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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430650/competition-driven-niche-segregation-on-a-landscape-scale-evidence-for-escaping-from-syntopy-toward-allotopy-in-two-coexisting-sibling-passerine-species
#1
Jiří Reif, Radka Reifová, Anna Skoracka, Lechosław Kuczyński
1.The role of interspecific competition for generating patterns in species' distribution is hotly debated and studies taking into account processes occurring at both large and small spatial scales are almost missing. Theoretically, competition between species with overlapping niches should result in divergence of their niches in sympatry to reduce the costs of competition. Many species show a mosaic distribution within sympatric zones, with the syntopic sites occupied by both species, and allotopic sites where only one species occurs...
February 11, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381764/potential-disruption-of-seed-dispersal-in-the-absence-of-a-native-kauai-thrush
#2
Monica Kaushik, Liba Pejchar, Lisa H Crampton
Hawaii has experienced a catastrophic decline in frugivorous native birds coupled with the introduction of non-native species. Puaiohi (Myadestes palmeri), a critically endangered thrush, is the sole extant native songbird capable of dispersing fleshy fruited plants in the rainforest of Kauai island, Hawaii. As this species has declined to occupy a small proportion of its original range, a suite of largely omnivorous non-native birds have been introduced to this region, including the common and widespread Japanese White-eye (Zosterops japonicus)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339458/co-association-between-group-b-streptococcus-and-candida-albicans-promotes-interactions-with-vaginal-epithelium
#3
Grace R Pidwill, Sara Rego, Howard F Jenkinson, Richard J Lamont, Angela H Nobbs
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of neonatal sepsis, pneumonia and meningitis worldwide. In the majority of cases, GBS is transmitted vertically from mother to neonate, making maternal vaginal colonisation a key risk factor for neonatal disease. The fungus Candida albicans is an opportunistic pathogen of the female genitourinary tract, and the causative agent of vaginal thrush. Carriage of C. albicans has been shown to be an independent risk factor for vaginal colonisation by GBS. However, the nature of interactions between these two microbes is poorly understood...
January 16, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319911/genomic-islands-of-differentiation-in-two-songbird-species-reveal-candidate-genes-for-hybrid-female-sterility
#4
Libor Mořkovský, Václav Janoušek, Jiří Reif, Jakub Rídl, Jan Pačes, Lukáš Choleva, Karel Janko, Michael W Nachman, Radka Reifová
Hybrid sterility is a common first step in the evolution of postzygotic reproductive isolation. According to Haldane's Rule it affects predominantly the heterogametic sex. While the genetic basis of hybrid male sterility in organisms with heterogametic males has been studied for decades, the genetic basis of hybrid female sterility in organisms with heterogametic females has received much less attention. We investigated the genetic basis of reproductive isolation in two closely related avian species, the Common Nightingale (Luscinia megarhynchos) and the Thrush Nightingale (L...
January 10, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248328/global-carbon-cycling-on-a-heterogeneous-seafloor
#5
REVIEW
Paul V R Snelgrove, Karline Soetaert, Martin Solan, Simon Thrush, Chih-Lin Wei, Roberto Danovaro, Robinson W Fulweiler, Hiroshi Kitazato, Baban Ingole, Alf Norkko, R John Parkes, Nils Volkenborn
Diverse biological communities mediate the transformation, transport, and storage of elements fundamental to life on Earth, including carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen. However, global biogeochemical model outcomes can vary by orders of magnitude, compromising capacity to project realistic ecosystem responses to planetary changes, including ocean productivity and climate. Here, we compare global carbon turnover rates estimated using models grounded in biological versus geochemical theory and argue that the turnover estimates based on each perspective yield divergent outcomes...
December 13, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151592/diet-resistant-obesity-is-characterized-by-a-distinct-plasma-proteomic-signature-and-impaired-muscle-fiber-metabolism
#6
A B Thrush, G Antoun, M Nikpay, D A Patten, C DeVlugt, J-F Mauger, B L Beauchamp, P Lau, R Reshke, É Doucet, P Imbeault, R Boushel, D Gibbings, J Hager, A Valsesia, R Slack, O Y Al-Dirbashi, R Dent, R McPherson, M-E Harper
BACKGROUND/OBJECT: Inter-individual variability in weight loss during obesity treatment is complex and poorly understood. Here we use whole body and tissue approaches to investigate fuel oxidation characteristics in skeletal muscle fibers, cells, and distinct circulating protein biomarkers before and after a high fat meal (HFM) challenge in those who lost the most (obese diet-sensitive; ODS), vs the least (obese diet-resistant; ODR) amount of weight in a highly controlled weight management program...
November 20, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128250/sex-specific-hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal-axis-sensitivity-in-migrating-songbirds
#7
Kristen M Covino, Jodie M Jawor, Sara R Morris, Frank R Moore
In seasonally migratory species, the overlap between the migratory and breeding life history stages is a balance between the physiological and behavioral requirements of each stage. Previous studies investigating the degree to which songbirds prepare for breeding during spring migration have focused on either circulating hormone levels or direct measures of gonadal recrudescence. In this study, we evaluated the phenology of breeding preparation in a long-distance migratory songbird, the Swainson's Thrush (Catharus ustulatus), by assessing hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis sensitivity with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) bioassays throughout the migratory period...
