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Aleksandra Mazur, Anthony Guernec, Jacky Lautridou, Julie Dupas, Emmanuel Dugrenot, Marc Belhomme, Michael Theron, François Guerrero
Introduction: Commercial divers, high altitude pilots, and astronauts are exposed to some inherent risk of decompression sickness (DCS), though the mechanisms that trigger are still unclear. It has been previously showed that diving may induce increased levels of serum angiotensin converting enzyme. The renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) is one of the most important regulators of blood pressure and fluid volume. The purpose of the present study was to control the influence of angiotensin II on the appearance of DCS...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Andrew G Lee, Thomas H Mader, C Robert Gibson, Tyson J Brunstetter, William J Tarver
Interesting novel and somewhat perplexing physiologic and pathologic neuro-ocular findings have been documented in astronauts during and after long duration space flight (LDSF). These findings collectively have been termed the "space flight-associated neuro-ocular syndrome" (SANS). The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the United States has meticulously and prospectively documented the clinical, ultrasound, optical coherence tomography imaging, and radiographic findings of SANS including unilateral and bilateral optic disc edema, globe flattening, choroidal and retinal folds, hyperopic refractive error shifts, and nerve fiber layer infarcts (i...
March 12, 2018: Eye
Alain A Gonfalone
What is known about sleep results from years of observation at the surface of the Earth. Since a few decade man has been able to reach space, escape from the earth attraction and spend days and nights in a weightless condition. Some major physiological changes have been observed during long stays and in particular the sleep duration in space is shorter than on ground. This paper reviews a novel hypothesis proposing that sleep is partly due to gravity. Gravity is a fundamental part of our environment, but is elusive and difficult to apprehend...
April 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Afshin Beheshti, Egle Cekanaviciute, David J Smith, Sylvain V Costes
Spaceflight introduces a combination of environmental stressors, including microgravity, ionizing radiation, changes in diet and altered atmospheric gas composition. In order to understand the impact of each environmental component on astronauts it is important to investigate potential influences in isolation. Rodent spaceflight experiments involve both standard vivarium cages and animal enclosure modules (AEMs), which are cages used to house rodents in spaceflight. Ground control AEMs are engineered to match the spaceflight environment...
March 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Patricia S Cowings, William B Toscano, Millard F Reschke, Addis Tsehay
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has identified a potential risk of spatial disorientation, motion sickness, and degraded performance to astronauts during re-entry and landing of the proposed Orion crew vehicle. The purpose of this study was to determine if a physiological training procedure, Autogenic-Feedback Training Exercise (AFTE), can mitigate these adverse effects. Fourteen men and six women were assigned to two groups (AFTE, no-treatment Control) matched for motion sickness susceptibility and gender...
March 2, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Xiaoman Li, Xiaodan Zha, Yongan Wang, Rong Jia, Burong Hu, Baoquan Zhao
Proton is a major particle of space radiation environment and a prospective radiotherapy beam. However, its risk needs to be fully evaluated for the understanding and to establish the better protective strategy for astronaut and patient. Zebrafish is an ideal model for the toxicity studies on medicines and environmental genetic toxicants. In the current study, embryos of zebrafish at 24 h post-fertilization (hpf) were exposed to proton beam. Some toxic parameters of embryo-larval development were investigated...
February 23, 2018: Chemosphere
Noam Alperin, Ahmet M Bagci
OBJECTIVE: Most of the astronauts onboard the International Space Station (ISS) develop visual impairment and ocular structural changes that are not fully reversible upon return to earth. Current understanding assumes that the so-called visual impairments/intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome is caused by cephalad vascular fluid shift. This study assesses the roles of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and intracranial pressure (ICP) in VIIP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventeen astronauts, 9 who flew a short-duration mission on the space shuttle (14...
2018: Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement
John D Boice, Elizabeth D Ellis, Ashley P Golden, David J Girardi, Sarah S Cohen, Heidi Chen, Michael T Mumma, Roy E Shore, Richard W Leggett
The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of ongoing work on the Million Worker Study (MWS), highlighting some of the key methods and progress so far as exemplified by the study of workers at the Mallinckrodt Chemical Works (MCW). The MWS began nearly 25 y ago and continues in a stepwise fashion, evaluating one study cohort at a time. It includes workers from U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Manhattan Project facilities, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulated nuclear power plants, industrial radiographers, U...
