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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436915/an-adaptive-multiobjective-particle-swarm-optimization-based-on-multiple-adaptive-methods
#1
Honggui Han, Wei Lu, Junfei Qiao
Multiobjective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) algorithms have attracted much attention for their promising performance in solving multiobjective optimization problems (MOPs). In this paper, an adaptive MOPSO (AMOPSO) algorithm, based on a hybrid framework of the solution distribution entropy and population spacing (SP) information, is developed to improve the search performance in terms of convergent speed and precision. First, an adaptive global best (gBest) selection mechanism, based on the solution distribution entropy, is introduced to analyze the evolutionary tendency and balance the diversity and convergence of nondominated solutions in the archive...
April 17, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434188/drivers-of-community-assembly-in-tropical-forest-restoration-sites-role-of-local-environment-landscape-and-space
#2
Lívia D Audino, Stephen J Murphy, Ludimila Zambaldi, Julio Louzada, Liza S Comita
There is increasing recognition that community assembly theory can offer valuable insights for ecological restoration. We studied community assembly processes following tropical forest restoration efforts, using dung beetles (Scarabaeidae) as a focal taxon to investigate taxonomic and functional patterns of biodiversity recovery. We evaluated the relative importance of the local environment (i.e., canopy cover, understory cover, tree basal area, and soil texture), landscape context (i.e., habitat patch proximity and availability and percentage of surrounding area classified as natural forest or Eucalyptus spp...
April 23, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433608/toward-biotechnology-in-space-high-throughput-instruments-for-in-situ-biological-research-beyond-earth
#3
REVIEW
Fathi Karouia, Kianoosh Peyvan, Andrew Pohorille
Space biotechnology is a nascent field aimed at applying tools of modern biology to advance our goals in space exploration. These advances rely on our ability to exploit in situ high throughput techniques for amplification and sequencing DNA, and measuring levels of RNA transcripts, proteins and metabolites in a cell. These techniques, collectively known as "omics" techniques have already revolutionized terrestrial biology. A number of on-going efforts are aimed at developing instruments to carry out "omics" research in space, in particular on board the International Space Station and small satellites...
April 19, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429325/gravitaxis-in-euglena
#4
Donat-P Häder, Ruth Hemmersbach
Motile microorganisms utilize a number of responses to external stimuli including light, temperature, chemicals as well as magnetic and electric fields. Gravity is a major clue to select a niche in their environment. Positive gravitaxis leads an organism down into the water column and negative gravitaxis brings it to the surface. In Euglena the precision of gravitaxis is regulated by an internal rhythm entrained by the daily light/dark cycle. This and the cooperation with phototaxis bring the cells into an optimal position in the water column...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419128/cytoskeletal-stability-and-metabolic-alterations-in-primary-human-macrophages-in-long-term-microgravity
#5
Svantje Tauber, Beatrice A Lauber, Katrin Paulsen, Liliana E Layer, Martin Lehmann, Swantje Hauschild, Naomi R Shepherd, Jennifer Polzer, Jürgen Segerer, Cora S Thiel, Oliver Ullrich
The immune system is one of the most affected systems of the human body during space flight. The cells of the immune system are exceptionally sensitive to microgravity. Thus, serious concerns arise, whether space flight associated weakening of the immune system ultimately precludes the expansion of human presence beyond the Earth's orbit. For human space flight, it is an urgent need to understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which altered gravity influences and changes the functions of immune cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418705/accurate-differentiation-of-carotenoid-pigments-using-flight-representative-raman-spectrometers
#6
Cedric Malherbe, Ian B Hutchinson, Melissa McHugh, Richard Ingley, Jan Jehlička, Howell G M Edwards
Raman spectrometers will be utilized on two Mars rover missions, ExoMars and Mars 2020, in the near future, to search for evidence of life and habitable geological niches on Mars. Carotenoid pigments are recognized target biomarkers, and as they are highly active in Raman spectroscopy, they can be readily used to characterize the capabilities of space representative instrumentation. As part of the preparatory work being performed for the ExoMars mission, a gypsum crust colonized by microorganisms was interrogated with commercial portable Raman instruments and a flight representative Raman laser spectrometer...
