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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143416/plasma-renin-activity-response-to-aliskiren-and-clinical-outcomes-in-patients-hospitalized-for-heart-failure-the-astronaut-trial
#1
Muthiah Vaduganathan, Baljash Cheema, Erin Cleveland, Kamya Sankar, Haris Subacius, Gregg C Fonarow, Scott D Solomon, Eldrin F Lewis, Stephen J Greene, Aldo P Maggioni, Michael Böhm, Faiez Zannad, Javed Butler, Mihai Gheorghiade
AIMS: The direct renin inhibitor, aliskiren, is known to reduce plasma renin activity (PRA), but whether the efficacy of aliskiren varies based on an individual's baseline PRA in patients hospitalized for heart failure (HF) is presently unknown. We characterized the prognostic value of PRA and determined if this risk is modifiable with use of aliskiren. METHODS AND RESULTS: This pre-specified neurohormonal substudy of ASTRONAUT analysed all patients hospitalized for HF with ejection fraction (EF) ≤40% with available baseline PRA data (n = 1306, 80...
November 16, 2017: European Journal of Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142324/an-algorithm-for-the-beat-to-beat-assessment-of-cardiac-mechanics-during-sleep-on-earth-and-in-microgravity-from-the-seismocardiogram
#2
Marco Di Rienzo, Emanuele Vaini, Prospero Lombardi
Seismocardiogram, SCG, is the measure of precordial vibrations produced by the beating heart, from which cardiac mechanics may be explored on a beat-to-beat basis. We recently collected a large amount of SCG data (>69 recording hours) from an astronaut to investigate cardiac mechanics during sleep aboard the International Space Station and on Earth. SCG sleep recordings are characterized by a prolonged duration and wide heart rate swings, thus a specific algorithm was developed for their analysis. In this article we describe the new algorithm and its performance...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136391/effects-of-1-h-16-o-charged-particle-irradiation-on-short-term-memory-and-hippocampal-physiology-in-a-murine-model
#3
Frederico Kiffer, Hannah Carr, Thomas Groves, Julie E Anderson, Tyler Alexander, Jing Wang, John W Seawright, Vijayalakshmi Sridharan, Gwendolyn Carter, Marjan Boerma, Antiño R Allen
Radiation from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) poses a significant health risk for deep-space flight crews. GCR are unique in their extremely high-energy particles. With current spacecraft shielding technology, some of the predominant particles astronauts would be exposed to are (1)H + (16)O. Radiation has been shown to cause cognitive deficits in mice. The hippocampus plays a key role in memory and cognitive tasks; it receives information from the cortex, undergoes dendritic-dependent processing and then relays information back to the cortex...
November 14, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127482/a-single-low-dose-of-fe-ions-can-cause-long-term-biological-responses-in-nl20-human-bronchial-epithelial-cells
#4
Qianlin Cao, Wei Liu, Jingdong Wang, Jianping Cao, Hongying Yang
Space radiation cancer risk may be a potential obstacle for long-duration spaceflight. Among all types of cancer space radiation may induce, lung cancer has been estimated to be the largest potential risk. Although previous animal study has shown that Fe ions, the most important contributor to the total dose equivalent of space radiation, induced a higher incidence of lung tumorigenesis per dose than X-rays, the underlying mechanisms at cellular level remained unclear. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated long-term biological changes in NL20 human bronchial epithelial cells after exposure to Fe ion or X-ray irradiation...
November 10, 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109052/magnetic-resonance-imaging-with-rf-encoding-on-curved-natural-slices
#5
Gordon E Sarty, Logi Vidarsson
While the idea of using spatial encoding fields (SEM) for image formation has been proven, conventional wisdom still holds that a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system begins with a highly uniform magnetic field. In particular, radio frequency (RF) encoding MRIs designed and tested to date have largely used uniform magnetic fields. Here we demonstrate magnetic resonance imaging in a magnetic field with a built-in gradient that gives non-planar slices - curved surfaces - when the nuclear spins are excited with narrow band RF pulses...
November 4, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098506/apoptosis-and-expression-of-apoptosis-related-genes-in-mouse-intestinal-tissue-after-whole-body-proton-exposure
#6
Ashley Purgason, Ye Zhang, Stanley R Hamilton, Daila S Gridley, Ayodotun Sodipe, Olufisayo Jejelowo, Govindarajan T Ramesh, Maria Moreno-Villanueva, Honglu Wu
Energetic protons are the most abundant particle type in space and can pose serious health risks to astronauts during long-duration missions. The health effects of proton exposure are also a concern for cancer patients undergoing radiation treatment with accelerated protons. To investigate the damage induced by energetic protons in vivo to radiosensitive organs, 6-week-old BALB/c male mice were subjected to 250 MeV proton radiation at whole-body doses of 0.1, 1, and 2 Gy. The gastrointestinal (GI) tract of each exposed animal was dissected 4 h post-irradiation, and the isolated small intestinal tissue was analyzed for histopathological and gene expression changes...
