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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914182/positive-feelings-during-pregnancy-early-feeding-practices-and-infant-health
#1
Melissa A McManus, Ali A Khalessi, Joyce Lin, Jahanzeb Ashraf, Stephanie M Reich
BACKGROUND: Early parenting practices, like infant feeding, can impact children's physical health. Additionally, negative prenatal maternal affect can influence feeding choices, like breastfeeding, and can have a detrimental effect on children's health. However, little is known about the contribution of positive maternal affect during pregnancy on feeding practices and children's health. METHOD: This study explored whether positive prenatal feelings influenced children's health during the first 18 months, and whether early feeding practices mediated the relationship between these two variables...
December 3, 2016: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890632/evidence-of-genotypes-1-and-3-of-avian-hepatitis-e-virus-in-wild-birds
#2
Xinquan Zhang, Ivana Bilic, Salome Troxler, Michael Hess
Although the presence of four genotypes of avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) in chickens has been demonstrated, its natural host range is still barely known. In this study, swab samples from 626 wild birds originating from 62 bird species were investigated for HEV detection by molecular methods. The aim was to explore the cross-species infection of avian HEV and to compare the genetic diversity between strains infecting chicken and wild birds. In total, 8 positive samples from 4 different bird species (song thrush, little owl, feral pigeon and common buzzard) were identified and further confirmed by partial sequencing of ORF3...
November 25, 2016: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851768/when-winners-become-losers-predicted-nonlinear-responses-of-arctic-birds-to-increasing-woody-vegetation
#3
Sarah J Thompson, Colleen M Handel, Rachel M Richardson, Lance B McNew
Climate change is facilitating rapid changes in the composition and distribution of vegetation at northern latitudes, raising questions about the responses of wildlife that rely on arctic ecosystems. One widely observed change occurring in arctic tundra ecosystems is an increasing dominance of deciduous shrub vegetation. Our goals were to examine the tolerance of arctic-nesting bird species to existing gradients of vegetation along the boreal forest-tundra ecotone, to predict the abundance of species across different heights and densities of shrubs, and to identify species that will be most or least responsive to ongoing expansion of shrubs in tundra ecosystems...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817816/incidence-of-oral-thrush-in-patients-with-copd-prescribed-inhaled-corticosteroids-effect-of-drug-dose-and-device
#4
P N Richard Dekhuijzen, Maria Batsiou, Leif Bjermer, Sinthia Bosnic-Anticevich, Henry Chrystyn, Alberto Papi, Roberto Rodríguez-Roisin, Monica Fletcher, Lucy Wood, Alessandra Cifra, Joan B Soriano, David B Price
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Little information is available on real-life occurrence of oral thrush in COPD patients treated with ICS. We investigated oral thrush incidence in COPD patients prescribed FDC ICS/LABA therapies and assessed whether it is modulated by the ICS type, dose, and delivery device. METHODS: We conducted a historical, observational, matched cohort study (one baseline year before and one outcome year after initiation of therapy) using data from the UK Optimum Patient Care Research Database...
November 2016: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817172/drug-utilization-review-of-cephalosporins-in-a-secondary-care-hospital-in-united-arab-emirates
#5
Mohammad Abou-Shaaban, Areeg Anwer Ali, Padma G M Rao, Asif Majid
Background Cephalosporins are one of the most commonly used antibiotics in United Arab Emirates (UAE). Few studies have been carried out to evaluate the antibiotic utilization pattern in UAE in spite of the obvious increase in cephalosporins resistance during the past decade. Objective To assess the prescriptions pattern of cephalosporins among physicians at a secondary care hospital in Ras Al Khaimah, UAE. Method This observational prospective study was carried out during October 2013 to April 2014. The data of in patients were documented in the predesigned patient profile form and was analyzed for patient's, drug's and drug's therapy related parameters...
November 5, 2016: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811563/systemic-fungal-infections-in-donors-for-corneal-transplantation
#6
Sheila Pabon, Thomas D Lindquist, Thomas D Miller, Bennie H Jeng
PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of postkeratoplasty fungal infection when corneal tissue from donors with a recent medical history of oral thrush or respiratory, urine, wound, sputum, bronchial, tracheal, or throat culture positive for fungus is identified before recovery and after decontamination of the corneal tissue with 5% povidone-iodine flush to the donors' eyes during recovery. METHODS: This is a prospective analysis of corneas from 42 donors with a documented medical history of fungus or positive fungal culture, which were recovered between January 2010 and November 2010...
January 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770777/multi-locus-sequence-data-illuminate-demographic-drivers-of-pleistocene-speciation-in-semi-arid-southern-australian-birds-cinclosoma-spp
#7
Gaynor Dolman, Leo Joseph
BACKGROUND: During the Pleistocene, shifts of species distributions and their isolation in disjunct refugia led to varied outcomes in how taxa diversified. Some species diverged, others did not. Here, we begin to address another facet of the role of the Pleistocene in generating today's diversity. We ask which processes contributed to divergence in semi-arid southern Australian birds. We isolated 11 autosomal nuclear loci and one mitochondrial locus from a total of 29 specimens of the sister species pair, Chestnut Quail-thrush Cinclosoma castanotum and Copperback Quail-thrush C...
