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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518086/ptr-tof-ms-coupled-with-an-automated-sampling-system-and-tailored-data-analysis-for-food-studies-bioprocess-monitoring-screening-and-nose-space-analysis
#1
Vittorio Capozzi, Sine Yener, Iuliia Khomenko, Brian Farneti, Luca Cappellin, Flavia Gasperi, Matteo Scampicchio, Franco Biasioli
Proton Transfer Reaction (PTR), combined with a Time-of-Flight (ToF) Mass Spectrometer (MS) is an analytical approach based on chemical ionization that belongs to the Direct-Injection Mass Spectrometric (DIMS) technologies. These techniques allow the rapid determination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), assuring high sensitivity and accuracy. In general, PTR-MS requires neither sample preparation nor sample destruction, allowing real time and non-invasive analysis of samples. PTR-MS are exploited in many fields, from environmental and atmospheric chemistry to medical and biological sciences...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505754/generalized-balance-equations-for-charged-particle-transport-via-localized-and-delocalized-states-mobility-generalized-einstein-relations-and-fractional-transport
#2
Peter W Stokes, Bronson Philippa, Daniel Cocks, Ronald D White
A generalized phase-space kinetic Boltzmann equation for highly nonequilibrium charged particle transport via localized and delocalized states is used to develop continuity, momentum, and energy balance equations, accounting explicitly for scattering, trapping and detrapping, and recombination loss processes. Analytic expressions detail the effect of these microscopic processes on mobility and diffusivity. Generalized Einstein relations (GER) are developed that enable the anisotropic nature of diffusion to be determined in terms of the measured field dependence of the mobility...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503167/the-impact-of-space-flight-on-survival-and-interaction-of-cupriavidus-metallidurans-ch34-with-basalt-a-volcanic-moon-analog-rock
#3
Bo Byloos, Ilse Coninx, Olivier Van Hoey, Charles Cockell, Natasha Nicholson, Vyacheslav Ilyin, Rob Van Houdt, Nico Boon, Natalie Leys
Microbe-mineral interactions have become of interest for space exploration as microorganisms could be used to biomine from extra-terrestrial material and extract elements useful as micronutrients in life support systems. This research aimed to identify the impact of space flight on the long-term survival of Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 in mineral water and the interaction with basalt, a lunar-type rock in preparation for the ESA spaceflight experiment, BIOROCK. Therefore, C. metallidurans CH34 cells were suspended in mineral water supplemented with or without crushed basalt and send for 3 months on board the Russian FOTON-M4 capsule...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496012/daytime-behavior-of-pteropus-vampyrus-in-a-natural-habitat-the-driver-of-viral-transmission
#4
Yupadee Hengjan, Didik Pramono, Hitoshi Takemae, Ryosuke Kobayashi, Keisuke Iida, Takeshi Ando, Supratikno Supratikno, Chaerul Basri, Yuli Sulistya Fitriana, Eko M Z Arifin, Yasushige Ohmori, Ken Maeda, Srihadi Agungpriyono, Eiichi Hondo
Flying foxes, the genus Pteropus are considered viral reservoirs. Their colonial nature and long flight capability enhance their ability to spread viruses quickly. To understand how the viral transmission occurs between flying foxes and other animals, we investigated daytime behavior of the large flying fox (Pteropus vampyrus) in the Leuweung Sancang conservation area, Indonesia, by using instantaneous scan sampling and all occurrence focal sampling. The data were obtained from 0700 to 1700 hr, during May 11-25, 2016...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495841/lower-body-negative-pressure-decreases-non-invasively-measured-intracranial-pressure-and-internal-jugular-vein-cross-sectional-area-during-head-down-tilt
#5
William Watkins, Alan R Hargens, Shannon Baird, Erika Marie Clary, Brandon R Macias
INTRODUCTION: Long-term space flight induces a near visual acuity change in approximately 50% of astronauts. In some crew members, postflight cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) opening pressures by lumbar puncture are as high as 20.9 mmHg who demonstrated optic disc edema. CSF communicates through the cochlear aqueduct to affect perilymphatic pressure and tympanic membrane motion. We hypothesized that 50 mmHg of lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) during 15° head-down tilt (HDT) would mitigate elevations in internal jugular vein cross-sectional area (IJV CSA) and intracranial pressure (ICP)...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490795/performances-of-kevlar-and-polyethylene-as-radiation-shielding-on-board-the-international-space-station-in-high-latitude-radiation-environment
#6
Livio Narici, Marco Casolino, Luca Di Fino, Marianna Larosa, Piergiorgio Picozza, Alessandro Rizzo, Veronica Zaconte
Passive radiation shielding is a mandatory element in the design of an integrated solution to mitigate the effects of radiation during long deep space voyages for human exploration. Understanding and exploiting the characteristics of materials suitable for radiation shielding in space flights is, therefore, of primary importance. We present here the results of the first space-test on Kevlar and Polyethylene radiation shielding capabilities including direct measurements of the background baseline (no shield)...
