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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896055/energy-research-with-neutrons-erwin-and-installation-of-a-fast-neutron-powder-diffraction-option-at-the-mlz-germany
#1
Michael Heere, Martin J Mühlbauer, Alexander Schökel, Michael Knapp, Helmut Ehrenberg, Anatoliy Senyshyn
The need for rapid data collection and studies of small sample volumes in the range of cubic millimetres are the main driving forces for the concept of a new high-throughput monochromatic diffraction instrument at the Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum (MLZ), Germany. A large region of reciprocal space will be accessed by a detector with sufficient dynamic range and microsecond time resolution, while allowing for a variety of complementary sample environments. The medium-resolution neutron powder diffraction option for 'energy research with neutrons' (ErwiN) at the high-flux FRM II neutron source at the MLZ is foreseen to meet future demand...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Applied Crystallography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29890975/a-synthesis-of-ecological-and-evolutionary-determinants-of-bat-diversity-across-spatial-scales
#2
REVIEW
Franciele Parreira Peixoto, Pedro Henrique Pereira Braga, Poliana Mendes
BACKGROUND: Diversity patterns result from ecological to evolutionary processes operating at different spatial and temporal scales. Species trait variation determine the spatial scales at which organisms perceive the environment. Despite this knowledge, the coupling of all these factors to understand how diversity is structured is still deficient. Here, we review the role of ecological and evolutionary processes operating across different hierarchically spatial scales to shape diversity patterns of bats-the second largest mammal order and the only mammals with real flight capability...
June 11, 2018: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29874398/high-resolution-gc-ms-metabolomics-of-non-human-primate-serum
#3
Biswapriya B Misra, Ekong Bassey, Andrew C Bishop, David T Kusel, Laura A Cox, Michael Olivier
RATIONALE: Metabolomics analyses using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) - based metabolomics are heavily impeded by the lack of high-resolution mass spectrometers and limited spectral libraries to complement the excellent chromatography that GC platforms offer, a challenge that is being addressed with the implementation of high resolution (HR) platforms such as 1D-GC/Orbitrap-MS. METHODS: We used serum samples from a non-human primate (NHP), a baboon (Papio hamadryas), with suitable quality controls to quantify the chemical space using an advanced HR MS platform for confident metabolite identification and robust quantification to assess the suitability of the platform for routine clinical metabolomics research...
June 6, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867558/a-model-of-chronic-exposure-to-unpredictable-mild-socio-environmental-stressors-replicates-some-spaceflight-induced-immunological-changes
#4
Fanny Gaignier, Christine Legrand-Frossi, Emilien Stragier, Julianne Mathiot, Jean-Louis Merlin, Charles Cohen-Salmon, Laurence Lanfumey, Jean-Pol Frippiat
During spaceflight, astronauts face radiations, mechanical, and socio-environmental stressors. To determine the impact of chronic socio-environmental stressors on immunity, we exposed adult male mice to chronic unpredictable mild psychosocial and environmental stressors (CUMS model) for 3 weeks. This duration was chosen to simulate a long flight at the human scale. Our data show that this combination of stressors induces an increase of serum IgA, a reduction of normalized splenic mass and tends to reduce the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, as previously reported during or after space missions...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29864825/cvd-diamond-detector-with-interdigitated-electrode-pattern-for-time-of-flight-energy-loss-measurements-of-low-energy-ion-bunches
#5
W Cayzac, M Pomorski, A Blažević, B Canaud, D Deslandes, J Fariaut, D Gontier, E Lescoute, J G Marmouget, F Occelli, G Oudot, C Reverdin, J E Sauvestre, A Sollier, G Soullié, C Varignon, B Villette
Ion stopping experiments in plasma for beam energies of few hundred keV per nucleon are of great interest to benchmark the stopping-power models in the context of inertial confinement fusion and high-energy-density physics research. For this purpose, a specific ion detector on chemical-vapor-deposition diamond basis has been developed for precise time-of-flight measurements of the ion energy loss. The electrode structure is interdigitated for maximizing its sensitivity to low-energy ions, and it has a finger width of 100 μm and a spacing of 500 μm...
May 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29843821/on-orbit-sleep-problems-of-astronauts-and-countermeasures
#6
REVIEW
Bin Wu, Yue Wang, Xiaorui Wu, Dong Liu, Dong Xu, Fei Wang
Sufficient sleep duration and good sleep quality are crucial to ensure normal physical and mental health, cognition and work performance for the common people, as well as astronauts. On-orbit sleep problem is very common among astronauts and has potential detrimental influences on the health of crewmembers and the safety of flight missions. Sleep in space is becoming a new medical research frontier. In this review we summarized on-orbit sleep problems of astronauts and six kinds of causes, and we presented the effects of lack of sleep on performance as well as mental and physical health, then we proposed seven kinds of countermeasures for sleep disturbance in spaceflight, including pharmacologic interventions, light treatment, crew selection and training, Traditional Chinese Medicine and so on...