November 14, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109473/the-shape-of-density-dependence-in-fragmented-landscapes-explains-an-inverse-buffer-effect-in-a-migratory-songbird
#8
Caz M Taylor
It is well known that forest fragmentation reduces fecundity in several avian species, including wood thrush, Hylocichla mustelina, a migratory songbird that has been declining for several decades. However, I found that landscape-scale density in wood thrush was lower and population declines steeper in higher quality, less-fragmented landscapes (an inverse buffer effect) than in poor quality landscapes. These patterns suggest that wood thrush was not limited by availability of breeding habitat but that declines were primarily driven by non-breeding season events...
November 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092573/allometric-trends-reveal-distinct-evolutionary-trajectories-for-avian-communication
#9
Ingrid M D Torres, Luiz C S Lopez, Carlos B de Araújo
Acoustic signal production is affected by allometric relationships, by which the larger the animal, the lower its call frequency. In this paper, three evolutionary acoustic hypotheses were tested: the Signal-to-Noise Ratio Hypothesis (SNRH), in which evolution maximizes call ranges by increasing the signal-to-noise ratio; the Stimulus Threshold Hypothesis (STH), in which evolution maximizes the range of a specific signal threshold; and the Body Size Hypothesis (BSH), in which the emission of long wavelengths is enabled by body size...
October 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083100/mefloquine-for-preventing-malaria-during-travel-to-endemic-areas
#10
REVIEW
Maya Tickell-Painter, Nicola Maayan, Rachel Saunders, Cheryl Pace, David Sinclair
BACKGROUND: Mefloquine is one of four antimalarial agents commonly recommended for preventing malaria in travellers to malaria-endemic areas. Despite its high efficacy, there is controversy about its psychological side effects. OBJECTIVES: To summarize the efficacy and safety of mefloquine used as prophylaxis for malaria in travellers. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), published on the Cochrane Library; MEDLINE; Embase (OVID); TOXLINE (https://toxnet...
October 30, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079749/swainson-s-thrushes-do-not-show-strong-wind-selectivity-prior-to-crossing-the-gulf-of-mexico
#11
Rachel T Bolus, Robert H Diehl, Frank R Moore, Jill L Deppe, Michael P Ward, Jaclyn Smolinsky, Theodore J Zenzal
During long-distance fall migrations, nocturnally migrating Swainson's Thrushes often stop on the northern Gulf of Mexico coast before flying across the Gulf. To minimize energetic costs, trans-Gulf migrants should stop over when they encounter crosswinds or headwinds, and depart with supportive tailwinds. However, time constrained migrants should be less selective, balancing costs of headwinds with benefits of continuing their migrations. To test the hypotheses that birds select supportive winds and that selectivity is mediated by seasonal time constraints, we examined whether local winds affected Swainson's Thrushes' arrival and departure at Ft...
October 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047399/pathogen-communities-of-songbird-derived-ticks-in-europe-s-low-countries
#12
Dieter Heylen, Manoj Fonville, Arieke Docters van Leeuwen, Arjan Stroo, Martin Duisterwinkel, Sip van Wieren, Maria Diuk-Wasser, Arnout de Bruin, Hein Sprong
BACKGROUND: Birds play a major role in the maintenance of enzootic cycles of pathogens transmitted by ticks. Due to their mobility, they affect the spatial distribution and abundance of both ticks and pathogens. In the present study, we aim to identify members of a pathogen community [Borrelia burgdorferi (s.l.), B. miyamotoi, 'Ca. Neoehrlichia mikurensis', Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Rickettsia helvetica] in songbird-derived ticks from 11 locations in the Netherlands and Belgium (2012-2014)...
October 18, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025965/inherited-il-12r%C3%AE-1-deficiency-in-a-child-with-bcg-adenitis-and-oral-candidiasis-a-case-report
#13
Nevin Hatipoglu, B Haluk Güvenç, Caroline Deswarte, Kaya Koksalan, Stéphanie Boisson-Dupuis, Jean-Laurent Casanova, Jacinta Bustamante
Tuberculosis is a major worldwide problem, and protection from it is achieved mainly by live attenuated bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine, which is capable of causing disease in immunocompromised host. Oral thrush is abnormal in healthy children, which suggests an underlying immunodeficiency. Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease is a rare primary immunodeficiency characterized by a selective predisposition to weakly virulent Mycobacteria and Salmonella and also predisposition to chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis...
November 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021158/hierarchical-temporal-structure-in-music-speech-and-animal-vocalizations-jazz-is-like-a-conversation-humpbacks-sing-like-hermit-thrushes
#14
Christopher T Kello, Simone Dalla Bella, Butovens Médé, Ramesh Balasubramaniam
Humans talk, sing and play music. Some species of birds and whales sing long and complex songs. All these behaviours and sounds exhibit hierarchical structure-syllables and notes are positioned within words and musical phrases, words and motives in sentences and musical phrases, and so on. We developed a new method to measure and compare hierarchical temporal structures in speech, song and music. The method identifies temporal events as peaks in the sound amplitude envelope, and quantifies event clustering across a range of timescales using Allan factor (AF) variance...
