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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657565/implementation-of-cross-correlation-for-energy-discrimination-on-the-time-of-flight-spectrometer-corelli
#1
Feng Ye, Yaohua Liu, Ross Whitfield, Ray Osborn, Stephan Rosenkranz
The CORELLI instrument at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is a statistical chopper spectrometer designed and optimized to probe complex disorder in crystalline materials through diffuse scattering experiments. On CORELLI, the high efficiency of white-beam Laue diffraction combined with elastic discrimination have enabled an unprecedented data collection rate to obtain both the total and the elastic-only scattering over a large volume of reciprocal space from a single measurement. To achieve this, CORELLI is equipped with a statistical chopper to modulate the incoming neutron beam quasi-randomly, and then the cross-correlation method is applied to reconstruct the elastic component from the scattering data...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Applied Crystallography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616994/accurate-and-precise-lattice-parameters-of-h-2-o-and-d-2-o-ice-ih-between-1-6-and-270-k-from-high-resolution-time-of-flight-neutron-powder-diffraction-data
#2
A Dominic Fortes
Accurate and precise lattice parameters for D2 O and H2 O varieties of hexagonal ice (ice Ih, space group P63 /mmc) have been obtained in the range 1.6 to 270 K. Precision of the lattice parameters (∼0.0002% in a and 0.0004% in c for D2 O, 0.0008% in a and 0.0015% in c for H2 O) is ensured by use of the time-of-flight method on one of the longest primary neutron flight-path instruments in the world, the High-Resolution Powder Diffractometer at the ISIS neutron source. These data provide a more precise description of the negative thermal expansion of the material at low temperatures than the previous synchrotron `gold standard' [Röttger et al...
April 1, 2018: Acta Crystallographica Section B, Structural Science, Crystal Engineering and Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609526/stromal-and-hematopoietic-progenitors-from-c57-bi-6n-murine-bone-marrow-after-30-day-bion-m1-space-flight
#3
Elena Markina, Elena Andreeva, Irina Andrianova, Elena Sotnezova, Ludmila Buravkova
Elucidation of the space flight effects on the adult stem and progenitor cells is an important goal in space biology and medicine. A unique opportunity for this was provided by project "BION-M1". The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of 30-day space flight (SF) on biosatellite, 7-day recovery (SFR) and subsequent ground control (GC) experiment on the mononuclears (MNCs) from C57/BI/6N murine tibia bone marrow. Also, hematopoietic and stromal precursor functions were characterised ex vivo...
April 2, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607021/insectivorous-bats-respond-to-vegetation-complexity-in-urban-green-spaces
#4
Marcela Suarez-Rubio, Christina Ille, Alexander Bruckner
Structural complexity is known to determine habitat quality for insectivorous bats, but how bats respond to habitat complexity in highly modified areas such as urban green spaces has been little explored. Furthermore, it is uncertain whether a recently developed measure of structural complexity is as effective as field-based surveys when applied to urban environments. We assessed whether image-derived structural complexity (MIG) was as/more effective than field-based descriptors in this environment and evaluated the response of insectivorous bats to structural complexity in urban green spaces...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569509/the-future-impacts-of-non-targeted-effects
#5
Scott Bright, Munira Kadhim
PURPOSE: Ionizing radiation was traditionally thought to exert its detrimental effects through interaction with sensitive cellular targets, nuclear DNA being of most importance. This theory has since merged with a more recently described radiation response called non-targeted effects (NTE). This review will briefly look at the various types of NTE and the potential implications they may have for radiobiology research and its applications. CONCLUSIONS: The most well-known NTE are genomic instability (GI) and bystander effects (BE)...
March 23, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567709/bioinspired-spring-origami
#6
Jakob A Faber, Andres F Arrieta, André R Studart
Origami enables folding of objects into a variety of shapes in arts, engineering, and biological systems. In contrast to well-known paper-folded objects, the wing of the earwig has an exquisite natural folding system that cannot be sufficiently described by current origami models. Such an unusual biological system displays incompatible folding patterns, remains open by a bistable locking mechanism during flight, and self-folds rapidly without muscular actuation. We show that these notable functionalities arise from the protein-rich joints of the earwig wing, which work as extensional and rotational springs between facets...