May 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471653/variable-velocity-traveling-wave-ion-mobility-separation-enhancing-peak-capacity-for-data-independent-acquisition-proteomics
#7
Sarah E Haynes, Daniel A Polasky, Sugyan M Dixit, Jaimeen D Majmudar, Kieran Neeson, Brandon T Ruotolo, Brent R Martin
High mass accuracy, data-dependent acquisition is the current standard method in mass spectrometry-based peptide annotation and quantification. In high complexity samples, limited instrument scan speeds often result in under-sampling. In contrast, all-ion data-independent acquisition methods bypass precursor selection, alternating high and low collision energies to analyze product and precursor ions across wide mass ranges. Despite capturing data for all events, peptide annotation is limited by inadequate alignment algorithms or overlapping ions...
May 9, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470792/super-resolution-intracranial-quiescent-interval-slice-selective-magnetic-resonance-angiography
#8
Ioannis Koktzoglou, Robert R Edelman
PURPOSE: To evaluate the combination of nonenhanced quiescent-interval slice-selective (QISS) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) with super-resolution reconstruction for portraying the intracranial arteries. METHODS: The intracranial arteries of seven volunteers were imaged at 3T using QISS MRA acquired with a flow-compensated fast low-angle shot (FLASH) readout and thin overlapping slices. The impacts of super-resolution reconstruction and various acquisition parameters on the delineation of intracranial arteries were quantified using four metrics: arterial-to-background contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), arterial-to-background contrast, arterial sharpness, and arterial full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM)...
May 3, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469022/flightin-maintains-myofilament-lattice-organization-required-for-optimal-flight-power-and-courtship-song-quality-in-drosophila
#9
Samya Chakravorty, Bertrand C W Tanner, Veronica Lee Foelber, Hien Vu, Matthew Rosenthal, Teresa Ruiz, Jim O Vigoreaux
The indirect flight muscles (IFMs) of Drosophila and other insects with asynchronous flight muscles are characterized by a crystalline myofilament lattice structure. The high-order lattice regularity is considered an adaptation for enhanced power output, but supporting evidence for this claim is lacking. We show that IFMs from transgenic flies expressing flightin with a deletion of its poorly conserved N-terminal domain (fln(ΔN62) ) have reduced inter-thick filament spacing and a less regular lattice. This resulted in a decrease in flight ability by 33% and in skinned fibre oscillatory power output by 57%, but had no effect on wingbeat frequency or frequency of maximum power output, suggesting that the underlying actomyosin kinetics is not affected and that the flight impairment arises from deficits in force transmission...