May 30, 2018: Military Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29808992/potential-controlled-adsorption-separation-and-detection-of-redox-species-in-nanofluidic-devices
#7
Jin Cui, Klaus Mathwig, Dileep Mampallil, Serge G Lemay
Nanoscale channels and electrodes for electrochemical measurements exhibit extreme surface-to-volume ratios and a correspondingly high sensitivity to even weak degrees of surface interactions. Here, we exploit the potential-dependent reversible adsorption of outer-sphere redox species to modulate in space and time their concentration in a nanochannel under advective flow conditions. Induced concentration variations propagate downstream at a species-dependent velocity. This allows one to amperometrically distinguish between attomole amounts of species based on their time-of-flight...
May 29, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29794218/mapping-the-dark-space-of-chemical-reactions-with-extended-nanomole-synthesis-and-maldi-tof-ms
#8
Shishi Lin, Sergei Dikler, William D Blincoe, Ronald D Ferguson, Robert P Sheridan, Zhengwei Peng, Donald V Conway, Kerstin Zawatzky, Heather Wang, Tim Cernak, Ian W Davies, Daniel A DiRocco, Huaming Sheng, Christopher J Welch, Spencer D Dreher
Understanding the practical limitations of chemical reactions is critically important for efficiently planning the synthesis of compounds in pharmaceutical, agrochemical and specialty chemical research and development. However, literature reports of the scope of new reactions are often cursory and biased toward successful results, severely limiting the ability to predict reaction outcomes for untested substrates. We herein illustrate strategies for carrying out large scale surveys of chemical reactivity using a material-sparing nanomole-scale automated synthesis platform with greatly expanded synthetic scope combined with ultra-high throughput (uHT) matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)...
May 24, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792757/field-trials-of-ontario-rabies-vaccine-bait-in-the-northeastern-usa-2012-14
#9
Amy T Gilbert, Shylo R Johnson, Kathleen M Nelson, Richard B Chipman, Kurt C VerCauteren, Timothy P Algeo, Charles E Rupprecht, Dennis Slate
In the US, rabies virus (RV) has been enzootic in raccoons ( Procyon lotor) since the late 1940s. Oral rabies vaccination (ORV) was implemented in the 1990s to halt the spread of raccoon RV and continues to be used as a wildlife management tool. Our objective was to evaluate a recombinant human adenovirus-rabies virus glycoprotein vaccine in northern New York, Vermont, and New Hampshire over a 3-yr period, using changes in RV neutralizing antibody (RVNA) seroprevalence in raccoon populations as an immunologic index of ORV impact...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787637/fear-based-niche-shifts-in-neotropical-birds
#10
Ari E Martínez, Eliseo Parra, Oliver Muellerklein, Vance T Vredenburg
Predation is a strong ecological force that shapes animal communities through natural selection. Recent studies have shown the cascading effects of predation risk on ecosystems through changes in prey behavior. Minimizing predation risk may explain why multiple prey species associate together in space and time. For example, mixed-species flocks that have been widely documented from forest systems, often include birds that eavesdrop on sentinel species (alarm calling heterospecifics). Sentinel species may be pivotal in (1) allowing flocking species to forage in open areas within forests that otherwise incur high predation risk, and (2) influencing flock occurrence (the amount of time species spend with a flock)...
May 22, 2018: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784068/play-behaviour-fear-responses-and-activity-levels-in-commercial-broiler-chickens-provided-with-preferred-environmental-enrichments
#11
M Baxter, C L Bailie, N E O'Connell
There is currently a lack of research investigating the effectiveness of commercial broiler enrichments, and in particular the ability of these additions to create opportunities for positive welfare. One aim of this study was to investigate whether offering broiler chickens enrichments that have recently been found to be preferred leads to increased levels of activity. A second aim was to investigate the emotional effects of provision of these enrichments by assessing levels of fearfulness and play-like activity...
May 22, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768411/cytoskeleton-structure-and-total-methylation-of-mouse-cardiac-and-lung-tissue-during-space-flight
#12
Irina V Ogneva, Sergey S Loktev, Vladimir N Sychev
The purpose of this work was to evaluate the protein and mRNA expression levels of multiple cytoskeletal proteins in the cardiac and lung tissue of mice that were euthanized onboard the United States Orbital Segment of the International Space Station 37 days after the start of the SpaceX-4 mission (September 2014, USA). The results showed no changes in the cytoskeletal protein content in the cardiac and lung tissue of the mice, but there were significant changes in the mRNA expression levels of the associated genes, which may be due to an increase in total genome methylation...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768035/microgravity-induced-ocular-changes-are-related-to-body-weight
#13
Jay C Buckey, Scott D Phillips, Allison P Anderson, Ariane B Chepko, Veronique Archambault-Leger, Jiang Gui, Abigail M Fellows
On Earth, tissue weight generates compressive forces that press on body structures and act on the walls of vessels throughout the body. In microgravity tissues no longer have any weight and tissue compressive forces are lost, suggesting individuals who weigh more may show greater effects from microgravity exposure. One unique effect of long-duration microgravity exposure is the spaceflight-associated neuro-ocular syndrome (SANS) which can present with globe flattening, choroidal folds, optic disc edema, and a hyperopic visual shift...