March 23, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560415/biomedical-findings-from-nasa-s-project-mercury-a-case-series
#7
William R Carpentier, John B Charles, Mark Shelhamer, Amanda S Hackler, Tracy L Johnson, Catherine M M Domingo, Jeffrey P Sutton, Graham B I Scott, Virginia E Wotring
The United States first sent humans into space during six flights of Project Mercury from May 1961 to May 1963. These flights were brief, with durations ranging from about 15 min to just over 34 h. A primary purpose of the project was to determine if humans could perform meaningful tasks while in space. This was supported by a series of biomedical measurements on each astronaut before, during (when feasible), and after flight to document the effects of exposure to the spaceflight environment. While almost all of the data presented here have been published in technical reports, this is the first integrated summary of the main results...
2018: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557347/hovering-efficiency-comparison-of-rotary-and-flapping-flight-for-a-rigid-and-rectangular-wings-via-dimensionless-multi-objective-optimization
#8
Yagiz Efe Bayiz, Mohammad Ghanaatpishe, Hosam Fathy, Bo Cheng
In this work, a multi-objective optimization framework is developed for optimizing low-Reynolds number (Re) hovering flight. This framework is then applied to compare the efficiency of rigid revolving and flapping wings with rectangular shape under varying Re and Rossby number (Ro, or aspect ratio). The proposed framework is capable of generating sets of optimal solutions and Pareto fronts for maximizing lift coefficient and minimizing power coefficient in dimensionless space, which explicitly reveal the trade off between lift generation and power consumption...
March 20, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543948/why-space-flight-associated-neuro-ocular-syndrome-may-differ-from-idiopathic-intracranial-hypertension
#9
Peter Wostyn, Peter Paul De Deyn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2018: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543940/why-space-flight-associated-neuro-ocular-syndrome-may-differ-from-idiopathic-intracranial-hypertension-reply
#10
Andrew G Lee, Thomas H Mader, C Robert Gibson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2018: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543162/drone-augmented-human-vision-exocentric-control-for-drones-exploring-hidden-areas
#11
Okan Erat, Werner Alexander Isop, Denis Kalkofen, Dieter Schmalstieg
Drones allow exploring dangerous or impassable areas safely from a distant point of view. However, flight control from an egocentric view in narrow or constrained environments can be challenging. Arguably, an exocentric view would afford a better overview and, thus, more intuitive flight control of the drone. Unfortunately, such an exocentric view is unavailable when exploring indoor environments. This paper investigates the potential of drone-augmented human vision, i.e., of exploring the environment and controlling the drone indirectly from an exocentric viewpoint...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540322/persistent-nature-of-alterations-in-cognition-and-neuronal-circuit-excitability-after-exposure-to-simulated-cosmic-radiation-in-mice
#12
Vipan K Parihar, Mattia Maroso, Amber Syage, Barrett D Allen, Maria C Angulo, Ivan Soltesz, Charles L Limoli
Of the many perils associated with deep space travel to Mars, neurocognitive complications associated with cosmic radiation exposure are of particular concern. Despite these realizations, whether and how realistic doses of cosmic radiation cause cognitive deficits and neuronal circuitry alterations several months after exposure remains unclear. In addition, even less is known about the temporal progression of cosmic radiation-induced changes transpiring over the duration of a time period commensurate with a flight to Mars...
March 11, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29537389/attitude-control-system-for-a-lightweight-flapping-wing-mav
#13
Sjoerd Tijmons, Matěj Karásek, G C H E de Croon
Robust attitude control is an essential aspect of research on autonomous flight of flapping wing Micro Air Vehicles. The mechanical solutions by which the necessary control moments are realised come at the price of extra weight and possible loss of aerodynamic efficiency. Stable flight of these vehicles has been shown by several designs using a conventional tail, but also by tailless designs that use active control of the wings. In this study a control mechanism is proposed that provides active control over the wings...
March 14, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527011/space-flight-associated-neuro-ocular-syndrome-sans
#14
REVIEW
Andrew G Lee, Thomas H Mader, C Robert Gibson, Tyson J Brunstetter, William J Tarver
Interesting novel and somewhat perplexing physiologic and pathologic neuro-ocular findings have been documented in astronauts during and after long duration space flight (LDSF). These findings collectively have been termed the "space flight-associated neuro-ocular syndrome" (SANS). The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the United States has meticulously and prospectively documented the clinical, ultrasound, optical coherence tomography imaging, and radiographic findings of SANS including unilateral and bilateral optic disc edema, globe flattening, choroidal and retinal folds, hyperopic refractive error shifts, and nerve fiber layer infarcts (i...
