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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851952/conservation-priorities-for-endangered-indian-tigers-through-a-genomic-lens
#1
Meghana Natesh, Goutham Atla, Parag Nigam, Yadvendradev V Jhala, Arun Zachariah, Udayan Borthakur, Uma Ramakrishnan
Tigers have lost 93% of their historical range worldwide. India plays a vital role in the conservation of tigers since nearly 60% of all wild tigers are currently found here. However, as protected areas are small (<300 km(2) on average), with only a few individuals in each, many of them may not be independently viable. It is thus important to identify and conserve genetically connected populations, as well as to maintain connectivity within them. We collected samples from wild tigers (Panthera tigris tigris) across India and used genome-wide SNPs to infer genetic connectivity...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811626/outbreak-and-genotyping-of-canine-distemper-virus-in-captive-siberian-tigers-and-red-pandas
#2
He Zhang, Fen Shan, Xia Zhou, Bing Li, Jun-Qiong Zhai, Shu-Zhan Zou, Meng-Fan Wu, Wu Chen, Shao-Lun Zhai, Man-Lin Luo
In this study, four canine distemper virus (CDV) strains were isolated from captive Siberian tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) and red pandas (Ailurus fulgens) during two separate CDV outbreaks in a zoo in Guangdong province, China. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses based on the full-length hemagglutinin (H) and fusion (F) genes showed that they were closely identical to genotype Asia-1. Prior to confirmation of CDV in Siberian tigers, to control spread of the disease, a live attenuated combination CDV vaccine was used among almost all carnivore animals except for red pandas in which another recombinant combination CDV vaccine was used...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791136/range-contractions-of-the-world-s-large-carnivores
#3
Christopher Wolf, William J Ripple
The majority of the world's terrestrial large carnivores have undergone substantial range contractions and many of these species are currently threatened with extinction. However, there has been little effort to fully quantify the extent of large carnivore range contractions, which hinders our ability to understand the roles and relative drivers of such trends. Here we present and analyse a newly constructed and comprehensive set of large carnivore range contraction maps. We reveal the extent to which ranges have contracted since historical times and identify regions and biomes where range contractions have been particularly large...
July 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751224/molecular-cloning-and-functional-characterization-of-eleven-subtypes-of-interferon-%C3%AE-in-amur-tigers-panthera-tigris-altaica
#4
Hongjing Zhao, Jian Ma, Yu Wang, Juanjuan Liu, Yizhi Shao, Jinglun Li, Guangshun Jiang, Mingwei Xing
Interferon has a broad-spectrum of antiviral effects and represents an ideal choice for the development of antiviral drugs. Nonetheless, information about alpha interferon (IFN-α) is vacant in Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica), an endangered species and indigenous to northeast Asia. Herein, 11 PtIFN-αs genes, which encoded proteins of 164-165 amino acids, were amplified. Afterwards, expression and purification were conducted in Escherichia coli. In physicochemical analysis, PtIFN-αs were shown to be highly sensitive to trypsin and remained stable despite changes in pH and temperature...
July 24, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749304/investigation-of-enrofloxacin-associated-retinal-toxicity-in-nondomestic-felids
#5
Kim M Newkirk, L Kathryn Beard, Xiaocun Sun, Edward C Ramsay
Enrofloxacin is known to cause retinal toxicity in domestic cats. The hallmark lesion of enrofloxacin-associated retinal toxicity in domestic cats is thinning of the outer nuclear layer of the retina. Enrofloxacin is commonly used to treat bacterial infections in nondomestic felids because of its action against a wide spectrum of bacteria and the ability for it to be given orally. No previous studies have investigated the potential retinal toxicity of enrofloxacin in nondomestic felids. This retrospective study evaluated 81 eyes from 14 lions ( Panthera leo ) and 33 tigers ( Panthera tigris ) that had been enucleated or collected postmortem...
