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Myriam Arévalo-Herrera, Juan M Vásquez-Jiménez, Mary Lopez-Perez, Andrés F Vallejo, Andrés B Amado-Garavito, Nora Céspedes, Angélica Castellanos, Karen Molina, Johanna Trejos, José Oñate, Judith E Epstein, Thomas L Richie, Sócrates Herrera
BACKGROUND: Immunizing human volunteers by mosquito bite with radiation-attenuated Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites (RAS) results in high-level protection against infection. Only two volunteers have been similarly immunized with P. vivax (Pv) RAS, and both were protected. A phase 2 controlled clinical trial was conducted to assess the safety and protective efficacy of PvRAS immunization. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A randomized, single-blinded trial was conducted...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Eric R Carlson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 21, 2016: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Antoon H van Lierop, Natasha M Appelman-Dijkstra, Socrates E Papapoulos
Sclerosteosis and van Buchem disease are two rare bone sclerosing dysplasia caused by genetic defects in the synthesis of sclerostin. In this article we review the demographic, clinical, biochemical, radiological, and histological characteristics of patients with sclerosteosis and van Buchem disease that led to a better understanding of the role of sclerostin in bone metabolism in humans and we discuss the relevance of these findings for the development of new therapeutics for the treatment of patients with osteoporosis...
October 11, 2016: Bone
Nicholas Manolios, Marina Ali, Bradley Camden, Elham Aflaky, Katrina Pavic, Andrew Markewycz, Robert De Costa, Socrates Angelides
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical utility of a novel radiotracer, (99m)Tc-glucosamine, in assessing disease activity of both rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Material and Methods: Twenty-five patients with RA (nine males and 16 females) and 12 patients with AS (all male) at various stages of disease were recruited for the study. A clinical history and examination was performed, followed by the measurement of hematological, biochemical, and autoimmune serological parameters to assess disease activity...
June 2016: Eur J Rheumatol
Camellia Torabizadeh, Leyla Homayuni, Marzieh Moattari
BACKGROUND: Nurses are often faced with complex situations that made them to make ethical decisions; and to make such decisions, they need to possess the power of moral reasoning. Studies in Iran show that the majority of nursing students lack proper ethical development. Socratic teaching is a student-centered method which is strongly opposed to the lecturing method. OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to evaluate the impacts of Socratic questioning on the moral reasoning of the nursing students...
September 30, 2016: Nursing Ethics
Sócrates Fraga da Costa Neto, Raquel de Oliveira Simões, Éster Maria Mota, Roberto do Val Vilela, Eduardo José Lopes Torres, Helene Santos Barbosa, Rosana Gentile, Arnaldo Maldonado Junior
Nematode parasites of the cardiopulmonary system of livestock and pet animals have been receiving attention due to the pathogenic effects they produce in the course of the infection. However, parasitism in wild animals by metastrongilid nematodes has been neglected, resulting in potential risk to wildlife. Heterostrongylus heterostrongylus is the etiological agent of bronchial pneumonia in the black-eared opossum, Didelphis aurita, a widely distributed marsupial frequently reported to inhabit areas from wild environments to peri-urban spaces...
September 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Hugo Sepulveda, Rodrigo Aguilar, Catalina P Prieto, Francisco Bustos, Sócrates Aedo, José Lattus, Brigitte van Zundert, Veronica Palma, Martin Montecino
Wharton's Jelly mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSCs) are an attractive potential source of multipotent stem cells for bone tissue replacement therapies. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in their osteogenic conversion are poorly understood. Particularly, epigenetic control operating at the promoter regions of the two master regulators of the osteogenic program, RUNX2/P57 and SP7 has not yet been described in WJ-MSCs. Via quantitative PCR profiling and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) studies here we analyze the ability of WJ-MSCs to engage osteoblast lineage...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Anna Grenabo Bergdahl, Ulrica Wilderäng, Gunnar Aus, Sigrid Carlsson, Jan-Erik Damber, Maria Frånlund, Kjell Geterud, Ali Khatami, Andreas Socratous, Johan Stranne, Mikael Hellström, Jonas Hugosson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 20, 2016: European Urology
Nigel P Murray, Sócrates Aedo, Eduardo Reyes, Cynthia Fuentealba, Omar Jacob
INTRODUCTION: Around 90% of prostate cancers detected using the serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) as a screening test are considered to be localised. However, 20-30% of men treated by radical prostatectomy experience biochemical failure within two years of treatment. The presence of primary circulating prostate cells (CPCs) in the blood of these men implies a dissemination of the tumour and could indicate a greater risk of treatment failure. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the use of the number of primary CPCs detected before surgery in the prediction of biochemical failure at ten years...
