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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217966/lpv-modeling-of-a-flexible-wing-aircraft-using-modal-alignment-and-adaptive-gridding-methods
#1
Ali Khudhair Al-Jiboory, Guoming Zhu, Sean Shan-Min Swei, Weihua Su, Nhan T Nguyen
One of the earliest approaches in gain-scheduling control is the gridding based approach, in which a set of local linear time-invariant models are obtained at various gridded points corresponding to the varying parameters within the flight envelop. In order to ensure smooth and effective Linear Parameter-Varying control, aligning all the flexible modes within each local model and maintaining small number of representative local models over the gridded parameter space are crucial. In addition, since the flexible structural models tend to have large dimensions, a tractable model reduction process is necessary...
July 2017: Aerospace Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207508/preparation-of-a-spaceflight-apoptosis-search-in-sutured-wound-healing-models
#2
Stefan Riwaldt, Monica Monici, Asbjørn Graver Petersen, Uffe Birk Jensen, Katja Evert, Desiré Pantalone, Kirsten Utpatel, Matthias Evert, Markus Wehland, Marcus Krüger, Sascha Kopp, Sofie Frandsen, Thomas Corydon, Jayashree Sahana, Johann Bauer, Ronald Lützenberg, Manfred Infanger, Daniela Grimm
To prepare the ESA (European Space Agency) spaceflight project "Wound healing and Sutures in Unloading Conditions", we studied mechanisms of apoptosis in wound healing models based on ex vivo skin tissue cultures, kept for 10 days alive in serum-free DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with bovine serum albumin, hydrocortisone, insulin, ascorbic acid and antibiotics at 32 °C. The overall goal is to test: (i) the viability of tissue specimens; (ii) the gene expression of activators and inhibitors of apoptosis and extracellular matrix components in wound and suture models; and (iii) to design analytical protocols for future tissue specimens after post-spaceflight download...
December 3, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198308/payload-hardware-and-experimental-protocol-development-to-enable-future-testing-of-the-effect-of-space-microgravity-on-the-resistance-to-gentamicin-of-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli-and-its-%C3%AF-s-deficient-mutant
#3
A C Matin, J-H Wang, Mimi Keyhan, Rachna Singh, Michael Benoit, Macarena P Parra, Michael R Padgen, Antonio J Ricco, Matthew Chin, Charlie R Friedericks, Tori N Chinn, Aaron Cohen, Michael B Henschke, Timothy V Snyder, Matthew P Lera, Shannon S Ross, Christina M Mayberry, Sungshin Choi, Diana T Wu, Ming X Tan, Travis D Boone, Christopher C Beasley, Matthew E Piccini, Stevan M Spremo
Human immune response is compromised and bacteria can become more antibiotic resistant in space microgravity (MG). We report that under low-shear modeled microgravity (LSMMG), stationary-phase uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) become more resistant to gentamicin (Gm), and that this increase is dependent on the presence of σs (a transcription regulator encoded by the rpoS gene). UPEC causes urinary tract infections (UTIs), reported to afflict astronauts; Gm is a standard treatment, so these findings could impact astronaut health...
November 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182534/on-tree-mango-fruit-size-estimation-using-rgb-d-images
#4
Zhenglin Wang, Kerry B Walsh, Brijesh Verma
In-field mango fruit sizing is useful for estimation of fruit maturation and size distribution, informing the decision to harvest, harvest resourcing (e.g., tray insert sizes), and marketing. In-field machine vision imaging has been used for fruit count, but assessment of fruit size from images also requires estimation of camera-to-fruit distance. Low cost examples of three technologies for assessment of camera to fruit distance were assessed: a RGB-D (depth) camera, a stereo vision camera and a Time of Flight (ToF) laser rangefinder...
November 28, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167593/establishing-brdf-calibration-capabilities-through-shortwave-infrared
#5
Georgi T Georgiev, James J Butler, Kurt Thome, Catherine Cooksey, Leibo Ding
Satellite instruments operating in the reflective solar wavelength region require accurate and precise determination of the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Functions (BRDFs) of the laboratory and flight diffusers used in their pre-flight and on-orbit calibrations. This paper advances that initial work and presents a comparison of spectral Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) and Directional Hemispherical Reflectance (DHR) of Spectralon, a common material for laboratory and on-orbit flight diffusers...
2017: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163225/human-locomotion-in-hypogravity-from-basic-research-to-clinical-applications
#6
REVIEW
Francesco Lacquaniti, Yury P Ivanenko, Francesca Sylos-Labini, Valentina La Scaleia, Barbara La Scaleia, Patrick A Willems, Myrka Zago
We have considerable knowledge about the mechanisms underlying compensation of Earth gravity during locomotion, a knowledge obtained from physiological, biomechanical, modeling, developmental, comparative, and paleoanthropological studies. By contrast, we know much less about locomotion and movement in general under sustained hypogravity. This lack of information poses a serious problem for human space exploration. In a near future humans will walk again on the Moon and for the first time on Mars. It would be important to predict how they will move around, since we know that locomotion and mobility in general may be jeopardized in hypogravity, especially when landing after a prolonged weightlessness of the space flight...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161391/an-overview-of-space-medicine
#7
P D Hodkinson, R A Anderton, B N Posselt, K J Fong
Space medicine is fundamental to the human exploration of space. It supports survival, function and performance in this challenging and potentially lethal environment. It is international, intercultural and interdisciplinary, operating at the boundaries of exploration, science, technology and medicine. Space medicine is also the latest UK specialty to be recognized by the Royal College of Physicians in the UK and the General Medical Council. This review introduces the field of space medicine and describes the different types of spaceflight, environmental challenges, associated medical and physiological effects, and operational medical considerations...