June 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734257/comparison-of-femoropopliteal-artery-stents-under-axial-and-radial-compression-axial-tension-bending-and-torsion-deformations
#6
Kaspars Maleckis, Paul Deegan, William Poulson, Cole Sievers, Anastasia Desyatova, Jason MacTaggart, Alexey Kamenskiy
High failure rates of Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD) stenting appear to be associated with the inability of certain stent designs to accommodate severe biomechanical environment of the femoropopliteal artery (FPA) that bends, twists, and axially compresses during limb flexion. Twelve Nitinol stents (Absolute Pro, Supera, Lifestent, Innova, Zilver, Smart Control, Smart Flex, EverFlex, Viabahn, Tigris, Misago, and Complete SE) were quasi-statically tested under bench-top axial and radial compression, axial tension, bending, and torsional deformations...
July 13, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720450/detection-of-cervical-precancerous-lesions-with-aptima-hpv-assays-using-surepath-preservative-fluid-specimens
#7
Max Chernesky, Dan Jang, Nick Escott, Jodi Gilchrist, Jenny Li, Laurie Elit, Alice Lytwyn, Marek Smieja, Sam Ratnam, Manuel Arias, Damon Getman, Barbara Weinbaum, Brett Kirkconnell, Janel Dockter
SurePath specimens from women referred to colposcopy were treated with Aptima Transfer Solution (ATS) before testing in Aptima HPV (AHPV) and Aptima HPV 16, 18/45 (AHPV-GT) assays. Untreated SurePath specimens were tested with the cobas HPV test. PreservCyt specimens were assessed for cytology and tested with AHPV. High-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia lesions served as the reference standard. Excellent agreement (95.5%; k=0.91) was observed for ATS-treated SurePath specimens between Tigris and Panther systems and between the PreservCyt and ATS-treated SurePath specimens (91...
June 2017: Papillomavirus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610253/-i-oxynoemacheilus-i-i-zarzianus-i-a-new-loach-from-the-lesser-zab-river-drainage-in-iraqi-kurdistan-teleostei-nemacheilidae
#8
Jörg Freyhof, Matthias Geiger
Oxynoemacheilus zarzianus, new species, is described from the Lesser Zab River drainage, a tributary of the lower Tigris. It is distinguished from other Oxynoemacheilus species in the Tigris drainage by having a slightly emarginate caudal fin, no suborbital groove in males, a complete lateral line, the posterior process of the bony air-bladder capsule directed posteriorly, the flank and posterior part of back covered by scales, short barbels and a deep caudal peduncle. It is the fourth Oxynoemacheilus species known from the Lesser Zab drainage, where such loaches seem to be highly isolated in headwaters...
June 2, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610046/-i-oxynoemacheilus-i-i-hazarensis-i-a-new-species-from-lake-hazar-in-turkey-with-remarks-on-i-o-euphraticus-i-teleostei-nemacheilidae
#9
Jörg Freyhof, Müfit Özuluğ
Oxynoemacheilus hazarensis, new species, from Lake Hazar in the Turkish Tigris drainage, is distinguished from other Oxynoemacheilus in the Tigris drainage by having the combination of a slightly emarginate caudal fin, no suborbital groove in males, an incomplete lateral line, no scales on the back and flank in front of the anus, the maxillary barbel reaching beyond the middle of the eye, an incision in the middle of the upper lip, and the colour pattern on the flank mottled, not interrupted by an unpigmented zone along the lateral line...
March 28, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609897/oxynoemacheilus-kentritensis-a-new-species-from-the-upper-tigris-drainage-in-turkey-with-remarks-on-o-frenatus-teleostei-nemacheilidae
#10
Jörg Freyhof, Cüneyt Kaya, Davut Turan
Oxynoemacheilus kentritensis, new species, is described from the Botan drainage, a tributary to the upper Tigris. It is distinguished from other Oxynoemacheilus species in the Tigris drainage by having a complete lateral line, long barbels, flank and back completely covered by scales and flank behind dorsal-fin base with large, dark-brown, vertically elongated blotches or bars.