March 12, 2018: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522402/safe-local-navigation-for-visually-impaired-users-with-a-time-of-flight-and-haptic-feedback-device
#15
Robert K Katzschmann, Brandon Araki, Daniela Rus
This paper presents ALVU (Array of Lidars and Vibrotactile Units), a contactless, intuitive, hands-free, and discreet wearable device that allows visually impaired users to detect low- and high-hanging obstacles, as well as physical boundaries in their immediate environment. The solution allows for safe local navigation in both confined and open spaces by enabling the user to distinguish free space from obstacles. The device presented is composed of two parts: a sensor belt and a haptic strap. The sensor belt is an array of time-of-flight distance sensors worn around the front of a user's waist, and the pulses of infrared light provide reliable and accurate measurements of the distances between the user and surrounding obstacles or surfaces...
March 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508537/multiband-modulation-spectroscopy-for-determination-of-sex-and-species-of-mosquitoes-in-flight
#16
Alem Gebru, Samuel Jansson, Rickard Ignell, Carsten Kirkeby, Jord C Prangsma, Mikkel Brydegaard
We present a dual-wavelength polarimetric measurement method to distinguish species and sexes of disease transmitting mosquitoes in flight. By measuring co- and de-polarized backscattered light at 808 and 1550 nm, the degree of linear polarization, wingbeat frequency, reflectance, spectral ratio and glossiness of mosquitoes can be retrieved. Body and wing contributions to these signals can be separated. Whereas the optical cross-section is sensitive to the aspect of observation, thus the heading direction of the insect in flight, we demonstrate that polarimetric- and spectral- band ratios are largely invariant to the aspect of observation...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497478/chemical-mechanisms-and-their-applications-in-the-goddard-earth-observing-system-geos-earth-system-model
#17
J Eric Nielsen, Steven Pawson, Andrea Molod, Benjamin Auer, Arlindo M da Silva, Anne R Douglass, Bryan Duncan, Qing Liang, Michael Manyin, Luke D Oman, William Putman, Susan E Strahan, Krzysztof Wargan
NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) Earth System Model (ESM) is a modular, general circulation model (GCM), and data assimilation system (DAS) that is used to simulate and study the coupled dynamics, physics, chemistry, and biology of our planet. GEOS is developed by the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. It generates near-real-time analyzed data products, reanalyses, and weather and seasonal forecasts to support research targeted to understanding interactions among Earth System processes...
December 2017: Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29495830/note-possibilities-of-detecting-the-trace-level-erosion-products-from-an-electric-propulsion-hollow-cathode-plasma-source-by-the-method-of-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry
#18
Zhong-Xi Ning, Hai-Guang Zhang, Xi-Ming Zhu, Bin-Hao Jiang, Zhong-Yue Zhou, Da-Ren Yu, Bing-Jian An, Yan-Fei Wang
A hollow cathode produces electrons which neutralize ions from electric propulsion thrusters. After hundreds to thousands of hours of operation in space, the cathode materials can be significantly eroded due to ion bombardment. As a result, the electric propulsion system performance will be obviously changed or even fail. In this work, the erosion products from a LaB6 hollow cathode (widely used presently in electric propulsion systems) are studied by using a specific detection system, which consists of a molecular beam sampler and a time-of-flight mass spectrometer...
February 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492564/spaceflight-induced-visual-impairment-and-globe-deformations-in-astronauts-are-linked-to-orbital-cerebrospinal-fluid-volume-increase
#19
Noam Alperin, Ahmet M Bagci
OBJECTIVE: Most of the astronauts onboard the International Space Station (ISS) develop visual impairment and ocular structural changes that are not fully reversible upon return to earth. Current understanding assumes that the so-called visual impairments/intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome is caused by cephalad vascular fluid shift. This study assesses the roles of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and intracranial pressure (ICP) in VIIP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventeen astronauts, 9 who flew a short-duration mission on the space shuttle (14...
2018: Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491852/alterations-in-the-spectrum-of-spontaneous-rifampicin-resistance-mutations-in-the-bacillus-subtilis-rpob-gene-after-cultivation-in-the-human-spaceflight-environment
#20
Patricia Fajardo-Cavazos, Joshua D Leehan, Wayne L Nicholson
The effect of Bacillus subtilis exposure to the human spaceflight environment on growth, mutagenic frequency, and spectrum of mutations to rifampicin resistance (RifR ) was investigated. B. subtilis cells were cultivated in Biological Research in Canister-Petri Dish Fixation Units (BRIC-PDFUs) on two separate missions to the International Space Station (ISS), dubbed BRIC-18 and BRIC-21, with matching asynchronous ground controls. No statistically significant difference in either growth or in the frequency of mutation to RifR was found in either experiment...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
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