May 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760957/simulated-microgravity-induces-a-cellular-regression-of-the-mature-phenotype-in-human-primary-osteoblasts
#14
Magda Gioia, Anna Michaletti, Manuel Scimeca, Mario Marini, Umberto Tarantino, Lello Zolla, Massimo Coletta
Decreased mechanical loading on bones, such as prolonged bed rest and microgravity during space flights, leads to the development of an osteoporotic-like phenotype. Although osteoblast hypo-functionality is reported to be involved in the progression of bone pathological conditions, the cellular mechanisms of this process remain largely unknown. The combined application of mass spectrometry "-omics" and histochemical and ultrastructural approaches have been employed to investigate the effects of the gravitational unloading on human bone-cell biology...
2018: Cell Death Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758699/entropy-of-spatial-network-ensembles
#15
Justin P Coon, Carl P Dettmann, Orestis Georgiou
We analyze complexity in spatial network ensembles through the lens of graph entropy. Mathematically, we model a spatial network as a soft random geometric graph, i.e., a graph with two sources of randomness, namely nodes located randomly in space and links formed independently between pairs of nodes with probability given by a specified function (the "pair connection function") of their mutual distance. We consider the general case where randomness arises in node positions as well as pairwise connections (i...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753416/acute-exposure-to-space-flight-results-in-evidence-of-reduced-lymph-transport-tissue-fluid-shifts-and-immune-alterations-in-the-rat-gastrointestinal-system
#16
W E Cromer, D C Zawieja
Space flight causes a number of alterations in physiological systems, changes in the immunological status of subjects, and altered interactions of the host to environmental stimuli. We studied the effect of space flight on the lymphatic system of the gastrointestinal tract which is responsible for lipid transport and immune surveillance which includes the host interaction with the gut microbiome. We found that there were signs of tissue damage present in the space flown animals that was lacking in ground controls (epithelial damage, crypt morphological changes, etc...
May 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753414/late-effects-of-1-h-irradiation-on-hippocampal-physiology
#17
Frederico Kiffer, Alexis K Howe, Hannah Carr, Jing Wang, Tyler Alexander, Julie E Anderson, Thomas Groves, John W Seawright, Vijayalakshmi Sridharan, Gwendolyn Carter, Marjan Boerma, Antiño R Allen
NASA's Missions to Mars and beyond will expose flight crews to potentially dangerous levels of charged-particle radiation. Of all charged nuclei, 1 H is the most abundant charged particle in both the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) and solar particle event (SPE) spectra. There are currently no functional spacecraft shielding materials that are able to mitigate the charged-particle radiation encountered in space. Recent studies have demonstrated cognitive injuries due to high-dose 1 H exposures in rodents. Our study investigated the effects of 1 H irradiation on neuronal morphology in the hippocampus of adult male mice...
May 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753409/if-technological-intelligent-extraterrestrials-exist-what-biological-traits-are-de-rigueur
#18
E R Taylor
If extraterrestrials exist in the depths of cosmic space, and are capable of interstellar communications, even space flight, there is no requirement that they be humanoid in form. However, certain humanoid capabilities would be advantageous for tool fashioning and critical to operating space craft as well as functioning under the disparate extreme conditions under which they may be forced to operate. They would have to be "gas breathing". The reasonable assumption that life based upon the same elements as Earth life requiring water stems from the unique properties of water that no other similar low molecular weight nonmetal hydride offers...
May 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752376/effects-of-prolonged-spaceflight-on-atrial-size-atrial-electrophysiology-and-risk-of-atrial-fibrillation
#19
Htet W Khine, Katarina Steding-Ehrenborg, Jeffrey L Hastings, Jamie Kowal, James D Daniels, Richard L Page, Jeffery J Goldberger, Jason Ng, Beverley Adams-Huet, Michael W Bungo, Benjamin D Levine
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) in active astronauts is ≈5%, similar to the general population but at a younger age. Risk factors for AF include left atrial enlargement, increased number of premature atrial complexes, and certain parameters on signal-averaged electrocardiography, such as P-wave duration, root mean square voltage for the terminal 20 ms of the signal-averaged P wave, and P-wave amplitude. We aimed to evaluate changes in atrial structure, supraventricular beats, and atrial electrophysiology to determine whether spaceflight could increase the risk of AF...
May 2018: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741442/acute-effect-of-low-dose-space-radiation-on-mouse-retina-and-retinal-endothelial-cells
#20
X W Mao, M Boerma, D Rodriguez, M Campbell-Beachler, T Jones, S Stanbouly, V Sridharan, A Wroe, G A Nelson
There is concern that degradation of vision as a result of space flight may compromise both mission goals and long-term quality of life after space travel. The visual disturbances may be due to a combination of intracerebral pressure changes and exposure to ionizing radiation. The retina and the retinal vasculature play important roles in vision, yet have not been studied extensively in relationship to space travel and space radiation. The goal of the current study was to characterize oxidative damage and apoptosis in retinal endothelial cells after whole-body gamma-ray, proton and oxygen (16 O) ion radiation exposure at 0...
May 9, 2018: Radiation Research
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