May 3, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445499/fine-scale-population-genetic-structure-of-the-bengal-tiger-panthera-tigris-tigris-in-a-human-dominated-western-terai-arc-landscape-india
#11
Sujeet Kumar Singh, Jouni Aspi, Laura Kvist, Reeta Sharma, Puneet Pandey, Sudhanshu Mishra, Randeep Singh, Manoj Agrawal, Surendra Prakash Goyal
Despite massive global conservation strategies, tiger populations continued to decline until recently, mainly due to habitat loss, human-animal conflicts, and poaching. These factors are known to affect the genetic characteristics of tiger populations and decrease local effective population sizes. The Terai Arc Landscape (TAL) at the foothills of the Himalaya is one of the 42 source sites of tigers around the globe. Therefore, information on how landscape features and anthropogenic factors affect the fine-scale spatial genetic structure and variation of tigers in TAL is needed to develop proper management strategies for achieving long-term conservation goals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414723/prevalence-and-determinants-of-stereotypic-behaviours-and-physiological-stress-among-tigers-and-leopards-in-indian-zoos
#12
Janice Vaz, Edward J Narayan, R Dileep Kumar, K Thenmozhi, Krishnamoorthy Thiyagesan, Nagarajan Baskaran
India's charismatic wildlife species are facing immense pressure from anthropogenic-induced environmental perturbations. Zoos play a major role in the conservation of threatened species, but their adaptation in captivity is posing a major challenge globally. Stress from inadequate adaptation could lead to suppression of cognitive functioning and increased display of stereotypic behaviour. It is thus necessary to measure biological traits like behaviour, stress physiology, and contextual factors driving the animals maintained at zoos...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387333/elemental-classification-of-the-tusks-of-dugong-dugong-dugong-by-hh-xrf-analysis-and-comparison-with-other-species
#13
Korakot Nganvongpanit, Kittisak Buddhachat, Promporn Piboon, Thippaporn Euppayo, Patcharaporn Kaewmong, Phaothep Cherdsukjai, Kongkiat Kittiwatanawong, Chatchote Thitaram
The elemental composition was investigated and applied for identifying the sex and habitat of dugongs, in addition to distinguishing dugong tusks and teeth from other animal wildlife materials such as Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) tusks and tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) canine teeth. A total of 43 dugong tusks, 60 dugong teeth, 40 dolphin teeth, 1 whale tooth, 40 Asian elephant tusks and 20 tiger canine teeth were included in the study. Elemental analyses were conducted using a handheld X-ray fluorescence analyzer (HH-XRF)...
April 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379997/wild-versus-domestic-prey-in-the-diet-of-reintroduced-tigers-panthera-tigris-in-the-livestock-dominated-multiple-use-forests-of-panna-tiger-reserve-india
#14
S S Kolipaka, W L M Tamis, M van 't Zelfde, G A Persoon, H H de Iongh
Grazing livestock in openly accessible areas is a common practice in the multiple-use forests of India; however, its compatibility with the reintroduction of tigers to these areas requires examination. Here, we investigated the diet of tigers in a livestock-dominated multiple-use buffer zone of the Panna Tiger Reserve, India. We hypothesised that the presence of feral cattle, along with open-access grazing practices in multiple-use forests, would increase the incidence of predation on livestock by tigers, even when wild prey are available...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340564/erratum-to-schrodinger-s-scat-a-critical-review-of-the-currently-available-tiger-panthera-tigris-and-leopard-panthera-pardus-specific-primers-in-india-and-a-novel-leopard-specific-primer
#15
Pranay Amruth Maroju, Sonu Yadav, Vishnupriya Kolipakam, Shweta Singh, Qamar Qureshi, Yadvendradev Jhala
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 24, 2017: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328924/scientific-crowdsourcing-in-wildlife-research-and-conservation-tigers-panthera-tigris-as-a-case-study
#16
Özgün Emre Can, Neil D'Cruze, Margaret Balaskas, David W Macdonald
With around 3,200 tigers (Panthera tigris) left in the wild, the governments of 13 tiger range countries recently declared that there is a need for innovation to aid tiger research and conservation. In response to this call, we created the "Think for Tigers" study to explore whether crowdsourcing has the potential to innovate the way researchers and practitioners monitor tigers in the wild. The study demonstrated that the benefits of crowdsourcing are not restricted only to harnessing the time, labor, and funds from the public but can also be used as a tool to harness creative thinking that can contribute to development of new research tools and approaches...
