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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930421/persistent-asymmetric-optic-disc-swelling-after-long-duration-space-flight-implications-for-pathogenesis
#1
Thomas H Mader, C Robert Gibson, Christian A Otto, Ashot E Sargsyan, Neil R Miller, Prem S Subramanian, Stephen F Hart, William Lipsky, Nimesh B Patel, Andrew G Lee
BACKGROUND: Several ophthalmic findings including optic disc swelling, globe flattening and choroidal folds have been observed in astronauts following long-duration space flight. The authors now report asymmetric choroidal expansion, disc swelling and optic disc morphologic changes in a 45-year-old astronaut which occurred during long-duration space flight and persisted following his space mission. METHODS: Case study of ocular findings in an astronaut documented during and after a long-duration space flight of approximately 6 months...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926946/a-multi-verse-optimizer-with-levy-flights-for-numerical-optimization-and-its-application-in-test-scheduling-for-network-on-chip
#2
Cong Hu, Zhi Li, Tian Zhou, Aijun Zhu, Chuanpei Xu
We propose a new meta-heuristic algorithm named Levy flights multi-verse optimizer (LFMVO), which incorporates Levy flights into multi-verse optimizer (MVO) algorithm to solve numerical and engineering optimization problems. The Original MVO easily falls into stagnation when wormholes stochastically re-span a number of universes (solutions) around the best universe achieved over the course of iterations. Since Levy flights are superior in exploring unknown, large-scale search space, they are integrated into the previous best universe to force MVO out of stagnation...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923335/-arrived-in-germany-when-children-who-have-fled-tell-their-stories
#3
Katharina Gerarts, Sabine Andresen, Ulrike Ravens-Sieberer, Fionna Klasen
Arrived in Germany: When Children Who have Fled Tell their Stories For this study, we listened to children who had fled with their families. We made a very conscious decision to focus on accompanied minors who have been displaced, because they go through the standard asylum system with their parent/guardian, which is why they often remain "invisible" as regards their own needs and their specific situation. We gave accompanied children who had fled a space where they could tell their stories and asked them to talk about their memories of their countries of origin, their experiences during their journey and on arrival in Germany, and their lives here, their concerns, but also their hopes and desires...
December 2016: Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890965/beescout-a-model-of-bee-scouting-behaviour-and-a-software-tool-for-characterizing-nectar-pollen-landscapes-for-beehave
#4
M A Becher, V Grimm, J Knapp, J Horn, G Twiston-Davies, J L Osborne
Social bees are central place foragers collecting floral resources from the surrounding landscape, but little is known about the probability of a scouting bee finding a particular flower patch. We therefore developed a software tool, BEESCOUT, to theoretically examine how bees might explore a landscape and distribute their scouting activities over time and space. An image file can be imported, which is interpreted by the model as a "forage map" with certain colours representing certain crops or habitat types as specified by the user...
November 24, 2016: Ecological Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890128/johnny-was-here-from-airmanship-to-airlineship
#5
Torgeir K Haavik, Trond Kongsvik, Rolf Johan Bye, Jens Olgard Dalseth Røyrvik, Petter Grytten Almklov
In this article we explore the phenomenon of airmanship in commercial passenger flights, in a context of increasing standardisation of procedures and technologies. Through observation studies in cockpits and interviews we have studied pilots' practices and how they relate to the larger system of procedures and the technical environment. We find that practices are to a large extent guided by standard operating procedures, and that interchangeability of pilots and aircrafts is both a prerequisite for and enabled by this standardised regime...
March 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883068/-cerebellar-contribution-to-visuo-attentional-alpha-rhythm-insights-from-weightlessness
#6
A M Cebolla, M Petieau, B Dan, L Balazs, J McIntyre, G Cheron
Human brain adaptation in weightlessness follows the necessity to reshape the dynamic integration of the neural information acquired in the new environment. This basic aspect was here studied by the electroencephalogram (EEG) dynamics where oscillatory modulations were measured during a visuo-attentional state preceding a visuo-motor docking task. Astronauts in microgravity conducted the experiment in free-floating aboard the International Space Station, before the space flight and afterwards. We observed stronger power decrease (~ERD: event related desynchronization) of the ~10 Hz oscillation from the occipital-parietal (alpha ERD) to the central areas (mu ERD)...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878405/a-comparison-study-between-3d-t2-weighted-space-and-conventional-2d-t2-weighted-turbo-spin-echo-in-assessment-of-carotid-plaque
#7
Peng Lv, Yuanyuan Dai, Jiang Lin, Weisheng Zhang, Hao Liu, Hui Liu, Xiao Tang
The aim of this study was to compare 3D T2-weighted sampling perfection with application optimized contrast using different flip angle evolutions (T2w SPACE) with conventional 2D T2w turbo-spin echo (TSE) in plaque imaging of carotid artery. 45 patients underwent 3.0-T MRI for carotid arteries imaging. MR sequences included T2w SPACE, T2w TSE, Time of flight (TOF) and T1-weighted (T1w) TSE. The signal intensity of intra-plaque hemorrhage (IPH), lipid-rich necrotic core (LRNC), and loose matrix (LM) were measured and their contrast ratios (CRs) against adjacent muscle were calculated...