2016: Ecancermedicalscience
Giovanni Pallio, Alessandra Bitto, Gabriele Pizzino, Federica Galfo, Natasha Irrera, Francesco Squadrito, Giovanni Squadrito, Socrate Pallio, Giuseppe P Anastasi, Giuseppina Cutroneo, Antonio Macrì, Domenica Altavilla
Activation of the adenosine receptor pathway has been demonstrated to be effective in improving tissue remodeling and blunting the inflammatory response. Active colitis is characterized by an intense inflammatory reaction resulting in extensive tissue damage. Symptomatic improvement requires both control of the inflammatory process and repair and remodeling of damaged tissues. We investigated the ability of an A2A receptor agonist, polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN), to restore tissue structural integrity in two experimental colitis models using male Sprague-Dawley rats...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Francisco Humberto Xavier-Junior, Nicolas Huang, Jean-Jacques Vachon, Vera Lucia Garcia Rehder, Eryvaldo Sócrates Tabosa do Egito, Christine Vauthier
PURPOSE: Aim was to formulate oil-in-water (O/W) microemulsion with a high volume ratio of complex natural oil, i.e. copaiba oil and low surfactant content. The strategy of formulation was based on (i) the selection of surfactants based on predictive calculations of chemical compatibility between their hydrophobic moiety and oil components and (ii) matching the HLB of the surfactants with the required HLB of the oil. METHOD: Solubility parameters of the hydrophobic moiety of the surfactants and of the main components found in the oil were calculated and compared...
September 6, 2016: Pharmaceutical Research
Shirley Evelyn Lennon, Adolfo Miranda, Juliana Henao, Andres F Vallejo, Julianh Perez, Alvaro Alvarez, Myriam Arévalo-Herrera, Sócrates Herrera
BACKGROUND: Even though malaria incidence has decreased substantially in Guatemala since 2000, Guatemala remains one of the countries with the highest malaria transmission in Mesoamerica. Guatemala is committed to eliminating malaria as part of the initiative 'Elimination of Malaria in Mesoamerica and the Island of Hispaniola' (EMMIE); however, it is still in the control phase. During the past decade, the government strengthened malaria control activities including mass distribution of long-lasting insecticide-impregnated bed nets, early diagnosis and prompt treatment...
2016: Malaria Journal
Calvin D Eiber, Socrates Dokos, Nigel H Lovell, Gregg J Suaning
The capacity to quickly and accurately simulate extracellular stimulation of neurons is essential to the design of next-generation neural prostheses. Existing platforms for simulating neurons are largely based on finite-difference techniques; due to the complex geometries involved, the more powerful spectral or differential quadrature techniques cannot be applied directly. This paper presents a mathematical basis for the application of a spectral element method to the problem of simulating the extracellular stimulation of retinal neurons, which is readily extensible to neural fibers of any kind...
August 19, 2016: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Francisco Irochima Pinheiro, Irami Araújo-Filho, Amalia Cinthia Meneses do Rego, Eduardo Pereira de Azevedo, Eryvaldo Socrates Tabosa do Egito, Fernando Oréfice, Acácio Alves de Souza Lima Filho
PURPOSE: To develop a new corneal release system to deliver optimum amounts of mitomycin-C (MMC) during the perioperative period of photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). SETTING: Ophthalmos S/A, São Paulo, Brazil. DESIGN: Experimental study. METHODS: An in vitro experimental design was developed for studying a new MMC delivery system at a drug concentration of 0.02%. Whatman sterile filter paper disks with a diameter of 8...
