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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798205/cardiac-output-by-pulse-contour-analysis-does-not-match-the-increase-measured-by-rebreathing-during-human-spaceflight
#1
Richard L Hughson, Sean D Peterson, Nicholas J Yee, Danielle K Greaves
Pulse contour analysis of the non-invasive finger arterial pressure waveform provides a convenient means to estimate cardiac output (Q ̇). The method has been compared to standard methods under a range of conditions but never before during spaceflight. We compared pulse contour analysis with the Modelflow algorithm to estimates of Q ̇ obtained by rebreathing during pre-flight baseline testing and during the final month of long-duration spaceflight in nine healthy male astronauts. By Modelflow analysis, stroke volume was greater in supine baseline than seated baseline or inflight...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777903/hypertension-screening-of-commercial-divers-from-an-occupational-medicine-perspective
#2
Alejandro Garbino, Robert W Sanders, Charles H Mathers
Hypertension is one of the most common chronic diseases in the world: in the United States, it affects one-third of the adult population. Most cases are primary hypertension - with no identified cause - and significantly increase risk for cardiovascular disease and stroke. At NASA's Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL), there is a cadre of professional divers who provide underwater support during extravehicular activity training (EVAs, commonly referred to as "spacewalks") for astronauts. The NBL occupational health program requires regular "work-site" physical exams, including blood pressure checks, on at least a weekly basis...
March 2017: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767703/simulated-space-radiation-sensitizes-bone-but-not-muscle-to-the-catabolic-effects-of-mechanical-unloading
#3
Andrew R Krause, Toni L Speacht, Yue Zhang, Charles H Lang, Henry J Donahue
Deep space travel exposes astronauts to extended periods of space radiation and mechanical unloading, both of which may induce significant muscle and bone loss. Astronauts are exposed to space radiation from solar particle events (SPE) and background radiation referred to as galactic cosmic radiation (GCR). To explore interactions between skeletal muscle and bone under these conditions, we hypothesized that decreased mechanical load, as in the microgravity of space, would lead to increased susceptibility to space radiation-induced bone and muscle loss...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767698/brain-plasticity-and-sensorimotor-deterioration-as-a-function-of-70-days-head-down-tilt-bed-rest
#4
Vincent Koppelmans, Jacob J Bloomberg, Yiri E De Dios, Scott J Wood, Patricia A Reuter-Lorenz, Igor S Kofman, Roy Riascos, Ajitkumar P Mulavara, Rachael D Seidler
BACKGROUND: Adverse effects of spaceflight on sensorimotor function have been linked to altered somatosensory and vestibular inputs in the microgravity environment. Whether these spaceflight sequelae have a central nervous system component is unknown. However, experimental studies have shown spaceflight-induced brain structural changes in rodents' sensorimotor brain regions. Understanding the neural correlates of spaceflight-related motor performance changes is important to ultimately develop tailored countermeasures that ensure mission success and astronauts' health...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760005/evidence-based-selection-of-probiotic-strains-to-promote-astronaut-health-or-alleviate-symptoms-of-illness-on-long-duration-spaceflight-missions
#5
G L Douglas, A A Voorhies
Spaceflight impacts multiple aspects of human physiology, which will require non-invasive countermeasures as mission length and distance from Earth increases and the capability for external medical intervention decreases. Studies on Earth have shown that probiotics have the potential to improve some of the conditions that have manifested during spaceflight, such as gastrointestinal distress, dermatitis, and respiratory infections. The constraints and risks of spaceflight make it imperative that probiotics are carefully selected based on their strain-specific benefits, doses, delivery mechanisms, and relevance to likely crew conditions prior to evaluation in astronauts...
August 1, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749968/analysis-of-age-as-a-factor-in-nasa-astronaut-selection-and-career-landmarks
#6
Gregory T A Kovacs, Mark Shadden
NASA's periodic selection of astronauts is a highly selective process accepting applications from the general population, wherein the mechanics of selection are not made public. This research was an effort to determine if biases (specifically age) exist in the process and, if so, at which points they might manifest. Two sets of analyses were conducted. The first utilized data requested via the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) on NASA astronaut applicants for the 2009 and 2013 selection years. Using a series of multinomial and logistic regressions, the data were analyzed to uncover whether age of the applicants linearly or nonlinearly affected their likelihood of receiving an invitation, as well as their likelihood of being selected into the astronaut program...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727859/space-flight-associated-neuro-ocular-syndrome
#7
Andrew G Lee, Thomas H Mader, C Robert Gibson, William Tarver
New and unique physiologic and pathologic systemic and neuro-ocular responses have been documented in astronauts during and after long-duration space flight. Although the precise cause remains unknown, space flight-associated neuro-ocular syndrome (SANS) has been adopted as an appropriate descriptive term. The Space Medicine Operations Division of the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has documented the variable occurrence of SANS in astronauts returning from long-duration space flight on the International Space Station...