May 17, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456239/high-speed-microstrip-multi-anode-multichannel-plate-detector-system
#10
Andreas Riedo, Marek Tulej, Urs Rohner, Peter Wurz
High-speed detector systems with high dynamic range and pulse width characteristics in the sub-nanosecond regime are mandatory for high resolution and highly sensitive time-of-flight mass spectrometers. Typically, for a reasonable detector area, an impedance-matched anode design is necessary to transmit the registered signal fast and distortion-free from the anode to the signal acquisition system. In this report, a high-speed microstrip multi-anode multichannel plate detector is presented and discussed. The anode consists of four separate active concentric anode segments allowing a simultaneous readout of signal with a dynamic range of about eight orders of magnitude...
April 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438020/catalytic-decomposition-of-hydroxylammonium-nitrate-ionic-liquid-enhancement-of-no-formation
#11
Steven D Chambreau, Denisia M Popolan-Vaida, Ghanshyam L Vaghjiani, Stephen R Leone
Hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN) is a promising candidate to replace highly toxic hydrazine in monopropellant thruster space applications. The reactivity of HAN aerosols on heated copper and iridium targets was investigated using tunable vacuum ultraviolet photoionization time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometry. The reaction products were identified by their mass-to-charge ratios and their ionization energies. Products include NH3, H2O, NO, hydroxylamine (HA), HNO3, and a small amount of NO2 at high temperature...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436915/an-adaptive-multiobjective-particle-swarm-optimization-based-on-multiple-adaptive-methods
#12
Honggui Han, Wei Lu, Junfei Qiao
Multiobjective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) algorithms have attracted much attention for their promising performance in solving multiobjective optimization problems (MOPs). In this paper, an adaptive MOPSO (AMOPSO) algorithm, based on a hybrid framework of the solution distribution entropy and population spacing (SP) information, is developed to improve the search performance in terms of convergent speed and precision. First, an adaptive global best (gBest) selection mechanism, based on the solution distribution entropy, is introduced to analyze the evolutionary tendency and balance the diversity and convergence of nondominated solutions in the archive...
April 17, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434188/drivers-of-community-assembly-in-tropical-forest-restoration-sites-role-of-local-environment-landscape-and-space
#13
Lívia D Audino, Stephen J Murphy, Ludimila Zambaldi, Julio Louzada, Liza S Comita
There is increasing recognition that community assembly theory can offer valuable insights for ecological restoration. We studied community assembly processes following tropical forest restoration efforts, using dung beetles (Scarabaeidae) as a focal taxon to investigate taxonomic and functional patterns of biodiversity recovery. We evaluated the relative importance of the local environment (i.e., canopy cover, understory cover, tree basal area, and soil texture), landscape context (i.e., habitat patch proximity and availability and percentage of surrounding area classified as natural forest or Eucalyptus spp...
April 23, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433608/toward-biotechnology-in-space-high-throughput-instruments-for-in-situ-biological-research-beyond-earth
#14
REVIEW
Fathi Karouia, Kianoosh Peyvan, Andrew Pohorille
Space biotechnology is a nascent field aimed at applying tools of modern biology to advance our goals in space exploration. These advances rely on our ability to exploit in situ high throughput techniques for amplification and sequencing DNA, and measuring levels of RNA transcripts, proteins and metabolites in a cell. These techniques, collectively known as "omics" techniques have already revolutionized terrestrial biology. A number of on-going efforts are aimed at developing instruments to carry out "omics" research in space, in particular on board the International Space Station and small satellites...