October 22, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756972/acute-sinusitis-and-sore-throat-in-primary-care
#8
Chris Del Mar
Sore throat and acute sinusitis are not straightforward diagnoses. Trying to guess the responsible pathogen may not be the best approach. Being guided by empirical evidence may be more useful. It suggests some, but very few, benefits for antibiotics. This has to be balanced with some, but few, harms from antibiotics, including diarrhoea, rash and thrush. Prescribers should also be aware of the risk of antibiotic resistance for the individual, as well as for the population as a whole. GPs should explain the evidence for the benefits and the harms of antibiotics to patients within a shared decision-making framework...
August 2016: Australian Prescriber
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747949/seasonal-gene-expression-in-a-migratory-songbird
#9
Rachel A Johnston, Kristina L Paxton, Frank R Moore, Robert K Wayne, Thomas B Smith
The annual migration of a bird can involve thousands of kilometres of nonstop flight, requiring accurately timed seasonal changes in physiology and behaviour. Understanding the molecular mechanisms controlling this endogenous programme can provide functional and evolutionary insights into the circannual biological clock and the potential of migratory species to adapt to changing environments. Under naturally timed photoperiod conditions, we maintained captive Swainson's thrushes (Catharus ustulatus) and performed RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) of the ventral hypothalamus and optic chiasma to evaluate transcriptome-wide gene expression changes of individuals in migratory condition...
November 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704518/primary-immunodeficiencies-report-of-33-pediatric-tunisian-cases
#10
Sonia Halioui-Louhaichi, Ons Azzabi, Nadia Mattoussi, Hasna Labiadh, Khadija Bousseta, Neji Tebib, Taher Gargah, Sayda Ben Becher, Mohamed Ridha Barbouch, Mohamed Bejaoui, Ahmed Maherzi
Background Primary immunodeficiencies (PID) are a group of heterogeneous and relatively rare diseases. Aim to determine the clinical characteristics, outcome and genetic data of primary immunodeficiencies in pediatrics patients. Methods A retrospective, descriptive and multicentered study, enrolling 33 children presenting a PID in Tunis, during a period of 22 years (1991-2012). Resultats a masculine predominance has been noticed with a sex ratio at 2,3. Consanguinity was found in 71% of family cases. History of early infant deaths was found in 42% of cases...
April 2016: La Tunisie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27580321/estimated-burden-of-fungal-infections-in-kenya
#11
John Abuga Guto, Christine C Bii, David W Denning
INTRODUCTION: Kenya is a developing country with a high rate of tuberculosis (TB) and a moderate HIV infection burden. No estimate of the burden of fungal diseases in Kenya is published. METHODOLOGY: We used specific populations at risk and fungal infection frequencies from the literature to estimate national incidence or prevalence of serious fungal infections. Used sources were: 2010 WHO TB statistics, Kenya Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Epidemic Update 2012, Kenya Facts and figures 2012, Kenya Demographic and Health Survey 2008-2009...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27579607/temporal-variation-in-sindbis-virus-antibody-prevalence-in-bird-hosts-in-an-endemic-area-in-sweden
#12
Jenny Christina Hesson, Jan O Lundström, Atalay Tok, Örjan Östman, Åke Lundkvist
Sindbis virus (SINV) is a mosquito-borne bird virus that occasionally causes human disease in Fennoscandia, suggested to have cyclic 7-year intervals between outbreaks. Reliable data on human infections in Sweden is however lacking. Here we investigated the SINV antibody prevalence among birds in a Swedish area endemic to SINV to scrutinize if a cyclic variation in antibody prevalence is present in the natural host of SINV. Serum from birds were sampled in the summers of 2002-2004 and 2009 in the floodplains of the River Dalälven in central Sweden, with 2002 and 2009 representing hypothesized years of SINV outbreaks...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27577939/host-associations-of-mosquitoes-at-eastern-equine-encephalitis-virus-foci-in-connecticut-usa
#13
John J Shepard, Theodore G Andreadis, Michael C Thomas, Goudarz Molaei
BACKGROUND: Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a highly pathogenic mosquito-borne arbovirus, with active transmission foci in freshwater hardwood swamps in eastern North America, where enzootic transmission is maintained between the ornithophilic mosquito, Culiseta melanura, and wild passerine birds. The role of other locally abundant mosquito species in virus transmission and their associations with vertebrate hosts as sources of blood meals within these foci are largely unknown but are of importance in clarifying the dynamics of enzootic and epidemic/epizootic transmission...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27547306/using-bioacoustics-to-examine-shifts-in-songbird-phenology
#14
Rachel T Buxton, Emma Brown, Lewis Sharman, Christine M Gabriele, Megan F McKenna
Monitoring patterns in biodiversity and phenology have become increasingly important given accelerating levels of anthropogenic change. Long-term monitoring programs have reported earlier occurrence of spring activity, reflecting species response to climate change. Although tracking shifts in spring migration represents a valuable approach to monitoring community-level consequences of climate change, robust long-term observations are challenging and costly. Audio recordings and metrics of bioacoustic activity could provide an effective method for monitoring changes in songbird activity and broader biotic interactions...
