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Christopher Wolf, William J Ripple
Large terrestrial carnivores are an ecologically important, charismatic and highly endangered group of species. Here, we assess the importance of prey depletion as a driver of large carnivore endangerment globally using lists of prey species for each large carnivore compiled from the literature. We consider spatial variation in prey endangerment, changes in endangerment over time and the causes of prey depletion, finding considerable evidence that loss of prey base is a major and wide-ranging threat among large carnivore species...
August 2016: Royal Society Open Science
Azad Teimori, Hamid Reza Esmaeili, Golnaz Sayyadzadeh, Neda Zarei, Ali Gholamhosseini
The Iranian Persian chub is an endemic species of the family Cyprinidae known only from few localities in drainages of Southern Iran. It was originally described in the genus Pseudophoxinus as (Pseudophoxinus persidis) and then Petroleuciscus (as Petroleuciscus persidis). In this study, we examined phylogenetic relationships of the Iranian Persian chub with other relatives in the family Cyprinidae based on the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene to estimate the phylogenetic (and taxonomic) position of the species...
December 2015: Molecular Biology Research Communications
Jörg Freyhof
Tylognathus elegans, from the lower Tigris River drainage in Iraq, was previously placed in Pseudogarra and Hemigrammocapoeta. Studies based on mitochondrial (COI) and nuclear molecular markers (Rhodopsin) place T. elegans in Garra. As the species is poorly known, it is redescribed here.
October 6, 2016: Zootaxa
Jörg Freyhof
Nemacheilid loaches of the genus Oxynoemacheilus are common fishes all over the Middle East (Freyhof et al. 2011). From Iran, Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. (2015) recognised 12 species from Iran (O. angorae (Steindachner), O. araxensis (Bănărescu & Nalbant), O. bergianus (Derjavin), O. brandtii (Kessler), O. chomanicus (Kamangar, Prokofiev, Ghaderi & Nalbant), O. frenatus (Heckel), O. kermanshahensis (Bănărescu & Nalbant), O. kiabii (Golzarianpour, Abdoli & Freyhof), O. kurdistanicus (Kamangar, Prokofiev, Ghaderi & Nalban)t, O...
October 12, 2016: Zootaxa
Andreas Heinrich, Felix V Güttler, Florian Schlesies, René Aschenbach, Niklas Eckardt, Ulf K-M Teichgräber
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to measure artifacts and visibility of lumen for modern and most commonly used stents in vascular interventions according to a standardized test method of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four peripheral self-expanding nitinol stents and three stainless steel stents with diameters between 5 and 8 mm and lengths between 30 and 250 mm from seven different manufacturers were compared on a 1...
October 14, 2016: Biomedizinische Technik. Biomedical Engineering
Taofeng Lu, Yujiao Sun, Qin Ma, Minghao Zhu, Dan Liu, Jianzhang Ma, Yuehui Ma, Hongyan Chen, Weijun Guan
The Siberian tiger, Panthera tigris altaica, is an endangered species, and much more work is needed to protect this species, which is still vulnerable to extinction. Conservation efforts may be supported by the genetic assessment of wild populations, for which highly specific microsatellite markers are required. However, only a limited amount of genetic sequence data is available for this species. To identify the genes involved in the lung transcriptome and to develop additional simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for the Siberian tiger, we used high-throughput RNA-Seq to characterize the Siberian tiger transcriptome in lung tissue (designated 'PTA-lung') and a pooled tissue sample (designated 'PTA')...
September 8, 2016: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Lina Zhao, Feng Zhang
Springtails, especially entomobryids, are abundant in Karst faunas. Five new species of Sinella Brook are described here from caves in southern China: S. liuae sp. nov., S. hunanica sp. nov., S. tigris sp. nov., S. minuta sp. nov. and S. tiani sp. nov. A new record of Sinella sineocula Chen & Christiansen, is also recorded. These species differ in claw structure, chaetae on ventral side of the head, and body chaetotaxy. An updated key to cave species of Sinella from China is provided.