April 19, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429325/gravitaxis-in-euglena
#15
Donat-P Häder, Ruth Hemmersbach
Motile microorganisms utilize a number of responses to external stimuli including light, temperature, chemicals as well as magnetic and electric fields. Gravity is a major clue to select a niche in their environment. Positive gravitaxis leads an organism down into the water column and negative gravitaxis brings it to the surface. In Euglena the precision of gravitaxis is regulated by an internal rhythm entrained by the daily light/dark cycle. This and the cooperation with phototaxis bring the cells into an optimal position in the water column...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419128/cytoskeletal-stability-and-metabolic-alterations-in-primary-human-macrophages-in-long-term-microgravity
#16
Svantje Tauber, Beatrice A Lauber, Katrin Paulsen, Liliana E Layer, Martin Lehmann, Swantje Hauschild, Naomi R Shepherd, Jennifer Polzer, Jürgen Segerer, Cora S Thiel, Oliver Ullrich
The immune system is one of the most affected systems of the human body during space flight. The cells of the immune system are exceptionally sensitive to microgravity. Thus, serious concerns arise, whether space flight associated weakening of the immune system ultimately precludes the expansion of human presence beyond the Earth's orbit. For human space flight, it is an urgent need to understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which altered gravity influences and changes the functions of immune cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418705/accurate-differentiation-of-carotenoid-pigments-using-flight-representative-raman-spectrometers
#17
Cedric Malherbe, Ian B Hutchinson, Melissa McHugh, Richard Ingley, Jan Jehlička, Howell G M Edwards
Raman spectrometers will be utilized on two Mars rover missions, ExoMars and Mars 2020, in the near future, to search for evidence of life and habitable geological niches on Mars. Carotenoid pigments are recognized target biomarkers, and as they are highly active in Raman spectroscopy, they can be readily used to characterize the capabilities of space representative instrumentation. As part of the preparatory work being performed for the ExoMars mission, a gypsum crust colonized by microorganisms was interrogated with commercial portable Raman instruments and a flight representative Raman laser spectrometer...
April 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418663/airborne-quantification-of-methane-emissions-over-the-four-corners-region
#18
Mackenzie L Smith, Alexander Gvakharia, Eric A Kort, Colm Sweeney, Stephen A Conley, Ian Faloona, Tim Newberger, Russell Schnell, Stefan Schwietzke, Sonja Wolter
Methane (CH4) is a potent greenhouse gas and the primary component of natural gas. The San Juan Basin (SJB) is one of the largest coal-bed methane producing regions in North America and, including gas production from conventional and shale sources, contributed ∼2% of U.S. natural gas production in 2015. In this work, we quantify the CH4 flux from the SJB using continuous atmospheric sampling from aircraft collected during the TOPDOWN2015 field campaign in April 2015. Using five independent days of measurements and the aircraft-based mass balance method, we calculate an average CH4 flux of 0...
April 28, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414302/increased-salt-consumption-induces-body-water-conservation-and-decreases-fluid-intake
#19
Natalia Rakova, Kento Kitada, Kathrin Lerchl, Anke Dahlmann, Anna Birukov, Steffen Daub, Christoph Kopp, Tetyana Pedchenko, Yahua Zhang, Luis Beck, Bernd Johannes, Adriana Marton, Dominik N Müller, Manfred Rauh, Friedrich C Luft, Jens Titze
BACKGROUND: The idea that increasing salt intake increases drinking and urine volume is widely accepted. We tested the hypothesis that an increase in salt intake of 6 g/d would change fluid balance in men living under ultra-long-term controlled conditions. METHODS: Over the course of 2 separate space flight simulation studies of 105 and 205 days' duration, we exposed 10 healthy men to 3 salt intake levels (12, 9, or 6 g/d). All other nutrients were maintained constant...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393904/transcriptomic-changes-in-an-animal-bacterial-symbiosis-under-modeled-microgravity-conditions
#20
Giorgio Casaburi, Irina Goncharenko-Foster, Alexandrea A Duscher, Jamie S Foster
Spaceflight imposes numerous adaptive challenges for terrestrial life. The reduction in gravity, or microgravity, represents a novel environment that can disrupt homeostasis of many physiological processes. Additionally, it is becoming increasingly clear that an organism's microbiome is critical for host health and examining its resiliency in microgravity represents a new frontier for space biology research. In this study, we examine the impact of microgravity on the interactions between the squid Euprymna scolopes and its beneficial symbiont Vibrio fischeri, which form a highly specific binary mutualism...
April 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
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