November 2, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091569/effects-of-spaceflight-on-astronaut-brain-structure-as-indicated-on-mri
#7
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Donna R Roberts, Moritz H Albrecht, Heather R Collins, Davud Asemani, A Rano Chatterjee, M Vittoria Spampinato, Xun Zhu, Marc I Chimowitz, Michael U Antonucci
BACKGROUND: There is limited information regarding the effects of spaceflight on the anatomical configuration of the brain and on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) spaces. METHODS: We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to compare images of 18 astronauts' brains before and after missions of long duration, involving stays on the International Space Station, and of 16 astronauts' brains before and after missions of short duration, involving participation in the Space Shuttle Program...
November 2, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081428/motor-imagery-of-body-movements-that-can-t-be-executed-on-earth
#8
Michael Kalicinski, Otmar Bock, Nadja Schott
BACKGROUND: Before participating in a space mission, astronauts undergo parabolic-flight and underwater training to facilitate their subsequent adaptation to weightlessness. A quick, simple and inexpensive alternative could be training by motor imagery (MI). OBJECTIVE: An important prerequisite for this training approach is that humans are able to imagine movements which are unfamiliar, since they can't be performed in the presence of gravity. Our study addresses this prerequisite...
2017: Journal of Vestibular Research: Equilibrium & Orientation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079792/eye-head-coordination-in-31-space-shuttle-astronauts-during-visual-target-acquisition
#9
Millard F Reschke, Ognyan I Kolev, Gilles Clément
Between 1989 and 1995, NASA evaluated how increases in flight duration of up to 17 days affected the health and performance of Space Shuttle astronauts. Thirty-one Space Shuttle pilots participating in 17 space missions were tested at 3 different times before flight and 3 different times after flight, starting within a few hours of return to Earth. The astronauts moved their head and eyes as quickly as possible from the central fixation point to a specified target located 20°, 30°, or 60° off center. Eye movements were measured with electro-oculography (EOG)...
October 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079684/spaceflight-induced-changes-in-white-matter-hyperintensity-burden-in-astronauts
#10
Noam Alperin, Ahmet M Bagci, Sang H Lee
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of weightlessness and the respective roles of CSF and vascular fluid on changes in white matter hyperintensity (WMH) burden in astronauts. METHODS: We analyzed prespaceflight and postspaceflight brain MRI scans from 17 astronauts, 10 who flew a long-duration mission on the International Space Station (ISS) and 7 who flew a short-duration mission on the Space Shuttle. Automated analysis methods were used to determine preflight to postflight changes in periventricular and deep WMH, CSF, and brain tissue volumes in fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and high-resolution 3-dimensional T1-weighted imaging...
October 27, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075195/falls-and-fall-prevention-in-older-persons-geriatrics-meets-spaceflight
#11
REVIEW
Nandu Goswami
This paper provides a general overview of key physiological consequences of microgravity experienced during spaceflight and of important parallels and connections to the physiology of aging. Microgravity during spaceflight influences cardiovascular function, cerebral autoregulation, musculoskeletal, and sensorimotor system performance. A great deal of research has been carried out to understand these influences and to provide countermeasures to reduce the observed negative consequences of microgravity on physiological function...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064824/uncoupling-vor-and-vestibuloautonomic-retention-to-coriolis-acceleration-training-in-student-pilots-and-control-subjects
#12
Linjie Wang, Yi Cao, Cheng Tan, Qi Zhao, Siyang He, Dongbin Niu, Guohua Tang, Peng Zou, Lei Xing
PURPOSE: Explore the different vestibular physiologic response retention patterns after Coriolis acceleration training in student pilots and extend the results for use with Chinese astronauts in the future. METHODS: Twelve healthy control male subjects were screened from males familiar with vestibular training and who physically resembled the astronauts. Fourteen student pilots were selected from 23 participants by rotational vestibular function tests. All subjects were exposed to five-day continuous or intermittent Coriolis acceleration training...
2017: Journal of Vestibular Research: Equilibrium & Orientation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061459/spaceflight-and-neurosurgery-a-comprehensive-review-of-the-relevant-literature
#13
REVIEW
Christian Swinney, Zain Allison
OBJECT: Spaceflight and the associated gravitational fluctuations may impact various components of the central nervous system. These include changes in intracranial pressure, the spine, and neurocognitive performance. The implications of altered astronaut performance on critical spaceflight missions are potentially significant. The current body of research on this important topic is extremely limited and a comprehensive review has not been published. Herein, the authors address this notable gap, as well as the role of the neurosurgeon in optimizing potential diagnostic and therapeutic modalities...
October 20, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056408/effect-of-gravitational-gradients-on-cardiac-filling-and-performance
#14
Kazuaki Negishi, Allen G Borowski, Zoran B Popović, Neil L Greenberg, David S Martin, Michael W Bungo, Benjamin D Levine, James D Thomas
BACKGROUND: Gravity affects every aspect of cardiac performance. When gravitational gradients are at their greatest on Earth (i.e., during upright posture), orthostatic intolerance may ensue and is a common clinical problem that appears to be exacerbated by the adaptation to spaceflight. We sought to elucidate the alterations in cardiac performance during preload reduction with progressive upright tilt that are relevant both for space exploration and the upright posture, particularly the preload dependence of various parameters of cardiovascular performance...