December 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157338/one-year-mission-on-iss-is-a-step-towards-interplanetary-missions
#8
Elena V Fomina, Nataliya Yu Lysova, Tatyana B Kukoba, Alexey P Grishin, Mikhail B Kornienko
BACKGROUND: in the 1990s Russian cosmonauts performed six long-duration missions on Mir that went from 312 to 438 d. In 2015 a mission on the International Space Station that continued for 340 d, 8 h, and 47 min was successfully accomplished. It was a joint U.S./Russian mission completed by Scott Kelly and Mikhail Kornienko (KM). METHODS: The intensity of in-flight physical exercises and postflight motor changes were measured in KM and in the six cosmonauts who made shorter flights (173...
December 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156538/combined-effects-of-simulated-microgravity-and-radiation-exposure-on-osteoclast-cell-fusion
#9
Srinivasan Shanmugarajan, Ye Zhang, Maria Moreno-Villanueva, Ryan Clanton, Larry H Rohde, Govindarajan T Ramesh, Jean D Sibonga, Honglu Wu
The loss of bone mass and alteration in bone physiology during space flight are one of the major health risks for astronauts. Although the lack of weight bearing in microgravity is considered a risk factor for bone loss and possible osteoporosis, organisms living in space are also exposed to cosmic radiation and other environmental stress factors. As such, it is still unclear as to whether and by how much radiation exposure contributes to bone loss during space travel, and whether the effects of microgravity and radiation exposure are additive or synergistic...
November 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156494/comparative-analysis-of-vestibular-ecomorphology-in-birds
#10
Roger B J Benson, Ethan Starmer-Jones, Roger A Close, Stig A Walsh
The bony labyrinth of vertebrates houses the semicircular canals. These sense rotational accelerations of the head and play an essential role in gaze stabilisation during locomotion. The sizes and shapes of the semicircular canals have hypothesised relationships to agility and locomotory modes in many groups, including birds, and a burgeoning palaeontological literature seeks to make ecological interpretations from the morphology of the labyrinth in extinct species. Rigorous tests of form-function relationships for the vestibular system are required to support these interpretations...
December 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136391/effects-of-1-h-16-o-charged-particle-irradiation-on-short-term-memory-and-hippocampal-physiology-in-a-murine-model
#11
Frederico Kiffer, Hannah Carr, Thomas Groves, Julie E Anderson, Tyler Alexander, Jing Wang, John W Seawright, Vijayalakshmi Sridharan, Gwendolyn Carter, Marjan Boerma, Antiño R Allen
Radiation from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) poses a significant health risk for deep-space flight crews. GCR are unique in their extremely high-energy particles. With current spacecraft shielding technology, some of the predominant particles astronauts would be exposed to are (1)H + (16)O. Radiation has been shown to cause cognitive deficits in mice. The hippocampus plays a key role in memory and cognitive tasks; it receives information from the cortex, undergoes dendritic-dependent processing and then relays information back to the cortex...
November 14, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131193/frequency-and-timing-stability-of-an-airborne-injection-seeded-nd-yag-laser-system-for-direct-detection-wind-lidar
#12
Christian Lemmerz, Oliver Lux, Oliver Reitebuch, Benjamin Witschas, Christian Wührer
We report on the design and performance of the laser deployed in the airborne demonstrator Doppler wind lidar for the Aeolus mission of the European Space Agency (ESA). The all-solid-state, diode-pumped and frequency-tripled Nd:YAG laser is realized as a master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) system, generating 60 mJ of single-frequency pulses at 355 nm wavelength, 50 Hz repetition rate and 20 ns pulse duration. For the measurement of the Doppler frequency shift over several accumulated laser shots, the frequency stability of the laser is of crucial importance...
November 10, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129533/sounds-of-modified-flight-feathers-reliably-signal-danger-in-a-pigeon
#13
Trevor G Murray, Jochen Zeil, Robert D Magrath
In his book on sexual selection, Darwin [1] devoted equal space to non-vocal and vocal communication in birds. Since then, vocal communication has become a model for studies of neurobiology, learning, communication, evolution, and conservation [2, 3]. In contrast, non-vocal "instrumental music," as Darwin called it, has only recently become subject to sustained inquiry [4, 5]. In particular, outstanding work reveals how feathers, often highly modified, produce distinctive sounds [6-9], and suggests that these sounds have evolved at least 70 times, in many orders [10]...
