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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091925/changes-in-the-neurochemical-composition-of-motor-neurons-of-the-spinal-cord-in-mice-under-conditions-of-space-flight
#1
V V Porseva, V V Shilkin, A A Strelkov, I B Krasnov, P M Masliukov
Expression of choline acetyltransferase, 200-kDa neurofilament protein, 28-kDa calbindin, neuronal NO synthase, caspase 3, and Ki-67 in the motor neurons of spinal cord segments T3-T5 in male C57Bl/6 mice after 30-day space flight in the Bion-M1 biosatellite was studied by immunohistochemical methods. Under conditions space flight, the size of motoneurons increased, the number of neurons containing choline acetyltransferase and neurofilaments, decreased, and the number of calbindin-positive neurons increased; motoneurons, expressing neuronal NO synthase and caspase 3 appeared, while Ki-67 was not detected...
January 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076365/gene-expression-profiling-in-slow-type-calf-soleus-muscle-of-30-days-space-flown-mice
#2
Guido Gambara, Michele Salanova, Stefano Ciciliot, Sandra Furlan, Martina Gutsmann, Gudrun Schiffl, Ute Ungethuem, Pompeo Volpe, Hanns-Christian Gunga, Dieter Blottner
Microgravity exposure as well as chronic disuse are two main causes of skeletal muscle atrophy in animals and humans. The antigravity calf soleus is a reference postural muscle to investigate the mechanism of disuse-induced maladaptation and plasticity of human and rodent (rats or mice) skeletal musculature. Here, we report microgravity-induced global gene expression changes in space-flown mouse skeletal muscle and the identification of yet unknown disuse susceptible transcripts found in soleus (a mainly slow phenotype) but not in extensor digitorum longus (a mainly fast phenotype dorsiflexor as functional counterpart to soleus)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074016/cari-7a-development-and-validation
#3
Kyle Copeland
Aircrew members can be exposed to higher annual doses of natural ionizing radiation than members of the general population in most parts of the world. The principal ionizing radiation to which they are exposed is galactic cosmic radiation (GCR). Among the particles present in the primary spectrum are heavy ions: relativistic nuclei of lithium and heavier elements. These ions have very high radiation weighting factors and can contribute significantly to the effective dose at altitudes above the Pfotzer maximum...
January 10, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061915/prevalence-predictors-and-prevention-of-motion-sickness-in-zero-g-parabolic-flights
#4
John F Golding, Aurore C Paillard, Hervé Normand, Stéphane Besnard, Pierre Denise
INTRODUCTION: Zero-G parabolic flight reproduces the weightlessness of space for short periods. However, motion sickness may affect some fliers. The aim was to assess the extent of this problem and to find possible predictors and modifying factors. METHODS: Airbus zero-G flights consist of 31 parabolas performed in blocks. Each parabola consisted of 20 s of 0 g sandwiched by 20 s of hypergravity of 1.5-1.8 g. The survey covered N = 246 person-flights (193 men, 53 women), ages (M ± SD) 36...
January 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058419/reactive-collisions-for-no-2-%C3%AE-n-4-s-at-temperatures-relevant-to-the-hypersonic-flight-regime
#5
Otoniel Denis-Alpizar, Raymond J Bemish, Markus Meuwly
The NO(X(2)Π) + N((4)S) reaction which occurs entirely in the triplet manifold of N2O is investigated using quasiclassical trajectories and quantum simulations. Fully-dimensional potential energy surfaces for the (3)A' and (3)A'' states are computed at the MRCI+Q level of theory and are represented using a reproducing kernel Hilbert space. The N-exchange and N2-formation channels are followed by using the multi-state adiabatic reactive molecular dynamics method. Up to 5000 K these reactions occur predominantly on the N2O (3)A'' surface...