November 22, 2016: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871948/vestibular-cerebellum-of-thick-toed-geckos-chondrodactylus-turnery-gray-1864-and-c57-bl6n-mice-after-the-long-term-space-flight-on-the-biosatellite-bion-m1
#8
Proshchina Alexandra, Kharlamova Anastasia, Barabanov Valeriy, Gulimova Victoria, Saveliev Sergey
The aim of this study was to estimate the effects of long-term space flights on neuronal and glial cells of the vestibular cerebellum of C57/BL6N mice and thick-toed geckos (Chondrodactylus turnery GRAY, 1864). The cerebella from 26 mice and 13 geckos were used in this study. Ten mice and five geckos were flown aboard the BION-M1 biosatellite. The other animals were used as controls. We used immunohistochemical techniques and classical histological method to reveal cell types in the vestibular cerebellum. Nonspecific pathomorphological changes in the Purkinje cells (such as chromatolysis, vacuolization and hyperchromatosis) were observed in the flight groups...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868201/assembling-activity-setting-participation-with-disabled-young-people
#9
Barbara E Gibson, Gillian King, Gail Teachman, Bhavnita Mistry, Yani Hamdani
Rehabilitation research investigating activity participation has been largely conducted in a realist tradition that under-theorises the relationship between persons, technologies, and socio-material places. In this Canadian study we used a post-critical approach to explore activity/setting participation with 19 young people aged 14 to 23 years with complex communication and/or mobility impairments. Methods included integrated photo-elicitation, interviews, and participant observations of community-based activities...
November 21, 2016: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867799/the-puck-energetic-charged-particle-detector-design-heritage-and-advancements
#10
G Clark, I Cohen, J H Westlake, G B Andrews, P Brandt, R E Gold, M A Gkioulidou, R Hacala, D Haggerty, M E Hill, G C Ho, S E Jaskulek, P Kollmann, B H Mauk, R L McNutt, D G Mitchell, K S Nelson, C Paranicas, N Paschalidis, C E Schlemm
Energetic charged particle detectors characterize a portion of the plasma distribution function that plays critical roles in some physical processes, from carrying the currents in planetary ring currents to weathering the surfaces of planetary objects. For several low-resource missions in the past, the need was recognized for a low-resource but highly capable, mass-species-discriminating energetic particle sensor that could also obtain angular distributions without motors or mechanical articulation. This need led to the development of a compact Energetic Particle Detector (EPD), known as the "Puck" EPD (short for hockey puck), that is capable of determining the flux, angular distribution, and composition of incident ions between an energy range of ~10 keV to several MeV...
August 2016: Journal of Geophysical Research. Space Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861601/the-development-of-drosophila-melanogaster-under-different-duration-space-flight-and-subsequent-adaptation-to-earth-gravity
#11
Irina V Ogneva, Stepan N Belyakin, Svetlana V Sarantseva
In prospective human exploration of outer space, the need to preserve a species over several generations under changed gravity conditions may arise. This paper demonstrates our results in the creation of the third generation of fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster (third-stage larvae) during the 44.5-day space flight (Foton-M4 satellite (2014, Russia)), then the fourth generation on Earth and the fifth generation again in conditions of the 12-day space flight (2014, in the Russian Segment of the ISS). The species preserves fertility despite a number of changes in the level of expression and content of cytoskeletal proteins, which are the key components of the cleavage spindle and the contractile ring of cells...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843335/incidence-of-clinical-symptoms-during-long-duration-orbital-spaceflight
#12
Brian Crucian, Adriana Babiak-Vazquez, Smith Johnston, Duane L Pierson, C Mark Ott, Clarence Sams
BACKGROUND: The environment of spaceflight may elevate an astronaut's clinical risk for specific diseases. The purpose of this study was to derive, as accurately as currently possible, an assessment of in-flight clinical "incidence" data, based on observed clinical symptoms in astronauts on board the International Space Station (ISS). METHODS: Electronic medical records were examined from 46 long-duration ISS crew members, each serving approximately a 6-month mission on board the ISS, constituting 20...
2016: International Journal of General Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833821/hypergravity-hinders-axonal-development-of-motor-neurons-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#13
Saraswathi Subbammal Kalichamy, Tong Young Lee, Kyoung-Hye Yoon, Jin Il Lee
As space flight becomes more accessible in the future, humans will be exposed to gravity conditions other than our 1G environment on Earth. Our bodies and physiology, however, are adapted for life at 1G gravity. Altering gravity can have profound effects on the body, particularly the development of muscles, but the reasons and biology behind gravity's effect are not fully known. We asked whether increasing gravity had effects on the development of motor neurons that innervate and control muscle, a relatively unexplored area of gravity biology...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830526/the-stof-a-favorable-geometry-for-a-time-of-flight-analyzer
#14
Daniel M Murphy
A new geometry for the flight region in a time-of-flight mass spectrometer is presented. It consists of two opposing electrostatic sectors of about 255° each and straight sections with a length appropriate to the turns. The resulting geometry folds into a compact space. The first-order aberrations for position, angle, and energy are all zero. The transverse focusing properties are also excellent. For an energetic, high-divergence ion source such as laser ablation, the sTOF has higher resolution and ion transmission than a reflectron of similar physical size...