July 20, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720189/enhancing-the-meaningfulness-of-work-for-astronauts-on-long-duration-space-exploration-missions
#8
Thomas W Britt, Anton Sytine, Ashley Brady, Russ Wilkes, Rebecca Pittman, Kristen Jennings, Kandice Goguen
INTRODUCTION: Numerous authors have identified the stressors likely to be encountered on long duration space exploration missions (e.g., to Mars), including the possibility of significant crises, separation from family, boredom/monotony, and interpersonal conflict. Although many authors have noted that meaningful work may be beneficial for astronauts on these missions, none have detailed the sources of meaningful work for astronauts and how these sources may differ between astronauts...
August 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716113/whole-metagenome-profiles-of-particulates-collected-from-the-international-space-station
#9
Nicholas A Be, Aram Avila-Herrera, Jonathan E Allen, Nitin Singh, Aleksandra Checinska Sielaff, Crystal Jaing, Kasthuri Venkateswaran
BACKGROUND: The built environment of the International Space Station (ISS) is a highly specialized space in terms of both physical characteristics and habitation requirements. It is unique with respect to conditions of microgravity, exposure to space radiation, and increased carbon dioxide concentrations. Additionally, astronauts inhabit a large proportion of this environment. The microbial composition of ISS particulates has been reported; however, its functional genomics, which are pertinent due to potential impact of its constituents on human health and operational mission success, are not yet characterized...
July 17, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714760/houston-we-still-have-a-problem
#10
Martin Buchheit
Apollo 13 was initially looking like it would be the smoothest flight ever. After the explosion of an oxygen tank however, the astronauts were close to spending the rest of their lives in rotation around the planet. I wished to use this well-known incident to discuss further the link, or lack thereof, between sport sciences research and current field practices. There is a feeling that the academic culture and its publishing requirements have created a bit of an Apollo 13-like orbiting world (e.g., journals and conferences) that is mostly disconnected from the reality of elite performance...
July 17, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705994/wearable-brain-imaging-with-multi-modal-physiological-recording
#11
Gary E Strangman, Vladimir Ivkovic, Quan Zhang
The brain is a central component of cognitive and physical human performance. Measures including functional brain activation, cerebral perfusion, cerebral oxygenation, evoked electrical responses, and resting hemodynamic and electrical activity are all related to, or can predict health status or performance decrements. However, measuring brain physiology typically requires large, stationary machines that are not suitable for mobile or self-monitoring. Moreover, when individuals are ambulatory, systemic physiological fluctuations-e...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683078/simulated-space-radiation-induced-mutants-in-the-mouse-kidney-display-widespread-genomic-change
#12
Mitchell S Turker, Dmytro Grygoryev, Michael Lasarev, Anna Ohlrich, Furaha A Rwatambuga, Sorrel Johnson, Cristian Dan, Bradley Eckelmann, Gwen Hryciw, Jian-Hua Mao, Antoine M Snijders, Stacey Gauny, Amy Kronenberg
Exposure to a small number of high-energy heavy charged particles (HZE ions), as found in the deep space environment, could significantly affect astronaut health following prolonged periods of space travel if these ions induce mutations and related cancers. In this study, we used an in vivo mutagenesis assay to define the mutagenic effects of accelerated 56Fe ions (1 GeV/amu, 151 keV/μm) in the mouse kidney epithelium exposed to doses ranging from 0.25 to 2.0 Gy. These doses represent fluences ranging from 1 to 8 particle traversals per cell nucleus...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661230/circle-co2-reabsorbing-breathing-systems-human-applications
#13
Patrick Magee
Artificial breathing systems to help humans survive extreme environments are used over a range of ambient pressures, using various gases of different volumetric concentrations. These activities include anaesthesia and intensive care activity, high-altitude mountaineering, firefighting, aerospace extravehicular space activity and underwater diving operations. A circle breathing system is one in which the exhaled carbon dioxide is absorbed by an alkali substance and the remaining unused gases are recirculated, usually for the sake of economy and environment...