January 18, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050606/long-term-exposure-to-space-s-microgravity-alters-the-time-structure-of-heart-rate-variability-of-astronauts
#6
Kuniaki Otsuka, Germaine Cornelissen, Satoshi Furukawa, Yutaka Kubo, Mitsutoshi Hayashi, Koichi Shibata, Koh Mizuno, Tatsuya Aiba, Hiroshi Ohshima, Chiaki Mukai
BACKGROUND: Spaceflight alters human cardiovascular dynamics. The less negative slope of the fractal scaling of heart rate variability (HRV) of astronauts exposed long-term to microgravity reflects cardiovascular deconditioning. We here focus on specific frequency regions of HRV. METHODS: Ten healthy astronauts (8 men, 49.1 ± 4.2 years) provided five 24-hour electrocardiographic (ECG) records: before launch, 20.8 ± 2.9 (ISS01), 72.5 ± 3.9 (ISS02) and 152.8 ± 16...
December 2016: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039409/internal-jugular-pressure-increases-during-parabolic-flight
#7
David S Martin, Stuart M C Lee, Timothy P Matz, Christian M Westby, Jessica M Scott, Michael B Stenger, Steven H Platts
One hypothesized contributor to vision changes experienced by >75% of International Space Station astronauts is elevated intracranial pressure (ICP). While no definitive data yet exist, elevated ICP might be secondary to the microgravity-induced cephalad fluid shift, resulting in venous congestion (overfilling and distension) and inhibition of cerebrospinal and lymphatic fluid drainage from the skull. The objective of this study was to measure internal jugular venous pressure (IJVP) during normo- and hypo-gravity as an index of venous congestion...
December 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029621/drifts-and-environmental-disturbances-in-atomic-clock-subsystems-quantifying-local-oscillator-control-loop-ion-resonance-interactions
#8
Daphna G Enzer, William A Diener, David W Murphy, Shanti R Rao, Robert L Tjoelker
Linear ion trap frequency standards are among the most stable continuously-operating frequency references and clocks. Depending on the application, they have been operated with a variety of Local Oscillators (LO) including quartz Ultra-Stable Oscillators (USO), Hydrogen-masers, and Cryogenic Sapphire Oscillators. The short, intermediate, and long term stability of the frequency output is a complicated function of the fundamental performances, the time dependence of environmental disturbances, the atomic interrogation algorithm, the implemented control loop, and the environmental sensitivity of the LO and atomic system components...
December 19, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027558/cognitive-evoked-potentials-p300-after-radiation-exposure
#9
K M Loganovsky, K V Kuts
OBJECTIVE: The study was aimed at evaluating features of brain information processes and cognitive functioning in the remote period after irradiation due to the Chornobyl accident by using cognitive evoked potentials P300. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 128 people, 112 male Chornobyl clean up workers in 1986-1987 with the records of radiation doses available in Clinical and Epidemiological Registry (CER) of State Institution «National Research Center for Radiation Medicine of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine» (NRCRM) (study group) and 16 unexposed persons due to the Chornobyl disaster (control group)...
December 2016: Problemy Radiat︠s︡iĭnoï Medyt︠s︡yny Ta Radiobiolohiï
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004797/acute-transcriptional-up-regulation-specific-to-osteoblasts-osteoclasts-in-medaka-fish-immediately-after-exposure-to-microgravity
#10
Masahiro Chatani, Hiroya Morimoto, Kazuhiro Takeyama, Akiko Mantoku, Naoki Tanigawa, Koji Kubota, Hiromi Suzuki, Satoko Uchida, Fumiaki Tanigaki, Masaki Shirakawa, Oleg Gusev, Vladimir Sychev, Yoshiro Takano, Takehiko Itoh, Akira Kudo
Bone loss is a serious problem in spaceflight; however, the initial action of microgravity has not been identified. To examine this action, we performed live-imaging of animals during a space mission followed by transcriptome analysis using medaka transgenic lines expressing osteoblast and osteoclast-specific promoter-driven GFP and DsRed. In live-imaging for osteoblasts, the intensity of osterix- or osteocalcin-DsRed fluorescence in pharyngeal bones was significantly enhanced 1 day after launch; and this enhancement continued for 8 or 5 days...
