhang, Maria Moreno-Villanueva, Ryan Clanton, Larry H Rohde, Govindarajan T Ramesh, Jean D Sibonga, Honglu Wu
The loss of bone mass and alteration in bone physiology during space flight are one of the major health risks for astronauts. Although the lack of weight bearing in microgravity is considered a risk factor for bone loss and possible osteoporosis, organisms living in space are also exposed to cosmic radiation and other environmental stress factors. As such, it is still unclear as to whether and by how much radiation exposure contributes to bone loss during space travel, and whether the effects of microgravity and radiation exposure are additive or synergistic...
November 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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