2016: Zootaxa
Somkiat Huaijantug, Komsan Manatpreprem, Sukhumarn Manatpreprem, Paranee Yatmark
Ultrasonographic measurements of kidney size are useful in the practical diagnosis of kidney diseases in animals. In tigers, there is a lack of information regarding the ultrasonography methods used to measure the kidney size of the tiger. Thirty-three healthy captive tigers (Panthera tigris) were placed in lateral recumbency for ultrasonography. The measurements obtained from the ultrasonography were computed, and the results showed that there was a statistically significant difference between genders in terms of body weight and renal length...
September 3, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Boon-Hong Kong, Nget-Hong Tan, Shin-Yee Fung, Jayalakshmi Pailoor
Lignosus also known as "Tiger Milk Mushroom," is classified in the family Polyporaceae and mainly consumed for its medicinal properties in Southeast Asia and China. The sclerotium is known as the part with medicinal value and often used by the natives to treat a variety of ailments. Lignosus tigris Chon S. Tan, one of the species of the Malaysia Tiger Milk mushroom, has recently been successfully cultivated in laboratory. Earlier studies have demonstrated the L. tigris cultivar E sclerotia exhibited beneficial biomedicinal properties...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Varsha Kapoor, Tyler Antonelli, Jennifer A Parkinson, Adam Hartstone-Rose
The predominant diet fed to captive carnivores in North America consists of ground meat formulated to provide full nutritional requirements. However, this ground meat diet completely lacks the mechanical properties (i.e., toughness and hardness) of the foods these animals would consume in the wild. The goal of this study is to evaluate the effect of captivity on oral health by comparing the prevalence of periodontal disease and dental calculus accumulation in wild and captive lions and tigers (Panthera leo and Panthera tigris), and to also correlate oral health with cranial morphology in these specimens...
August 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
Ryan A Sadler, Edward Ramsay, Denise McAloose, Robert Rush, Rebecca P Wilkes
Canine distemper virus (CDV) has caused clinical disease and death in nondomestic felids in both captive settings and in the wild. Outbreaks resulting in high mortality rates in tigers (Panthera tigris) have prompted some zoos to vaccinate tigers for CDV. In this study, six tigers received a recombinant canarypox-vectored CDV vaccine (1 ml s.c.) and were revaccinated with 3 ml s.c. (mean) 39 days later. Blood collection for CDV antibody detection via serum neutralization was performed on (mean) days 0, 26, and 66 post-initial vaccination...
June 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Edward Ramsay, Ryan Sadler, Robert Rush, Tracie Seimon, Ania Tomaszewicz, Ellen A Fleetwood, Denise McAloose, Rebecca P Wilkes
Three methods for delivering a live attenuated canine distemper virus (CDV) vaccine to domestic cats ( Felis catus ) were investigated, as models for developing vaccination protocols for tigers (Panthera tigris). Twenty domestic cats were randomly divided into four treatment groups: saline injection (negative controls); and oral, intranasal, and subcutaneous vaccinates. Cats were injected with saline or a CDV vaccine (Nobivac DP, Merck) at wk 0 and 4. Blood and nasal swabs were collected at wk 0 (prior to the initial vaccination) and weekly thereafter for 9 wk...
June 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Davut Turan, Yusuf Bektaş, Cüneyt Kaya, Esra Bayçelebi
Alburnoides diclensis sp. n. is described from the Tigris River drainages (Persian Gulf basin) in southeastern Anatolia, Turkey. It is distinguished by a combination of the following characters (none unique to the species): a poorly developed ventral keel between pelvic and anal fins, completely scaled or rarely without one scale in front of anus; head short (length 24-27% SL), its upper profile markedly convex on level of nostril; mouth terminal, with marked chin; lips equal to or upper lip slightly longer than lower lip; snout with rounded tip, its length equal to or greater than eye diameter but smaller than interorbital distance; body moderately deep (depth at dorsal-fin origin 25-30% SL); anal-fin depth 1...