December 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003712/preliminary-results-of-btdf-calibration-of-transmissive-solar-diffusers-for-remote-sensing
#11
Georgi T Georgiev, James J Butler, Kurt Thome, Catherine Cooksey, Leibo Ding
Satellite instruments operating in the reflected solar wavelength region require accurate and precise determination of the optical properties of their diffusers used in pre-flight and post-flight calibrations. The majority of recent and current space instruments use reflective diffusers. As a result, numerous Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) calibration comparisons have been conducted between the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and other industry and university-based metrology laboratories...
2016: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994557/intervertebral-disc-swelling-demonstrated-by-3d-and-water-content-magnetic-resonance-analyses-after-a-3-day-dry-immersion-simulating-microgravity
#12
Loïc Treffel, Karen Mkhitaryan, Stéphane Gellee, Guillemette Gauquelin-Koch, Claude Gharib, Stéphane Blanc, Catherine Millet
Background: Vertebral deconditioning is commonly experienced after space flight and simulation studies. Disc herniation is quadrupled after space flight. Purpose: The main hypothesis formulated by the authors is that microgravity results in intervertebral disc (IVD) swelling. Study Design: The aim of the study was to identify the morphological changes of the spine and their clinical consequences after simulated microgravity by 3-day dry immersion (DI). The experimental protocol was performed on 12 male volunteers using magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy before and after DI...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991725/a-blind-climber-the-first-evidence-of-ultrasonic-echolocation-in-arboreal-mammals
#13
Aleksandra A Panyutina, Alexander N Kuznetsov, Ilya A Volodin, Alexey V Abramov, Irina B Soldatova
The means of orientation is studied in the Vietnamese pygmy dormouse Typhlomys chapensis, a poorly known enigmatic semi-fossorial semi-arboreal rodent. Data on eye structure are presented, which prove that Typhlomys (translated as "the blind mouse") is incapable of object vision - the retina is folded and retains no more than 2 500 ganglion cells in the focal plane, and the optic nerve is subject to gliosis. Hence, Typhlomys has no other means for rapid long-range orientation among tree branches other than echolocation...
December 19, 2016: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982559/li2co3-coated-ni-particles-for-the-inner-electrodes-of-multilayer-ceramic-capacitors-evaluation-of-lifetime
#14
Damoon Sohrabi Baba Heidary, Clive A Randall
In previous work, it was demonstrated that using Li2CO3-coated Ni particles in the manufacturing of multilayer ceramic capacitor (MLCC) devices could improve both the permittivity and dissipation factors. However, adding Li(+) ions to the system gave rise to the concern that ions could migrate under sustained electrical fields and thereby increase the degradation rates of the insulation resistance in MLCCs. In this paper, thermally stimulated depolarization current and highly accelerated lifetime testing were both utilized to evaluate the oxygen vacancy space-charge regions and migration in MLCCs...
December 28, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977147/surface-induced-dissociation-of-protein-complexes-in-a-hybrid-fourier-transform-ion-cyclotron-resonance-mass-spectrometer
#15
Jing Yan, Mowei Zhou, Joshua D Gilbert, Jeremy J Wolff, Árpád Somogyi, Randall E Pedder, Royston S Quintyn, Lindsay J Morrison, Michael L Easterling, Ljiljana Paša-Tolić, Vicki H Wysocki
Mass spectrometry continues to develop as a valuable tool in the analysis of proteins and protein complexes. In protein complex mass spectrometry studies, surface-induced dissociation (SID) has been successfully applied in quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF) instruments. SID provides structural information on noncovalent protein complexes that is complementary to other techniques. However, the mass resolution of Q-TOF instruments can limit the information that can be obtained for protein complexes by SID. Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) provides ultrahigh resolution and ultrahigh mass accuracy measurements...