April 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418663/airborne-quantification-of-methane-emissions-over-the-four-corners-region
#7
Mackenzie L Smith, Alexander Gvakharia, Eric A Kort, Colm Sweeney, Stephen A Conley, Ian C Faloona, Tim Newberger, Russell Schnell, Stefan Schwietzke, Sonja Wolter
Methane (CH4) is a potent greenhouse gas and the primary component of natural gas. The San Juan Basin (SJB) is one of the largest coal-bed methane producing regions in North America and, including gas production from conventional and shale sources, contributes ~2% of U.S. natural gas production in 2015. In this work, we quantify the CH4 flux from the SJB using continuous atmospheric sampling from aircraft collected during the TOPDOWN2015 field campaign in April 2015. Using five independent days of measurements and the aircraft-based mass balance method, we calculate an average CH4 flux of 0...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414302/increased-salt-consumption-induces-body-water-conservation-and-decreases-fluid-intake
#8
Natalia Rakova, Kento Kitada, Kathrin Lerchl, Anke Dahlmann, Anna Birukov, Steffen Daub, Christoph Kopp, Tetyana Pedchenko, Yahua Zhang, Luis Beck, Bernd Johannes, Adriana Marton, Dominik N Müller, Manfred Rauh, Friedrich C Luft, Jens Titze
BACKGROUND: The idea that increasing salt intake increases drinking and urine volume is widely accepted. We tested the hypothesis that an increase in salt intake of 6 g/d would change fluid balance in men living under ultra-long-term controlled conditions. METHODS: Over the course of 2 separate space flight simulation studies of 105 and 205 days' duration, we exposed 10 healthy men to 3 salt intake levels (12, 9, or 6 g/d). All other nutrients were maintained constant...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393904/transcriptomic-changes-in-an-animal-bacterial-symbiosis-under-modeled-microgravity-conditions
#9
Giorgio Casaburi, Irina Goncharenko-Foster, Alexandrea A Duscher, Jamie S Foster
Spaceflight imposes numerous adaptive challenges for terrestrial life. The reduction in gravity, or microgravity, represents a novel environment that can disrupt homeostasis of many physiological processes. Additionally, it is becoming increasingly clear that an organism's microbiome is critical for host health and examining its resiliency in microgravity represents a new frontier for space biology research. In this study, we examine the impact of microgravity on the interactions between the squid Euprymna scolopes and its beneficial symbiont Vibrio fischeri, which form a highly specific binary mutualism...
April 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380263/estimating-the-probability-of-human-error-by-incorporating-component-failure-data-from-user-induced-defects-in-the-development-of-complex-electrical-systems
#10
Peter J Majewicz, Paul Blessner, Bill Olson, Timothy Blackburn
This article proposes a methodology for incorporating electrical component failure data into the human error assessment and reduction technique (HEART) for estimating human error probabilities (HEPs). The existing HEART method contains factors known as error-producing conditions (EPCs) that adjust a generic HEP to a more specific situation being assessed. The selection and proportioning of these EPCs are at the discretion of an assessor, and are therefore subject to the assessor's experience and potential bias...
April 5, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372400/the-bepicolombo-laser-altimeter-bela-power-converter-module-pcm-concept-and-characterisation
#11
J Rodrigo, E Gasquet, J-M Castro, M Herranz, L-M Lara, M Muñoz, A Simon, T Behnke, N Thomas
This paper presents the principal considerations when designing DC-DC converters for space instruments, in particular for the power converter module as part of the first European space laser altimeter: "BepiColombo Laser Altimeter" on board the European Space Agency-Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) mission BepiColombo. The main factors which determine the design of the DC-DC modules in space applications are printed circuit board occupation, mass, DC-DC converter efficiency, and environmental-survivability constraints...
March 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371841/field-modeling-and-ray-tracing-of-a-miniature-scanning-electron-microscope-beam-column
#12
Jody S Loyd, Don A Gregory, Jessica A Gaskin
A miniature scanning electron microscope (SEM) focusing column design is introduced and its potential performance assessed through an estimation of parameters that affect the probe radius, to include source size, spherical and chromatic aberration, diffraction and space charge broadening. The focusing column, a critical component of any SEM capable of operating on the lunar surface, was developed by the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and Advanced Research Systems. The ray-trace analysis presented uses a model of the electrostatic field (within the focusing column) that is first calculated using the boundary element method (BEM)...
March 28, 2017: Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347895/metabolomic-changes-in-rat-model-of-cauda-equina-injury
#13
Yang Liu, Rui Yang, Qingjie Kong, Yuan Wang, Bin Zhang, Jingchuan Sun, Yong Yang, Bing Zheng, Hongbin Yuan, Jiangang Shi
BACKGROUND: To demonstrate the differences of metabolomic changes in a rat model of cauda equina injury (CEI) and find potent metabolic biomarkers of CEI. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 28 Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were used in this study. After the rats were given anesthesia and fixed in a prone position, a piece of silicone block was placed into the epidural space below the lamina. Behavior tests including the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) open field locomotor scale and an inclined plane test were conducted 1 day and 2 days after surgery...
March 24, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340597/temporal-dynamics-of-the-gut-microbiota-in-people-sharing-a-confined-environment-a-520-day-ground-based-space-simulation-mars500
#14
Silvia Turroni, Simone Rampelli, Elena Biagi, Clarissa Consolandi, Marco Severgnini, Clelia Peano, Sara Quercia, Matteo Soverini, Franck G Carbonero, Giovanna Bianconi, Petra Rettberg, Francesco Canganella, Patrizia Brigidi, Marco Candela
BACKGROUND: The intestinal microbial communities and their temporal dynamics are gaining increasing interest due to the significant implications for human health. Recent studies have shown the dynamic behavior of the gut microbiota in free-living, healthy persons. To date, it is not known whether these dynamics are applicable during prolonged life sharing in a confined and controlled environment. RESULTS: The MARS500 project, the longest ground-based space simulation ever, provided us with a unique opportunity to trace the crew microbiota over 520 days of isolated confinement, such as that faced by astronauts in real long-term interplanetary space flights, and after returning to regular life, for a total of 2 years...