March 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280790/environmental-assessment-of-al-hammar-marsh-southern-iraq
#17
Hind Fadhil Abdullah Al-Gburi, Balsam Salim Al-Tawash, Hadi Salim Al-Lafta
AIM: (a) To determine the spatial distributions and levels of major and minor elements, as well as heavy metals, in water, sediment, and biota (plant and fish) in Al-Hammar Marsh, southern Iraq, and ultimately to supply more comprehensive information for policy-makers to manage the contaminants input into the marsh so that their concentrations do not reach toxic levels. (b) to characterize the seasonal changes in the marsh surface water quality. (c) to address the potential environmental risk of these elements by comparison with the historical levels and global quality guidelines (i...
February 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268087/longer-term-oral-antiplatelet-use-in-stable-post-myocardial-infarction-patients-insights-from-the-long-term-risk-clinical-management-and-healthcare-resource-utilization-of-stable-coronary-artery-disease-tigris-observational-study
#18
Shaun G Goodman, Jose C Nicolau, Gema Requena, Andrew Maguire, Stefan Blankenberg, Ji Yan Chen, Christopher B Granger, Richard Grieve, Stuart J Pocock, Tabassome Simon, Satoshi Yasuda, Ana Maria Vega, David Brieger
OBJECTIVE: To describe contemporary patient characteristics and treatment patterns, including antithrombotic management, of post-myocardial infarction (MI) stable coronary artery disease (CAD) patients at high atherothrombotic risk from different geographical regions. METHODS: Patients ≥50years with prior MI 1-3years ago and ≥1 risk factor (age ≥65years, diabetes, 2nd prior MI >1yr ago, multivessel CAD, creatinine clearance 15-<60ml/min) were enrolled by 369 physicians (96% cardiologists) in 25 countries (2013-14) in the prospective TIGRIS study (NCT01866904)...
June 1, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264326/molecular-phylogeny-of-the-tribe-torini-karaman-1971-actinopterygii-cypriniformes-from-the-middle-east-and-north-africa
#19
Kai Borkenhagen
Freshwater fishes of the cyprinid tribe Torini are widespread in Africa the Middle East and Indomalaya. The relationships of Middle-Eastern Torini are analysed based on mitochondrial markers (Cyt b, ND4) of the majority of relevant species. I present a larely well resolved phylogeny, which confirms the validity of the morphologically defined genera Arabibarbus, Carasobarbus, Mesopotamichthys and Pterocapoeta. The Torini originated in Indomalaya and colonised Africa via the Middle East. Morocco was colonised two times independently, first from sub-Saharan Africa and secondly along the southern margin of the Mediterranean Sea...
February 22, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264268/two-new-species-of-i-oxynoemacheilus-i-from-the-tigris-drainage-in-iraqi-kurdistan-teleostei-nemacheilidae
#20
Jörg Freyhof, Younis Sabir Abdullah
Two new species of Oxynoemacheilus are described from the Sirvan River drainage in Iraqi Kurdistan. Oxynoemacheilus gyndes, new species, is distinguished by having a very short lateral line, reaching behind the pectoral-fin base, no scales except on the posteriormost part of the caudal peduncle, a slightly emarginate caudal fin and no suborbital groove in males. Oxynoemacheilus hanae, new species, is distinguished by having a midlateral row of elongated blotches, isolated patches of dark-brown spots or blotches on lower flank, a deeply emarginate caudal fin and a suborbital groove in males...
March 2, 2017: Zootaxa
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