December 15, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973887/ballistic-diffusion-in-polyaromatic-hydrocarbons-on-graphite
#16
Irene Calvo-Almazán, Marco Sacchi, Anton Tamtögl, Emanuel Bahn, Marek M Koza, Salvador Miret-Artés, Peter Fouquet
This work presents an experimental picture of molecular ballistic diffusion on a surface, a process that is difficult to pinpoint because it generally occurs on very short length scales. By combining neutron time-of-flight data with molecular dynamics simulations and density functional theory calculations, we provide a complete description of the ballistic translations and rotations of a polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) adsorbed on the basal plane of graphite. Pyrene, C16H10, adsorbed on graphite is a unique system, where at relative surface coverages of about 10-20% its mean free path matches the experimentally accessible time/space scale of neutron time-of-flight spectroscopy (IN6 at the Institut Laue-Langevin)...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959667/bench-evaluation-of-four-portable-oxygen-concentrators-under-different-conditions-representing-altitudes-of-2438-4200-and-8000%C3%A2-m
#17
Vincent Bunel, Amr Shoukri, Frederic Choin, Serge Roblin, Cindy Smith, Thomas Similowski, Capucine Morélot-Panzini, Jesus Gonzalez
Bunel, Vincent, Amr Shoukri, Frederic Choin, Serge Roblin, Cindy Smith, Thomas Similowski, Capucine Morélot-Panzini, and Jésus Gonzalez. Bench evaluation of four portable oxygen concentrators under different conditions representing altitudes of 2438, 4200, and 8000 m. High Alt Med Biol. 17:370-374, 2016.-Air travel is responsible for a reduction of the partial pressure of oxygen (O2) as a result of the decreased barometric pressure. This hypobaric hypoxia can be dangerous for passengers with respiratory diseases, requiring initiation or intensification of oxygen therapy during the flight...
December 2016: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955899/nasa-model-of-threat-and-error-in-pediatric-cardiac-surgery-patterns-of-error%C3%A2-chains
#18
Edward Hickey, Eric Pham-Hung, Yaroslavna Nosikova, Fredrik Halvorsen, Michael Gritti, Steven Schwartz, Christopher A Caldarone, Glen Van Arsdell
BACKGROUND: We introduced the National Aeronautics and Space Association threat-and-error model to our surgical unit. All admissions are considered flights, which should pass through stepwise deescalations in risk during surgical recovery. We hypothesized that errors significantly influence risk deescalation and contribute to poor outcomes. METHODS: Patient flights (524) were tracked in real time for threats, errors, and unintended states by full-time performance personnel...
December 9, 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941928/dual-matter-wave-inertial-sensors-in-weightlessness
#19
Brynle Barrett, Laura Antoni-Micollier, Laure Chichet, Baptiste Battelier, Thomas Lévèque, Arnaud Landragin, Philippe Bouyer
Quantum technology based on cold-atom interferometers is showing great promise for fields such as inertial sensing and fundamental physics. However, the finite free-fall time of the atoms limits the precision achievable on Earth, while in space interrogation times of many seconds will lead to unprecedented sensitivity. Here we realize simultaneous (87)Rb-(39)K interferometers capable of operating in the weightless environment produced during parabolic flight. Large vibration levels (10(-2) g Hz(-1/2)), variations in acceleration (0-1...
December 12, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934098/plantmat-a-metabolomics-tool-for-predicting-the-specialized-metabolic-potential-of-a-system-and-for-large-scale-metabolite-identifications
#20
Feng Qiu, Dennis D Fine, Daniel J Wherritt, Zhentian Lei, Lloyd W Sumner
Custom software entitled Plant Metabolite Annotation Toolbox (PlantMAT) has been developed to address the number one grand challenge in metabolomics, which is the large-scale and confident identification of metabolites. PlantMAT uses informed phytochemical knowledge for the prediction of plant natural products such as saponins and glycosylated flavonoids through combinatorial enumeration of aglycone, glycosyl, and acyl subunits. Many of the predicted structures have yet to be characterized and are absent from traditional chemical databases, but have a higher probability of being present in planta...
December 6, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
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