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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821547/cultivation-in-space-flight-produces-minimal-alterations-in-the-susceptibility-of-bacillus-subtilis-cells-to-72-different-antibiotics-and-growth-inhibiting-compounds
#1
Michael D Morrison, Patricia Fajardo-Cavazos, Wayne L Nicholson
Past results have suggested that bacterial antibiotic susceptibility is altered during space flight. To test this notion, Bacillus subtilis cells were cultivated in matched hardware, medium, and environmental conditions either in spaceflight microgravity on the International Space Station, termed Flight (FL) samples, or at Earth-normal gravity, termed Ground Control (GC) samples. Susceptibility of FL and GC samples was compared to 72 antibiotics and growth-inhibitory compounds using the Omnilog Phenotype Microarray (PM) system...
August 18, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811888/performance-test-and-verification-of-an-off-the-shelf-automated-avian-radar-tracking-system
#2
Roel May, Yngve Steinheim, Pål Kvaløy, Roald Vang, Frank Hanssen
Microwave radar is an important tool for observation of birds in flight and represents a tremendous increase in observation capability in terms of amount of surveillance space that can be covered at relatively low cost. Based on off-the-shelf radar hardware, automated radar tracking systems have been developed for monitoring avian movements. However, radar used as an observation instrument in biological research has its limitations that are important to be aware of when analyzing recorded radar data. This article describes a method for exploring the detection capabilities of a dedicated short-range avian radar system used inside the operational Smøla wind-power plant...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811532/protein-expression-changes-caused-by-spaceflight-as-measured-for-18-russian-cosmonauts
#3
Irina M Larina, Andrew J Percy, Juncong Yang, Christoph H Borchers, Andrei M Nosovsky, Anatoli I Grigoriev, Evgeny N Nikolaev
The effects of spaceflight on human physiology is an increasingly studied field, yet the molecular mechanisms driving physiological changes remain unknown. With that in mind, this study was performed to obtain a deeper understanding of changes to the human proteome during space travel, by quantitating a panel of 125 proteins in the blood plasma of 18 Russian cosmonauts who had conducted long-duration missions to the International Space Station. The panel of labeled prototypic tryptic peptides from these proteins covered a concentration range of more than 5 orders of magnitude in human plasma...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796397/clinical-evaluation-of-time-of-flight-mr-angiography-with-sparse-undersampling-and-iterative-reconstruction-for-cerebral-aneurysms
#4
Yasutaka Fushimi, Tomohisa Okada, Takayuki Kikuchi, Akira Yamamoto, Tsutomu Okada, Takayuki Yamamoto, Michaela Schmidt, Kazumichi Yoshida, Susumu Miyamoto, Kaori Togashi
Compressed sensing (CS) MRI has just been introduced to research areas as an innovative approach to accelerate MRI. CS is expected to achieve higher k-space undersampling by exploiting the underlying sparsity in an appropriate transform domain. MR angiography (MRA) provides high spatial resolution information on arteries; however, a relatively long acquisition time is necessary to cover a wide volume. Reduction of acquisition time by CS for time-of-flight (TOF) MR angiography (Sparse-TOF) is beneficial in clinical examinations; therefore, the clinical validity of Sparse-TOF needs to be investigated...
August 10, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777744/the-effect-of-wing-flexibility-on-sound-generation-of-flapping-wings
#5
Biao Geng, Qian Xue, Xudong Zheng, Geng Liu, Yan Ren, Haibo Dong
In this study, the unsteady flow and acoustic characteristics of a three-dimensional (3D) flapping wing model of Tibicen linnei cicada at forward flight condition are numerically investigated. A single cicada wing is modelled as a membrane with prescribed motion reconstructed from high-speed videos of a live insect. The numerical solution takes a hydrodynamic/acoustic splitting approach: the flow field is solved with an incompressible Navier-Stokes flow solver based on immersed boundary method and the acoustic field is solved with linearized perturbed compressible equations (LPCEs)...
August 4, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770935/insights-into-charge-carrier-dynamics-in-organo-metal-halide-perovskites-from-neat-films-to-solar-cells
#6
Jiajun Peng, Yani Chen, Kaibo Zheng, Tõnu Pullerits, Ziqi Liang
Organo-metal halide perovskites have recently obtained world-wide attention as promising solar cell materials. They have broad and strong light absorption along with excellent carrier transport properties which partially explain their record power conversion efficiencies above 22%. However, the basic understanding of the underlying physical mechanisms is still limited and there remain large discrepancies among reported transport characteristics of perovskite materials. Notably, the carrier mobility of perovskite samples either in thin films or within solar cells obtained using different techniques can vary by up to 7-8 orders of magnitude...
August 3, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764395/how-close-are-time-series-to-power-tail-l%C3%A3-vy-diffusions
#7
Jan M Gairing, Michael A Högele, Tania Kosenkova, Adam H Monahan
This article presents a new and easily implementable method to quantify the so-called coupling distance between the law of a time series and the law of a differential equation driven by Markovian additive jump noise with heavy-tailed jumps, such as α-stable Lévy flights. Coupling distances measure the proximity of the empirical law of the tails of the jump increments and a given power law distribution. In particular, they yield an upper bound for the distance of the respective laws on path space. We prove rates of convergence comparable to the rates of the central limit theorem which are confirmed by numerical simulations...