2016: Zootaxa
Simone B Soso, Jacek A Koziel
Scent-marking is the most effective method of communication in the presence or absence of a signaler. These complex mixtures result in a multifaceted interaction triggered by the sense of smell. The objective was to identify volatile organic compound (VOC) composition and odors emitted by total marking fluid (MF) associated with Siberian tigers (Panthera tigris altaica). Siberian tiger, an endangered species, was chosen because its MF had never been analyzed. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) for headspace volatile collection combined with multidimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry for simultaneous chemical and sensory analyses were used...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Thayssa Neiva da Fonseca Victer, Cris Stéphany Rodrigues Dos Santos, Sônia Nair Báo, Thatiane Lima Sampaio
Vital to patient safety is the accurate assessment and minimization of risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Hepatitis C (HCV), and Hepatitis B (HBV) virus transmission by deceased donor organ and tissue transplantation. The pathogens are tested by serological kits based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), chemiluminescence (CLIA) and eletrochemiluminescence (ECLIA) immunoassays. Organ transplantation is a highly successful life-saving treatment in Brazil, but the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency currently mandates that all deceased organ donors are screened for HIV, HCV and HBV following living donor policies...
June 21, 2016: Cell and Tissue Banking
Lindsay H Thomas, Ivan V Seryodkin, John M Goodrich, Dale G Miquelle, Richard J Birtles, John C M Lewis
We collected 69 ticks from nine, free-ranging Amur tigers ( Panthera tigris altaica) between 2002 and 2011 and investigated them for tick-borne pathogens. DNA was extracted using alkaline digestion and PCR was performed to detect apicomplexan organisms. Partial 18S rDNA amplification products were obtained from 14 ticks from four tigers, of which 13 yielded unambiguous nucleotide sequence data. Comparative sequence analysis revealed all 13 partial 18S rDNA sequences were most similar to those belonging to strains of Hepatozoon felis (>564/572 base-pair identity, >99% sequence similarity)...
July 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Maja Coulthard Hampson, Christoph Schwitzer
Species Survival Plans and European Endangered Species Programmes have been developed for several species of endangered felids in order to build up captive reserve populations and support their conservation in the wild. The Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica), snow leopard (Uncia uncia), cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) and clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa) are managed in such ex situ conservation programmes. Many zoological institutions hand-rear offspring if rearing by the mother fails. Hand-rearing can cause behavioural problems, resulting in decreased copulation and lower breeding success in some species...
2016: PloS One
Tingsong Hu, Huanyun Zhao, Yan Zhang, Wendong Zhang, Qiang Kong, Zhixiao Zhang, Qinghua Cui, Wei Qiu, Bo Deng, Quanshui Fan, Fuqiang Zhang
From 2014 to 2015, three cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza infection occurred in zoo-housed north-east China tigers (Panthera tigris ssp.altaica) and four tigers died of respiratory distress in succession in Yunnan Province, China. We isolated and characterized three highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses from these tigers. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that A/tiger /Yunnan /tig1404 /2014(H5N1) belongs to the provisional subclade which were novel reassortant influenza A (H5N1) viruses with six internal genes from avian influenza A (H5N2) viruses...
2016: Scientific Reports
Somphot Duangchantrasiri, Mayuree Umponjan, Saksit Simcharoen, Anak Pattanavibool, Soontorn Chaiwattana, Sompoch Maneerat, N Samba Kumar, Devcharan Jathanna, Arjun Srivathsa, K Ullas Karanth
Recovering small populations of threatened species is an important global conservation strategy. Monitoring the anticipated recovery, however, often relies on uncertain abundance indices rather than on rigorous demographic estimates. To counter the severe threat from poaching of wild tigers (Panthera tigris), the Government of Thailand established an intensive patrolling system in 2005 to protect and recover its largest source population in Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary. Concurrently, we assessed the dynamics of this tiger population over the next 8 years with rigorous photographic capture-recapture methods...
June 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Wenhong Xiao, Limin Feng, Pu Mou, Dale G Miquelle, Mark Hebblewhite, Joshua F Goldberg, Hugh S Robinson, Xiaodan Zhao, Bo Zhou, Tianming Wang, Jianping Ge
As an apex predator the Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) could play a pivotal role in maintaining the integrity of forest ecosystems in Northeast Asia. Due to habitat loss and harvest over the past century, tigers rapidly declined in China and are now restricted to the Russian Far East and bordering habitat in nearby China. To facilitate restoration of the tiger in its historical range, reliable estimates of population size are essential to assess effectiveness of conservation interventions. Here we used camera trap data collected in Hunchun National Nature Reserve from April to June 2013 and 2014 to estimate tiger density and abundance using both maximum likelihood and Bayesian spatially explicit capture-recapture (SECR) methods...
July 2016: Integrative Zoology
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