November 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128926/helminth-infections-in-a-pair-of-sympatric-congeneric-lizard-species
#14
Thiago Maia-Carneiro, Tatiana Motta-Tavares, Robson Waldemar Ávila, Carlos F D Rocha
We analyzed parameters of parasitism by helminths in a pair of sympatric congeneric lizard species (Tropidurus hispidus and Tropidurus semitaeniatus). Differences in their supracommunities (richness, composition, and abundance) and the influence of helminthic loads on minimum flight initiation distances and body temperatures were evaluated. We reported new findings of Piratuba digiticauda infecting T. hispidus and Oochoristica bresslaui infecting T. semitaeniatus. Parapharyngodon alvarengai was the most abundant helminth in both host species...
November 11, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104544/sensorimotor-reorganizations-of-arm-kinematics-and-postural-strategy-for-functional-whole-body-reaching-movements-in-microgravity
#15
Thomas Macaluso, Christophe Bourdin, Frank Buloup, Marie-Laure Mille, Patrick Sainton, Fabrice R Sarlegna, Jean-Louis Vercher, Lionel Bringoux
Understanding the impact of weightlessness on human behavior during the forthcoming long-term space missions is of critical importance, especially when considering the efficiency of goal-directed movements in these unusual environments. Several studies provided a large set of evidence that gravity is taken into account during the planning stage of arm reaching movements to optimally anticipate its consequence upon the moving limbs. However, less is known about sensorimotor changes required to face weightless environments when individuals have to perform fast and accurate goal-directed actions with whole-body displacement...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101746/quantitative-target-proteomics-of-chromosome-13-human-blood-plasma-proteins
#16
A T Kopylov, E V Ilgisonis, O V Tikhonova, T E Farafonova, S E Novikova, V G Zgoda, E A Ponomarenko, A V Lisitsa, A A Markin, B V Morukov, A I Grigoriev, A I Archakov
Quantitative proteomic analysis of 50 blood plasma samples of healthy volunteers who underwent a comprehensive medical examination and were found eligible for space flights was performed. As a result of directed mass spectrometric analysis, signals for 128 proteins, which accounted for nearly 40% of the total number of chromosome 13 gene products, were detected. The analysis of interindividual variation of concentrations of chromosome 13 proteins showed the presence of a pool comprising 41 proteins with a low variation (CV < 30%), which can potentially be used as biomarkers...
September 2017: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091696/dual-use-architecture-for-innovative-lidar-and-free-space-optical-communications
#17
Filippo Scotti, Daniel Onori, Claudio Porzi, Fabio Falconi, Vito Sorianello, Andreia Alves, Muhammad Imran, Sergio Pinna, Arismar Cerqueira, Marco Romagnoli, Antonella Bogoni
An innovative and effective architecture for lidar systems is presented and experimentally demonstrated. The proposed scheme can also be easily exploited for optical communications. In particular, the system includes an innovative lidar software-defined architecture based on optically coherent detection, overcoming current drawbacks of time of flight incoherent systems. The experiments demonstrate the ability to perform long range detection resorting to the waveform compression on the continuous wave approach, obtaining a range resolution of 15 cm with a sensitivity of -95  dBm...
November 1, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091569/effects-of-spaceflight-on-astronaut-brain-structure-as-indicated-on-mri
#18
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Donna R Roberts, Moritz H Albrecht, Heather R Collins, Davud Asemani, A Rano Chatterjee, M Vittoria Spampinato, Xun Zhu, Marc I Chimowitz, Michael U Antonucci
BACKGROUND: There is limited information regarding the effects of spaceflight on the anatomical configuration of the brain and on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) spaces. METHODS: We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to compare images of 18 astronauts' brains before and after missions of long duration, involving stays on the International Space Station, and of 16 astronauts' brains before and after missions of short duration, involving participation in the Space Shuttle Program...
November 2, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081428/motor-imagery-of-body-movements-that-can-t-be-executed-on-earth
#19
Michael Kalicinski, Otmar Bock, Nadja Schott
BACKGROUND: Before participating in a space mission, astronauts undergo parabolic-flight and underwater training to facilitate their subsequent adaptation to weightlessness. A quick, simple and inexpensive alternative could be training by motor imagery (MI). OBJECTIVE: An important prerequisite for this training approach is that humans are able to imagine movements which are unfamiliar, since they can't be performed in the presence of gravity. Our study addresses this prerequisite...
2017: Journal of Vestibular Research: Equilibrium & Orientation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080356/the-icam-1-expression-level-determines-the-susceptibility-of-human-endothelial-cells-to-simulated-microgravity
#20
L B Buravkova, E G Rudimov, E R Andreeva, A I Grigoriev
Microgravity is a principal risk factor hampering human cardiovascular regulation during space flights. Endothelial dysfunction associated with the impaired integrity and uniformity of the monolayer represents a potential trigger for vascular damage. We characterized the expression profile of the multi-step cascade of adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin, VE-cadherin) in umbilical cord endothelial cells (ECs) after 24 hrs of exposure to simulated microgravity (SMG), pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α, and the combination of the two...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
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