March 24, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334091/landscape-level-patterns-of-elevated-fs1-asian-allele-frequencies-in-populations-of-gypsy-moth-lepidoptera-erebidae-at-a-northern-u-s-boundary
#15
Marissa A Streifel, Patrick C Tobin, Lucia Hunt, Hannah Nadel, John J Molongoski, Brian H Aukema
From a regulatory perspective, Asian gypsy moth is a species complex consisting of three species of Lymantria and two subspecies of Lymantria dispar (L.), differing from the European subspecies, L. dispar dispar (L.), by having consistently flight-capable females. As such, the invasion potential in North America is thought to exceed that of European gypsy moth. USDA-APHIS therefore has a monitoring program to detect Asian gypsy moth at high-risk introduction pathways. Molecular markers are used to improve the diagnosis of Asian gypsy moth...
April 1, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333777/arteriovenous-lesions-of-the-internal-auditory-canal
#16
Charles L Anzalone, John I Lane, Michael J Link, Matthew L Carlson
OBJECTIVE: To describe a unique case of an asymptomatic arteriovenous lesion of the internal auditory canal (IAC) and present the associated imaging findings. METHODS: Retrospective case report and review of the literature. RESULTS: A 55-year-old man presented for further evaluation of a left-sided sudden sensorineural hearing loss that occurred 8 years earlier. Careful review of outside serial magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed a contralateral, ill-defined right-sided IAC mass with low T2 signal and subtle peripheral enhancement on postcontrast T1-weighted sequencing...
March 22, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332480/honey-bee-hairs-and-pollenkitt-are-essential-for-pollen-capture-and-removal
#17
Guillermo J Amador, Marguerite Matherne, D'Andre Waller, Megha Mathews, Stanislav N Gorb, David L Hu
While insect grooming has been observed and documented for over one hundred years, we present the first quantitative analysis of this highly dynamic process. Pollinating insects, like honey bees, purposely cover themselves with millions of pollen particles that, if left ungroomed, would make sensing and controlled flight difficult. How do they get clean? We show that the hairs on insect eyes are tuned to the pollen they collect; namely, the hairs are spaced so that they suspend pollen above the body for easy removal by the forelegs...
March 23, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323456/stratosphere-conditions-inactivate-bacterial-endospores-from-a-mars-spacecraft-assembly-facility
#18
Christina L Khodadad, Gregory M Wong, Leandro M James, Prital J Thakrar, Michael A Lane, John A Catechis, David J Smith
Every spacecraft sent to Mars is allowed to land viable microbial bioburden, including hardy endospore-forming bacteria resistant to environmental extremes. Earth's stratosphere is severely cold, dry, irradiated, and oligotrophic; it can be used as a stand-in location for predicting how stowaway microbes might respond to the martian surface. We launched E-MIST, a high-altitude NASA balloon payload on 10 October 2015 carrying known quantities of viable Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 (4.07 × 10(7) spores per sample), a radiation-tolerant strain collected from a spacecraft assembly facility...
April 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275060/echo-acoustic-flow-shapes-object-representation-in-spatially-complex-acoustic-scenes
#19
Wolfgang Greiter, Uwe Firzlaff
Echolocating bats use echoes of their sonar emissions to determine the position and distance of objects or prey. Target distance is represented as a map of echo delay in the auditory cortex (AC) of bats. During a bat's flight through a natural complex environment, echo streams are reflected from multiple objects along its flight path. Separating such complex streams of echoes or other sounds is a challenge for the auditory system of bats as well as other animals. We investigated the representation of multiple echo streams in the AC of anaesthetized bats (Phyllostomus discolor) and tested the hypothesis, if neurons can lock on echoes from specific objects in a complex echo-acoustic pattern while the representation of surrounding objects is suppressed...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260956/in-flight-medical-emergencies-during-airline-operations-a-survey-of-physicians-on-the-incidence-nature-and-available-medical-equipment
#20
Jochen Hinkelbein, Christopher Neuhaus, Lennert Böhm, Steffen Kalina, Stefan Braunecker
BACKGROUND: Data on the incidence of in-flight medical emergencies on-board civil aircraft are uncommon and rarely published. Such data could provide information regarding required medical equipment on-board aircraft and requisite training for cabin crew. The aim of the present study was to gather data on the incidences, nature, and medical equipment for in-flight medical emergencies by way of a survey of physician members of a German aerospace medical society. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using unipark...
2017: Open Access Emergency Medicine: OAEM
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