July 2017: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757571/preliminary-assessment-of-wind-and-wave-retrieval-from-chinese-gaofen-3-sar-imagery
#8
Weizeng Shao, Yexin Sheng, Jian Sun
The Chinese Gaofen-3 (GF-3) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) launched by the China Academy of Space Technology (CAST) has operated at C-band since September 2016. To date, we have collected 16/42 images in vertical-vertical (VV)/horizontal-horizontal (HH) polarization, covering the National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) buoy measurements of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) around U.S. western coastal waters. Wind speeds from NDBC in situ buoys are up to 15 m/s and buoy-measured significant wave height (SWH) has ranged from 0...
July 25, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734956/fast-carotid-artery-mr-angiography-with-compressed-sensing-based-three-dimensional-time-of-flight-sequence
#9
Bo Li, Hao Li, Li Dong, Guofu Huang
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we sought to investigate the feasibility of fast carotid artery MR angiography (MRA) by combining three-dimensional time-of-flight (3D TOF) with compressed sensing method (CS-3D TOF). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A pseudo-sequential phase encoding order was developed for CS-3D TOF to generate hyper-intense vessel and suppress background tissues in under-sampled 3D k-space. Seven healthy volunteers and one patient with carotid artery stenosis were recruited for this study...
July 20, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727859/space-flight-associated-neuro-ocular-syndrome
#10
Andrew G Lee, Thomas H Mader, C Robert Gibson, William Tarver
New and unique physiologic and pathologic systemic and neuro-ocular responses have been documented in astronauts during and after long-duration space flight. Although the precise cause remains unknown, space flight-associated neuro-ocular syndrome (SANS) has been adopted as an appropriate descriptive term. The Space Medicine Operations Division of the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has documented the variable occurrence of SANS in astronauts returning from long-duration space flight on the International Space Station...
July 20, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720189/enhancing-the-meaningfulness-of-work-for-astronauts-on-long-duration-space-exploration-missions
#11
Thomas W Britt, Anton Sytine, Ashley Brady, Russ Wilkes, Rebecca Pittman, Kristen Jennings, Kandice Goguen
INTRODUCTION: Numerous authors have identified the stressors likely to be encountered on long duration space exploration missions (e.g., to Mars), including the possibility of significant crises, separation from family, boredom/monotony, and interpersonal conflict. Although many authors have noted that meaningful work may be beneficial for astronauts on these missions, none have detailed the sources of meaningful work for astronauts and how these sources may differ between astronauts...
August 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720182/ground-reaction-forces-during-reduced-gravity-running-in-parabolic-flight
#12
Peter Cavanagh, Andrea Rice, Molly Glauberman, Amanda Sudduth, Arien Cherones, Shane Davis, Michael Lewis, Andrea Hanson, Grier Wilt
BACKGROUND: Treadmills have been employed as both a form of exercise and a countermeasure to prevent changes in the musculoskeletal system on almost all NASA missions and many Russian missions since the early Space Shuttle flights. It is possible that treadmills may also be part of exercise programs on future Mars missions and that they may be a component of exercise facilities in lunar or Martian habitats. METHODS: In order to determine if the ambient gravity on these destinations will provide osteogenic effects while performing exercise on a treadmill, ground reactions forces (GRFs) were measured on eight subjects (six women and two men) running at 6 mph during parabolic flight in Martian and lunar gravity conditions...
August 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705999/the-effects-of-strict-prolonged-bedrest-on-cardio-respiratory-fitness-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
Mathias Ried-Larsen, Hugo Aarts, Michael J Joyner
The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis (PROSPERO: CRD42017055619) was to assess the effects of strict prolonged bedrest (without counter measures) on V̇O2max and to explore sources of variation herein. Since 1949, 80 studies with a total of 949 participants (>90% males) have been published with data on strict bedrest and V̇O2max. The studies were conducted mainly in young participants (median age (interquartile range)) 24.5 (22.4 to 34.0) years. The duration of bedrest ranged from 1-90 days...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705441/spin-filtered-time-of-flight-k-space-microscopy-of-ir-towards-the-complete-photoemission-experiment
#14
G Schönhense, K Medjanik, S Chernov, D Kutnyakhov, O Fedchenko, M Ellguth, D Vasilyev, A Zaporozhchenko-Zymaková, D Panzer, A Oelsner, C Tusche, B Schönhense, J Braun, J Minár, H Ebert, J Viefhaus, W Wurth, H J Elmers
The combination of momentum microscopy (high resolution imaging of the Fourier plane) with an imaging spin filter has recently set a benchmark in k-resolution and spin-detection efficiency. Here we show that the degree of parallelization can be further increased by time-of-flight energy recording. On the quest towards maximum information (in earlier work termed "complete" photoemission experiment) we have studied the prototypical high-Z fcc metal iridium. Large partial bandgaps and strong spin-orbit interaction lead to a sequence of spin-polarized surface resonances...