August 2016: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
Camille Berriochoa, Michael Weller, Danielle Berry, Chandana A Reddy, Shlomo Koyfman, Rahul Tendulkar
PURPOSE: Our goals were toexamine the educational approachesused at radiation oncology residency programs nationwide andto evaluate program director(PD) and chief resident (CR) perceptions of their educational environment. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We distributed a survey regarding curricular structure via email toall identified US radiation oncology residency PDs and CRs. Pearson χ(2) test was used toevaluate whether differences existed between answers provided by the 2 study populations...
June 4, 2016: Practical Radiation Oncology
Martha L Ahumada, Lorena I Orjuela, Paula X Pareja, Marcela Conde, Diana M Cabarcas, Eliana F G Cubillos, Jorge A Lopez, John C Beier, Sócrates Herrera, Martha L Quiñones
BACKGROUND: A proper identification of malaria vectors is essential for any attempt to control this disease. Between 40 and 47 Anopheles species have been recorded in Colombia, and eight species complexes have been identified in the last decade. An update of Anopheles species distribution and its relationship with malaria is required, particularly for newly identified members of species complexes. METHODS: A cross-sectional entomological study was conducted at 70 localities in the highest malaria transmission areas in Colombia...
2016: Malaria Journal
Olena Lykhmus, Lyudmyla Koval, Dar'ya Pastuhova, Marios Zouridakis, Socrates Tzartos, Sergiy Komisarenko, Maryna Skok
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of α7 subtype (α7 nAChRs) attenuate the inflammatory cytokines production by macrophages and are involved in pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease by directly influencing the processing of amyloid-beta (Aβ) precursor protein in the brain. Previously we found that regular injections of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) decreased the level of α7 nAChRs and stimulated accumulation of Aβ peptide (1-42) in the brain of mice resulting in memory impairment. Similar effects were observed in mice immunized with recombinant extracellular domain (1-208) of α7 nAChR subunit...
July 25, 2016: Immunobiology
Nikolaos Kouvatsos, Petros Giastas, Dafni Chroni-Tzartou, Cornelia Poulopoulou, Socrates J Tzartos
In this study we report the X-ray crystal structure of the extracellular domain (ECD) of the human neuronal α2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunit in complex with the agonist epibatidine at 3.2 Å. Interestingly, α2 was crystallized as a pentamer, revealing the intersubunit interactions in a wild type neuronal nAChR ECD and the full ligand binding pocket conferred by two adjacent α subunits. The pentameric assembly presents the conserved structural scaffold observed in homologous proteins, as well as distinctive features, providing unique structural information of the binding site between principal and complementary faces...
August 23, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Margreet Stolper, Bert Molewijk, Guy Widdershoven
BACKGROUND: Moral Case Deliberation is a specific form of bioethics education fostering professionals' moral competence in order to deal with their moral questions. So far, few studies focus in detail on Moral Case Deliberation methodologies and their didactic principles. The dilemma method is a structured and frequently used method in Moral Case Deliberation that stimulates methodological reflection and reasoning through a systematic dialogue on an ethical issue experienced in practice...
2016: BMC Medical Ethics
Dimos Karangelis, Sneha Raju, Ioannis Dimarakis, Apostolos Roubelakis, Socrates Fragoulis
This report describes a rare case of aortic pseudoaneurysm with an aortopulmonary fistula in a 69-year-old woman two years following repair of a Type A aortic dissection. The patient presented with NYHA Class IV symptoms having deteriorated rapidly over a course of six weeks. We describe our successful surgical repair following a failed attempt of percutaneous closure with an atrial septal occlusion device.
July 20, 2016: Perfusion
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