April 2018: Health Physics
Bernard M Rabin, Kirsty L Carrihill-Knoll, Marshall G Miller, Barbara Shukitt-Hale
Exposure to particles of high energy and charge (HZE particles) can produce decrements in cognitive performance. A series of experiments exposing rats to different HZE particles was run to evaluate whether the performance decrement was dependent on the age of the subject at the time of irradiation. Fischer 344 rats that were 2-, 11- and 15/16-months of age were exposed to16 O,48 Ti, or4 He particles at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory. As previously observed following exposure to56 Fe particles, exposure to the higher LET48 Ti particles produced a disruption of cognitive performance at a lower dose in the older subjects compared to the dose needed to disrupt performance in the younger subjects...
February 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
Olga A Smirnova, Francis A Cucinotta
A recently developed biologically motivated dynamical model of the assessment of the excess relative risk (ERR) for radiogenic leukemia among acutely/continuously irradiated humans (Smirnova, 2015, 2017) is applied to estimate the ERR for radiogenic leukemia among astronauts engaged in long-term interplanetary space missions. Numerous scenarios of space radiation exposure during space missions are used in the modeling studies. The dependence of the ERR for leukemia among astronauts on several mission parameters including the dose equivalent rates of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and large solar particle events (SPEs), the number of large SPEs, the time interval between SPEs, mission duration, the degree of astronaut's additional shielding during SPEs, the degree of their additional 12-hour's daily shielding, as well as the total mission dose equivalent, is examined...
February 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
V Pereda-Loth, X Franceries, A S Afonso, A Ayala, B Eche, D Ginibrière, G Gauquelin-Koch, M Bardiès, L Lacoste-Collin, M Courtade-Saïdi
Astronauts are exposed to microgravity and chronic irradiation but experimental conditions combining these two factors are difficult to reproduce on earth. We have created an experimental device able to combine chronic irradiation and altered gravity that may be used for cell cultures or plant models in a ground based facility. Irradiation was provided by thorium nitrate powder, conditioned so as to constitute a sealed source that could be placed in an incubator. Cell plates or plant seedlings could be placed in direct contact with the source or at various distances above it...
February 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
Khader M Hasan, Benson Mwangi, Zafer Keser, Roy Riascos, Ashot E Sargsyan, Larry A Kramer
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: As part of its technological sophistication, the International Space Station (ISS) Program operates a robust medical surveillance schedule for its rotating 6-person crew to control the known health risks and to address knowledge gaps related to human health in space flight environment. Recent evidence on visual impairment in a subset of ISS crew has renewed the interest in the effects of long-duration space flight on the central nervous system (CNS). Through retrospective analysis in a sample of 10 healthy astronauts, we demonstrate the utility of multimodal quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (qMRI) with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-based customized brain templates to examine the structural attributes of various CNS compartments in this occupational group...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
Christopher B Sylvester, Jun-Ichi Abe, Zarana S Patel, K Jane Grande-Allen
Radiation therapy (RT) in the form of photons and protons is a well-established treatment for cancer. More recently, heavy charged particles have been used to treat radioresistant and high-risk cancers. Radiation treatment is known to cause cardiovascular disease (CVD) which can occur acutely during treatment or years afterward in the form of accelerated atherosclerosis. Radiation-induced cardiovascular disease (RICVD) can be a limiting factor in treatment as well as a cause of morbidity and mortality in successfully treated patients...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
Nejc Šarabon, Igor B Mekjavić, Ola Eiken, Jan Babič
Prolonged inactivity, such as bed rest induces several detrimental changes within a short timeframe. Impaired postural balance and responses of trunk muscles to (un)expected perturbations were both shown to be impaired after bed rest. Certain populations (e.g., astronauts) are exposed to hypoxic environment in addition to inactivity, similar to bed rest. While the isolated negative effects of hypoxia on postural balance have been observed before, no study to date has examined the combined effects of hypoxia and bed rest on postural balance or trunk muscle responses...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Toni L Speacht, Andrew R Krause, Jennifer L Steiner, Charles H Lang, Henry J Donahue
Astronauts in space experience a unique environment that causes the concomitant loss of bone and muscle. However, the interaction between these tissues and how osteopenia and sarcopenia affect each other is unclear. We explored this relationship by exaggerating unloading-induced muscle loss using a unilateral casting model in conjunction with hindlimb suspension (HLS). Five-month-old, male C57Bl/6J mice subjected to HLS for 2 weeks displayed a significant decrease in gastrocnemius and quadriceps weight (-9-10%), with a two-fold greater decrease in muscle mass observed in the HLS + casted limb...