October 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949895/main-outcomes-of-an-rct-to-pilot-test-reporting-and-feedback-to-foster-research-integrity-climates-in-the-va
#15
Brian C Martinson, David C Mohr, Martin P Charns, David Nelson, Emily Hagel-Campbell, Ann Bangerter, Hanna E Bloomfield, Richard Owen, Carol R Thrush
BACKGROUND: Assessing the integrity of research climates and sharing such information with research leaders may support research best practices. We report here results of a pilot trial testing the effectiveness of a reporting and feedback intervention using the Survey of Organizational Research Climate (SOuRCe). METHODS: We randomized 41 Veterans Health Administration (VA) facilities to a phone-based intervention designed to help research leaders understand their survey results (enhanced arm) or to an intervention in which results were simply distributed to research leaders (basic arm)...
July 2017: AJOB Empirical Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931453/molecular-characterization-and-distribution-of-plasmodium-matutinum-a-common-avian-malaria-parasite
#16
Gediminas Valkiūnas, Mikas Ilgūnas, Dovilė Bukauskaitė, Vaidas Palinauskas, Rasa Bernotienė, Tatjana A Iezhova
Species of Plasmodium (Plasmodiidae, Haemosporida) are widespread and cause malaria, which can be severe in avian hosts. Molecular markers are essential to detect and identify parasites, but still absent for many avian malaria and related haemosporidian species. Here, we provide first molecular characterization of Plasmodium matutinum, a common agent of avian malaria. This parasite was isolated from a naturally infected thrush nightingale Luscinia luscinia (Muscicapidae). Fragments of mitochondrial, apicoplast and nuclear genomes were obtained...
November 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912187/pediatric-cardiomyopathies
#17
REVIEW
Teresa M Lee, Daphne T Hsu, Paul Kantor, Jeffrey A Towbin, Stephanie M Ware, Steven D Colan, Wendy K Chung, John L Jefferies, Joseph W Rossano, Chesney D Castleberry, Linda J Addonizio, Ashwin K Lal, Jacqueline M Lamour, Erin M Miller, Philip T Thrush, Jason D Czachor, Hiedy Razoky, Ashley Hill, Steven E Lipshultz
Pediatric cardiomyopathies are rare diseases with an annual incidence of 1.1 to 1.5 per 100 000. Dilated and hypertrophic cardiomyopathies are the most common; restrictive, noncompaction, and mixed cardiomyopathies occur infrequently; and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy is rare. Pediatric cardiomyopathies can result from coronary artery abnormalities, tachyarrhythmias, exposure to infection or toxins, or secondary to other underlying disorders. Increasingly, the importance of genetic mutations in the pathogenesis of isolated or syndromic pediatric cardiomyopathies is becoming apparent...
September 15, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888760/an-in-vitro-investigation-of-indigenous-south-african-medicinal-plants-used-to-treat-oral-infections
#18
S Akhalwaya, S van Vuuren, M Patel
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Over a 120 South African medicinal plants are used for the treatment of oral diseases. Despite the vast collection of antimicrobial studies being done on South African plants, there is still limited research on pathogens associated with oral infections. In consultation with the available ethnobotanical literature, this study investigates the antimicrobial efficacy of some South African medicinal plants against oral pathogens. AIM OF THE STUDY: To provide a detailed account of the antimicrobial properties of selected South African medicinal plants used traditionally to treat oral infections...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887847/fournier-s-gangrene-in-a-man-on-empagliflozin-for-treatment-of-type%C3%A2-2-diabetes
#19
S Kumar, A J Costello, P G Colman
BACKGROUND: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SLGT2) inhibitors has been associated with an increased risk of genital infections secondary to increased glycosuria. CASE REPORT: We report a case of a 41-year-old man with type 2 diabetes treated with empagliflozin and metformin who presented with scrotal swelling. He described multiple preceding episodes of genital thrush for which he self-administered over-the-counter anti-fungal treatment. On examination, he was afebrile and hemodynamically stable...
November 2017: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868587/preparation-characterization-and-toxicity-evaluation-of-amphotericin-b-loaded-mpeg-pcl-micelles-and-its-application-for-buccal-tablets
#20
Peipei Zhang, Xiaofeng Yang, Yanhao He, Zhuo Chen, Bing Liu, Cota Segura Emesto, Guangde Yang, Weirong Wang, Jiye Zhang, Rong Lin
Oral candidiasis or thrush is a fungal infection due to Candida albicans, causing discomfort in areas inside mouth or tongue. The clinical application of antifungal reagent amphotericin B (AMB), which is believed to offer a better treatment for oral candidiasis, is greatly compromised by its toxicities (mainly nephrotoxicity) and poor solubility. In order to overcome these issues, we characterized AMB-loaded MPEG-PCL micelles in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the antifungal activities of AMB/MPEG-PCL micelles-loaded buccal tablet were also evaluated in vitro...
October 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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