October 19, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054708/semantic-analysis-of-thyroid-cancer-cell-proteins-obtained-from-rare-research-opportunities
#15
Johann Bauer, Daniela Grimm, Erich Gombocz
Research in natural sciences is mainly done by means of experiments. Some of those experiments such as spaceflight-dependent experiments are extremely laborious, complex and expensive. Hence, they often remain rare events with little chances of statistical tests and possibilities of repetition. In order to make each single event as valuable as possible, a sophisticated comparison of experimental data received with the hundreds of millions of computer-stored documents appears necessary. We used results of an earlier study on proteome analysis of microgravity-exposed human thyroid cancer cells, selected twenty proteins which appeared gravity sensitive and investigated whether their change observed in cells under the loss of gravity could cause health problems in astronauts...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044915/pre-discharge-and-early-post-discharge-troponin-elevation-among-patients-hospitalized-for-heart-failure-with-reduced-ejection-fraction-findings-from-the-astronaut-trial
#16
Stephen J Greene, Javed Butler, Gregg C Fonarow, Haris P Subacius, Andrew P Ambrosy, Muthiah Vaduganathan, Marco Triggiani, Scott D Solomon, Eldrin F Lewis, Aldo P Maggioni, Michael Böhm, Ovidiu Chioncel, Savina Nodari, Michele Senni, Faiez Zannad, Mihai Gheorghiade
AIMS: Troponin levels are commonly elevated among patients hospitalized for heart failure (HF), but the prevalence and prognostic significance of early post-discharge troponin elevation are unclear. This study sought to describe the frequency and prognostic value of pre-discharge and post-discharge troponin elevation, including persistent troponin elevation from the inpatient to outpatient settings. METHODS AND RESULTS: The ASTRONAUT trial (NCT00894387; http://www...
October 17, 2017: European Journal of Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036726/contribution-of-different-particles-measured-with-track-etched-detectors-onboard-iss
#17
I Ambrožová, M Davídková, K Pachnerová Brabcová, R V Tolochek, V A Shurshakov
Cosmic radiation consists of primary high-energy galactic and solar particles. When passing through spacecraft walls and astronauts' bodies, the spectrum becomes even more complex due to generating of secondary particles through fragmentation and nuclear interactions. Total radiation exposure is contributed by both these components. With an advantage, space research uses track etched detectors from the group of passive detectors visualizing the tracks of particles, in this case by etching. The detectors can discriminate between various components of cosmic radiation...
September 29, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036712/comparison-of-cosmic-ray-environments-on-earth-moon-mars-and-in-spacecarft-using-phits
#18
Tatsuhiko Sato, Aiko Nagamatsu, Haruka Ueno, Ryuho Kataoka, Shoko Miyake, Kazuo Takeda, Koji Niita
Estimation of cosmic-ray doses is of great importance not only in aircrew and astronaut dosimetry but also in evaluation of background radiation exposure to public. We therefore calculated the cosmic-ray doses on Earth, Moon and Mars as well as inside spacecraft, using Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System PHITS. The same cosmic-ray models and dose conversion coefficients were employed in the calculation to properly compare between the simulation results for different environments. It is quantitatively confirmed that the thickness of physical shielding including the atmosphere and soil of the planets is the most important parameter to determine the cosmic-ray doses and their dominant contributors...
September 29, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030644/how-to-prevent-the-detrimental-effects-of-two-months-of-bed-rest-on-muscle-bone-and-cardiovascular-system-an-rct
#19
Andreas Kramer, Albert Gollhofer, Gabriele Armbrecht, Dieter Felsenberg, Markus Gruber
Physical inactivity leads to a deconditioning of the skeletal, neuromuscular and cardiovascular system. It can lead to impaired quality of life, loss of autonomy, falls and fractures. Regular exercise would be a logical remedy, but the generally recommended high-volume endurance and strength training programs require a lot of time and equipment. In this randomized controlled study with 23 healthy participants, we established that a short, intensive jump training program can prevent the large musculoskeletal and cardiovascular deconditioning effects caused by two months of physical inactivity during bed rest, particularly the loss of bone mineral mass and density, lean muscle mass, maximal leg strength and peak oxygen uptake...
October 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023398/the-impact-of-oxidative-stress-on-the-bone-system-in-response-to-the-space-special-environment
#20
REVIEW
Ye Tian, Xiaoli Ma, Chaofei Yang, Peihong Su, Chong Yin, Ai-Rong Qian
The space special environment mainly includes microgravity, radiation, vacuum and extreme temperature, which seriously threatens an astronaut's health. Bone loss is one of the most significant alterations in mammalians after long-duration habitation in space. In this review, we summarize the crucial roles of major factors-namely radiation and microgravity-in space in oxidative stress generation in living organisms, and the inhibitory effect of oxidative stress on bone formation. We discussed the possible mechanisms of oxidative stress-induced skeletal involution, and listed some countermeasures that have therapeutic potentials for bone loss via oxidative stress antagonism...
October 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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