February 2, 2018: Bone
Anita Dittrich, Daniela Grimm, Jayashree Sahana, Johann Bauer, Marcus Krüger, Manfred Infanger, Nils E Magnusson
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cardiovascular complications are common in astronauts returning from a prolonged spaceflight. These health problems might be driven by complex modulations of gene expression and protein synthesis in endothelial cells (ECs). Studies on the influence of microgravity on phenotype, growth pattern and biological processes of ECs can help to understand these complications. METHODS: We exposed ECs (EA.hy926) to a Random Positioning Machine (RPM). Proteins associated with cell structure, angiogenesis and endothelial dysfunction were investigated in distinct pools of multicellular spheroids (MCS), adherent cells (AD) and tubular structures (TS) formed after a 35-day RPM-exposure...
January 24, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Purushoth Ethiraj, Jessica R Link, James M Sinkway, Gabriella D Brown, William A Parler, Sakamuri V Reddy
Microgravity (µXg) experienced by astronauts during space flights causes accelerated bone loss. However, the molecular basis of µXg induced bone loss in space is unclear. Osteoclast (OCL) is the primary bone-resorbing cell. We previously demonstrated that simulated µXg promotes OCL formation. In this study, we identified that µXg induces syncytin-A expression in RAW264.7 preosteoclast cells without RANKL stimulation. We further tested the effect of osteotropic factors such as CXCL5 and 1,25(OH)2 D3 to regulate the syncytin-A expression in preosteoclast cells subjected to µXg compared to ground based (Xg) cultures...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Mathias Basner, Jad Nasrini, Emanuel Hermosillo, Sarah McGuire, David F Dinges, Tyler M Moore, Ruben C Gur, Jörn Rittweger, Edwin Mulder, Martin Wittkowski, Dorit Donoviel, Brian Stevens, Eric M Bershad
Microgravity and elevated levels of CO2 are two common environmental stressors in spaceflight that may affect cognitive performance of astronauts. In this randomized, double-blind, cross-over trial (SPACECOT), N=6 healthy males (mean{plus minus}SD age: 41{plus minus}5yr) were exposed to 0.04% (ambient air) and 0.5% CO2 concentrations during 26.5-hour periods of -12{degree sign} head-down tilt (HDT) bed rest with a one-week washout period between exposures. Subjects performed the 10 tests of the Cognition Test Battery before and on average 0...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
Susana B Zanello, Vasisht Tadigotla, James Hurley, Johan Skog, Brian Stevens, Eusebia Calvillo, Eric Bershad
The visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome is a neuro-ophthalmologic condition described in astronauts returning from long duration space missions. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), also known as pseudotumor cerebri, is characterized by a chronic elevation of intracranial pressure (ICP) in the absence of an intracranial mass lesion. Because VIIP and IIH share some neurologic and ophthalmologic manifestations, the latter might be used as a model to study some of the processes underlying VIIP...
2018: NPJ Microgravity
Michele L McCarroll, Rami A Ahmed, Alan Schwartz, Michael David Gothard, Steven Scott Atkinson, Patrick Hughes, Jose Cepeda Brito, Lori Assad, Jerry Myers, Richard L George
Background: The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) developed plans for potential emergency conditions from the Exploration Medical Conditions List. In an effort to mitigate conditions on the Exploration Medical Conditions List, NASA implemented a crew medical officer (CMO) designation for eligible astronauts. This pilot study aims to add knowledge that could be used in the Integrated Medical Model. Methods: An analogue population was recruited for two categories: administrative physicians (AP) representing the physician CMOs and technical professionals (TP) representing the non-physician CMOs...
October 2017: BMJ Simul Technol Enhanc Learn
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