July 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649640/mri-derived-diffusion-parameters-in-the-human-optic-nerve-and-its-surrounding-sheath-during-head-down-tilt
#14
Darius A Gerlach, Karina Marshall-Goebel, Khader M Hasan, Larry A Kramer, Noam Alperin, Joern Rittweger
More than half of astronauts present with significant neuro-ophthalmic findings during 6-month missions onboard the International Space Station. Although the underlying cause of this Microgravity Ocular Syndrome is currently unknown, alterations in cerebrospinal fluid dynamics within the optic nerve sheath may play a role. In the presented study, diffusion tensor imaging was used to assess changes in diffusivity of the optic nerve and its surrounding sheath during head-down tilt, a ground-based model of microgravity...
2017: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649633/latent-virus-reactivation-in-astronauts-on-the-international-space-station
#15
Satish K Mehta, Mark L Laudenslager, Raymond P Stowe, Brian E Crucian, Alan H Feiveson, Clarence F Sams, Duane L Pierson
Reactivation of latent herpes viruses was measured in 23 astronauts (18 male and 5 female) before, during, and after long-duration (up to 180 days) spaceflight onboard the international space station . Twenty age-matched and sex-matched healthy ground-based subjects were included as a control group. Blood, urine, and saliva samples were collected before, during, and after spaceflight. Saliva was analyzed for Epstein-Barr virus, varicella-zoster virus, and herpes simplex virus type 1. Urine was analyzed for cytomegalovirus...
2017: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649626/investigation-of-simulated-microgravity-effects-on-streptococcus-mutans-physiology-and-global-gene-expression
#16
Silvia S Orsini, April M Lewis, Kelly C Rice
Astronauts have been previously shown to exhibit decreased salivary lysozyme and increased dental calculus and gingival inflammation in response to space flight, host factors that could contribute to oral diseases such as caries and periodontitis. However, the specific physiological response of caries-causing bacteria such as Streptococcus mutans to space flight and/or ground-based simulated microgravity has not been extensively investigated. In this study, high aspect ratio vessel S. mutans simulated microgravity and normal gravity cultures were assessed for changes in metabolite and transcriptome profiles, H2O2 resistance, and competence in sucrose-containing biofilm media...
2017: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649625/the-effect-of-long-term-exposure-to-microgravity-on-the-perception-of-upright
#17
Laurence R Harris, Michael Jenkin, Heather Jenkin, James E Zacher, Richard T Dyde
Going into space is a disorienting experience. Many studies have looked at sensory functioning in space but the multisensory basis of orientation has not been systematically investigated. Here, we assess how prolonged exposure to microgravity affects the relative weighting of visual, gravity, and idiotropic cues to perceived orientation. We separated visual, body, and gravity (when present) cues to perceived orientation before, during, and after long-term exposure to microgravity during the missions of seven astronauts on the International Space Station (mean duration 168 days) and measuring perceived vertical using the subjective visual vertical and the perceptual upright...
2017: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641686/a-case-study-of-human-roll-tilt-perception-in-hypogravity
#18
Torin K Clark, Laurence R Young
BACKGROUND: Increased gravito-inertial acceleration, or hypergravity, such as produced in a centrifuge or in an aircraft coordinated turn, causes humans to systematically overestimate their roll tilt in the dark. This is known as the "G-excess" illusion. We have previously modified a mathematical observer model of dynamic orientation perception to replicate these illusory tilt perceptions. This modified model also made a novel, previously untested, prediction that humans would underestimate acute roll tilt in reduced gravitational environments (hypogravity)...
July 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641684/novel-indications-for-commonly-used-medications-as-radiation-protectants-in-spaceflight
#19
Mark F McLaughlin, Dorit B Donoviel, Jeffrey A Jones
In the space environment, the traditional radioprotective principles of time, distance, and shielding become difficult to implement. Additionally, the complex radiation environment inherent in space, the chronic exposure timeframe, and the presence of numerous confounding variables complicate the process of creating appropriate risk models for astronaut exposure. Pharmaceutical options hold tremendous promise to attenuate acute and late effects of radiation exposure in the astronaut population. Pharmaceuticals currently approved for other indications may also offer radiation protection, modulation, or mitigation properties along with a well-established safety profile...
July 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631760/-astronauts-asteroids-and-the-universe-of-antithrombotic-therapies-in-primary-percutaneous-coronary-intervention
#20
Leonardo De Luca, Antonino Granatelli
A sensation of self-awareness on the relativity of our certainties comes over looking to the huge amount of data on antithrombotic therapies assessed in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI). This sensation can be compared to the so-called "overview effect", a cognitive shift in awareness reported by some astronauts during spaceflight, often while viewing the Earth from orbit. In this review we will mention drugs floated like meteors in the Universe of STEMI treatment and we will discuss the body of evidence on oral and intravenous antithrombotic therapies for patients undergoing pPCI...
June 2017: Giornale Italiano di Cardiologia
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