November 9, 2016: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802870/an-integrated-guidance-and-control-approach-in-three-dimensional-space-for-hypersonic-missile-constrained-by-impact-angles
#15
Xiaodong Liu, Wanwei Huang, Lifu Du
A new robust three-dimensional integrated guidance and control (3D-IGC) approach is investigated for sliding-to-turn (STT) hypersonic missile, which encounters high uncertainties and strict impact angle constraints. First, a nonlinear state-space model with more generality is established facing to the design of 3D-IGC law. With regard to the as-built nonlinear system, a robust dynamic inversion control (RDIC) approach is proposed to overcome the robustness deficiency of traditional DIC, and then it is applied to construct the basic 3D-IGC law combining with backstepping method...
October 29, 2016: ISA Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802721/design-and-validation-of-a-large-format-transition-edge-sensor-array-magnetic-shielding-system-for-space-application
#16
A Bergen, H J van Weers, C Bruineman, M M J Dhallé, H J G Krooshoop, H J M Ter Brake, K Ravensberg, B D Jackson, C K Wafelbakker
The paper describes the development and the experimental validation of a cryogenic magnetic shielding system for transition edge sensor based space detector arrays. The system consists of an outer mu-metal shield and an inner superconducting niobium shield. First, a basic comparison is made between thin-walled mu-metal and superconducting shields, giving an off-axis expression for the field inside a cup-shaped superconductor as a function of the transverse external field. Starting from these preliminary analytical considerations, the design of an adequate and realistic shielding configuration for future space flight applications (either X-IFU [D...
October 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802707/bioref-ii-neutron-reflectometry-with-relaxed-resolution-for-fast-kinetic-measurements-at-hzb
#17
M Trapp, R Steitz, M Kreuzer, M Strobl, M Rose, R Dahint
We present an upgrade to the time-of-flight neutron reflectometer BioRef at the research reactor BER II of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie (HZB). Through the integration of an additional chopper into the existing setup, the available wavelength resolution is significantly extended. Now two distinct operation modes can be used: a high resolution mode with Δλ/λ ranging from 1% to 5%, which allows for the investigation of thick films up to 4000 Å, and a high flux mode with Δλ/λ = 7%-11%...
October 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802704/x-ray-reflectometer-for-single-layer-and-multilayer-coating-characterization-at-8-kev-an-interlaboratory-study
#18
Danielle N Gurgew, David M Broadway, Mikhail Gubarev, Brian D Ramsey, Don A Gregory
An X-ray reflectometer (XRR) system has been developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) for characterizing various soft and hard X-ray optic coatings. The XRR instrument generates X-ray radiation using a high-output rotating anode source (RAS), operational over a voltage range of 5-35 kV and a current range of 10-150 mA. Copper is used as the target material to produce an X-ray spectrum from which the Kα line at 8.048 keV is isolated for the reflectivity measurements. Five precision slits are mounted along the X-ray beam path to limit the extent of the beam at the sample and to adjust the resolution in the measurements...
October 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779956/emergency-medical-considerations-in-a-space-suited-patient
#19
Alejandro Garbino, Derek M Nusbaum, Daniel M Buckland, Anil S Menon, Jonathan B Clark, Erik L Antonsen
The Stratex Project is a high altitude balloon flight that culminated in a freefall from 41,422 m (135,890 ft), breaking the record for the highest freefall to date. Crew recovery operations required an innovative approach due to the unique nature of the event as well as the equipment involved. The parachutist donned a custom space suit similar to a NASA Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), with life support system mounted to the front and a parachute on the back. This space suit had a metal structure around the torso, which, in conjunction with the parachute and life support assembly, created a significant barrier to extraction from the suit in the event of a medical emergency...
2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779600/lumbar-spine-paraspinal-muscle-and-intervertebral-disc-height-changes-in-astronauts-after-long-duration-spaceflight-on-the-international-space-station
#20
D G Chang, R M Healey, A J Snyder, J V Sayson, B R Macias, D G Coughlin, J F Bailey, S E Parazynski, J C Lotz, A R Hargens
STUDY DESIGN: Prospective case series. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate lumbar paraspinal muscle (PSM) cross-sectional area and intervertebral disc (IVD) height changes induced by a 6-month space mission on the International Space Station (ISS). The long-term objective of this project is to promote spine health and prevent spinal injury during space missions as well as here on Earth. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND: NASA crewmembers have a 4.3 times higher risk of herniated IVDs, compared to the general and military aviator populations...
October 25, 2016: Spine
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