July 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27516202/integrating-collaborative-learning-and-competition-in-a-hematology-oncology-training-program
#15
Issam Makhoul, Pooja Motwani, Liudmila Schafer, Konstantinos Arnaoutakis, Fade Mahmoud, Mazin Safar, Dorothy Graves, Paulette Mehta, Rang Govindarajan, Laura Hutchins, Carol Thrush
New educational methods and structures to improve medical education are needed to face the challenge of an exponential increase and complexity of medical knowledge. Collaborative learning has been increasingly used in education, but its use in medical training programs is in its infancy, and its impact is still unknown; the role of competition in education is more controversial. We introduced these pedagogical methods to the hematology/oncology fellowship program at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences to improve attendance and performance at didactic activities and different educational outcomes...
August 12, 2016: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27476599/the-genetics-of-seasonal-migration-and-plumage-color
#16
Kira E Delmore, David P L Toews, Ryan R Germain, Gregory L Owens, Darren E Irwin
Details on the genetics of behavioral and quantitative phenotypes remain limited to a few organisms. Such information is central to understanding both adaptation and speciation, as many of these phenotypes reduce gene flow between taxa [1-3]. Hybrid zones provide an ideal arena for studying this topic, as they consist of recombinant genotypes that allow genetic mapping of traits distinguishing natural populations [4]. We examined the genetic basis of migratory orientation and plumage color, both of which may contribute to speciation, in a hybrid zone between two groups of Swainson's thrushes that differ in these traits...
August 22, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27431753/a-multi-institutional-evaluation-of-antibody-mediated-rejection-utilizing-the-pediatric-heart-transplant-study-database-incidence-therapies-and-outcomes
#17
Philip T Thrush, Elfriede Pahl, David C Naftel, Elizabeth Pruitt, Melanie D Everitt, Heather Missler, Steven Zangwill, Michael Burch, Timothy M Hoffman, Ryan Butts, William T Mahle
BACKGROUND: Current knowledge of antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) after heart transplantation (HT) stems largely from adult data. Using the Pediatric Heart Transplant Study (PHTS) database, we report the incidence of AMR, describe treatment, and evaluate outcomes for treated AMR in children after HT. METHODS: We queried the PHTS database for patients <18 years of age undergoing primary HT between January 2010 and December 2014. An AMR episode was defined as either a biopsy consistent with pathologic AMR or a rejection event based on immunotherapy augmentation directed against antibody production...
June 24, 2016: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27422126/crystal-clear-or-tin-ear-how-do-medical-students-interpret-derogatory-comments-about-patients-and-other-professionals
#18
Sara G Tariq, Carol R Thrush, Molly Gathright, John J Spollen, James Graham, Jeannette M Shorey
PURPOSE: To assess the learning environment at our medical school, third-year medical students complete an 11-item survey called the Learning Environment for Professionalism (LEP) at the end of each clerkship. The LEP survey asks about the frequency of faculty and resident professional and unprofessional behaviors that students observed; two of the items specifically address derogatory comments. This study used focus group methodology to explore how medical students interpret the derogatory comments they reported on the LEP survey...
2016: Medical Education Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27389457/in-situ-soft-sediment-nutrient-enrichment-a-unified-approach-to-eutrophication-field-experiments
#19
Emily J Douglas, Conrad A Pilditch, Laura V Hines, Casper Kraan, Simon F Thrush
Adding fertiliser to sediments is an established way of studying the effects of eutrophication but a lack of consistent methodology, reporting on enrichment levels, or guidance on application rates precludes rigorous synthesis and meta-analysis. We developed a simple enrichment technique then applied it to 28 sites across an intertidal sandflat. Fertiliser application rates of 150 and 600gNm(-2) resulted in pore water ammonium concentrations respectively 1-110 and 4-580×ambient, with greater elevations observed in deeper (5-7cm) than surface (0-2cm) sediments...
October 15, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27375613/hiv-exposed-uninfected-infants-in-zimbabwe-insights-into-health-outcomes-in-the-pre-antiretroviral-therapy-era
#20
Ceri Evans, Jean H Humphrey, Robert Ntozini, Andrew J Prendergast
The ZVITAMBO trial recruited 14,110 mother-infant pairs to a randomized controlled trial of vitamin A between 1997 and 2000, before the availability of antiretroviral therapy for HIV prophylaxis or treatment in Zimbabwe. The HIV status of mothers and infants was well characterized through 1-2 years of follow-up, leading to the largest cohort to date of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants (n = 3135), with a suitable comparison group of HIV-unexposed infants (n = 9510). Here, we draw on 10 years of published findings from the ZVITAMBO trial...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
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