July 6, 2017: Ultramicroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688391/crf-pepico-double-velocity-map-imaging-photoelectron-photoion-coincidence-spectroscopy-for-reaction-kinetics-studies
#15
Bálint Sztáray, Krisztina Voronova, Krisztián G Torma, Kyle J Covert, Andras Bodi, Patrick Hemberger, Thomas Gerber, David L Osborn
Photoelectron photoion coincidence (PEPICO) spectroscopy could become a powerful tool for the time-resolved study of multi-channel gas phase chemical reactions. Toward this goal, we have designed and tested electron and ion optics that form the core of a new PEPICO spectrometer, utilizing simultaneous velocity map imaging for both cations and electrons, while also achieving good cation mass resolution through space focusing. These optics are combined with a side-sampled, slow-flow chemical reactor for photolytic initiation of gas-phase chemical reactions...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680972/non-toxin-producing-bacillus-cereus-strains-belonging-to-the-b-%C3%A2-anthracis-clade-isolated-from-the-international-space-station
#16
Kasthuri Venkateswaran, Nitin K Singh, Aleksandra Checinska Sielaff, Robert K Pope, Nicholas H Bergman, Sandra P van Tongeren, Nisha B Patel, Paul A Lawson, Masataka Satomi, Charles H D Williamson, Jason W Sahl, Paul Keim, Duane Pierson, Jay Perry
In an ongoing Microbial Observatory investigation of the International Space Station (ISS), 11 Bacillus strains (2 from the Kibo Japanese experimental module, 4 from the U.S. segment, and 5 from the Russian module) were isolated and their whole genomes were sequenced. A comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences of these isolates showed the highest similarity (>99%) to the Bacillus anthracis-B. cereus-B. thuringiensis group. The fatty acid composition, polar lipid profile, peptidoglycan type, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight profiles were consistent with the B...
May 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678813/fine-scale-assessment-of-home-ranges-and-activity-patterns-for-resident-black-vultures-coragyps-atratus-and-turkey-vultures-cathartes-aura
#17
Amanda E Holland, Michael E Byrne, A Lawrence Bryan, Travis L DeVault, Olin E Rhodes, James C Beasley
Knowledge of black vulture (Coragyps atratus) and turkey vulture (Cathartes aura) spatial ecology is surprisingly limited despite their vital ecological roles. Fine-scale assessments of space use patterns and resource selection are particularly lacking, although development of tracking technologies has allowed data collection at finer temporal and spatial resolution. Objectives of this study were to conduct the first assessment of monthly home range and core area sizes of resident black and turkey vultures with consideration to sex, as well as elucidate differences in monthly, seasonal, and annual activity patterns based on fine-scale movement data analyses...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674459/photo-excited-hot-carrier-dynamics-in-hydrogenated-amorphous-silicon-imaged-by-4d-electron-microscopy
#18
Bolin Liao, Ebrahim Najafi, Heng Li, Austin J Minnich, Ahmed H Zewail
Charge carrier dynamics in amorphous semiconductors has been a topic of intense research that has been propelled by modern applications in thin-film solar cells, transistors and optical sensors. Charge transport in these materials differs fundamentally from that in crystalline semiconductors owing to the lack of long-range order and high defect density. Despite the existence of well-established experimental techniques such as photoconductivity time-of-flight and ultrafast optical measurements, many aspects of the dynamics of photo-excited charge carriers in amorphous semiconductors remain poorly understood...
July 3, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666311/fully-automatic-and-precise-data-analysis-developed-for-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry
#19
S Meyer, A Riedo, M B Neuland, M Tulej, P Wurz
Scientific objectives of current and future space missions are focused on the investigation of the origin and evolution of the solar system with the particular emphasis on habitability and signatures of past and present life. For in situ measurements of the chemical composition of solid samples on planetary surfaces, the neutral atmospheric gas, and the thermal plasma of planetary atmospheres, the application of mass spectrometers making use of time-of-flight mass analysers is a technique widely used. However, such investigations imply measurements with good statistics and thus, a large amount of data to be analysed...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653338/a-method-for-detailed-movement-pattern-analysis-of-tadpole-startle-response
#20
Kasra Zarei, Karen L Elliott, Sanam Zarei, Bernd Fritzsch, James H J Buchholz
Prolonged space flight, specifically microgravity, presents a problem for space exploration. Animal models with altered connections of the vestibular ear, and thus altered gravity sensation, would allow the examination of the effects of microgravity and how various countermeasures can establish normal function. We describe an experimental apparatus to monitor the effects of ear manipulations to generate asymmetric gravity input on the tadpole escape response. To perform the movement pattern analysis, an imaging apparatus was developed that uses a high-speed camera to obtain time-resolved, high-resolution images of tadpole movements...
June 27, 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
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