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Fabíola B Carneiro, Pablo Q Lopes, Ricardo C Ramalho, Marcus T Scotti, Sócrates G Santos, Luiz A L Soares
Background: Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi belongs to Anacardiacea family and is widely known as "aroeira." This species originates from South America, and its extracts are used in folk medicine due to its therapeutic properties, which include antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic effects. The complexity and variability of the chemical constitution of the herbal raw material establishes the quality of the respective herbal medicine products. Objective: Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the variability of the volatile compounds from leaves of S...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Hannu Hotti, Heiko Rischer
Coniine, a polyketide-derived alkaloid, is poisonous to humans and animals. It is a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist, which leads to inhibition of the nervous system, eventually causing death by suffocation in mammals. Coniine's most famous victim is Socrates who was sentenced to death by poison chalice containing poison hemlock in 399 BC. In chemistry, coniine holds two historical records: It is the first alkaloid the chemical structure of which was established (in 1881), and that was chemically synthesized (in 1886)...
November 14, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Abhishek Saxena, Jo Stevens, Hakan Cetin, Inga Koneczny, Richard Webster, Konstantinos Lazaridis, Socrates Tzartos, Kathleen Vrolix, Gisela Nogales-Gadea, Barbie Machiels, Peter C Molenaar, Jan Damoiseaux, Marc H De Baets, Katja Simon-Keller, Alexander Marx, Angela Vincent, Mario Losen, Pilar Martinez-Martinez
We report here the sequence and functional characterization of a recombinantly expressed autoantibody (mAb 131) previously isolated from a myasthenia gravis patient by immortalization of thymic B cells using Epstein-Barr virus and TLR9 activation. The antibody is characterized by a high degree of somatic mutations as well as a 6 amino acid insertion within the VHCDR2. The recombinant mAb 131 is specific for the γ-subunit of the fetal AChR to which it bound with sub-nanomolar apparent affinity, and detected the presence of fetal AChR on a number of rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines...
October 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
Bente Hoeck, Charlotte Delmar
This article is about nursing theories, the development of nursing knowledge and the underlying, hidden epistemology. The current technical-economical rationality in society and health care calls for a specific kind of knowledge based on a traditional Western, Socratic view of science. This has an immense influence on the development of nursing knowledge. The purpose of the article was therefore to discuss the hidden epistemology of nursing knowledge and theories seen in a broad historical context and point to an alternative epistemology for a future context...
October 24, 2017: Nursing Philosophy: An International Journal for Healthcare Professionals
Viviane Barros Silva, Daniele Lima Travassos, Angelita Nepel, Andersson Barison, Emmanoel Vilaça Costa, Luciana Scotti, Marcus Tulius Scotti, Francisco Jaime Bezerra Mendonça-Junior, Roseli La Corte Dos Santos, Sócrates Cabral de Holanda Cavalcanti
BACKGROUND: Thymol and carvacrol have previously demonstrated larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). In view of this fact, it was of our interest to obtain synthetic derivatives and evaluate their larvicidal activity on Ae. aegypti larvae. METHODS: Structural modifications were performed on thymol and carvacrol in an effort to understand the functional groups necessary for modulating their activities and to lead possibly to more effective larvae control agents...
June 2017: Journal of Arthropod-borne Diseases
Yousef Alharbi, Nigel H Lovell, James Otton, David Muller, Amr Al Abed, Socrates Dokos
The goal of this study was to develop an image-based model to computational investigate blood flow and pressure gradients resulting from left ventricular (LV) wall motion after the implantation of a mitral valve (MV) prosthesis. Two image-based 3D models were reconstructed from multi-slice computed tomography images obtained from patients undergoing transcatheter MV replacement. Navier-Stokes equations were then used to compute the fluid motion. Outflow tract obstruction of the models with MV prosthesis were identified by calculating the difference between LV systolic and aortic pressures...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Azam Ahmad Bakir, Amr Al Abed, Nigel H Lovell, Socrates Dokos
We present a fully-coupled fluid-electromechanics model of the heart using a generic biventricular structure to provide a tool for future multiphysics interaction studies. A simplified Purkinje fibre structure was embedded within the myocardium along with transmural variation of action potential duration to obtain realistic activation and relaxation sequences. To ease computational requirements, phenomenological action potential and excitation-contraction formulations were chosen, and coupled to transverse isotropic hyperelastic myocardial material physics...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Abdulrahman Alqahtani, Amr Al Abed, Tianruo Guo, Nigel H Lovell, Socrates Dokos
A continuum multi-domain model of electrical stimulation of the retina is presented. Each point in the retinal ganglion cell layer could be thought of as representing a single cell, whose biophysics is described using a four-compartment formulation incorporating varying ion channel expressions in the soma, axon initial segment, dendrites and axon. Our continuum model was validated against a discrete morphologically-realistic OFF RGC model, using intra- and extra-cellular electrical stimulation scenarios. Simulations from the continuum model reproduced the same results as that of the discrete model...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Man Ping Wang, Yi Nam Suen, William Ho-Cheung Li, Christina Oi-Bun Lam, Socrates Yong-da Wu, Antonio Cho-Shing Kwong, Vienna W Lai, Sophia S Chan, Tai Hing Lam
Importance: Most smoking cessation (SC) clinics are costly, passive, and underused. Objective: To compare the SC effect of a combined intervention involving brief, model-guided SC advice plus active referral to SC services (active referral group) with those of brief, model-guided SC advice only (brief advice group) and general SC advice only (control group). Design, Setting, and Participants: A single-blind, 3-arm, pragmatic cluster randomized clinical trial was conducted including 1226 adult daily smokers in the general Hong Kong community proactively recruited to participate in the Quit-to-Win Contest held in 2015...
October 23, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
Louise E Heiniger, Gavin I Clark, Sarah J Egan
Socratic Method is a style of inquiry used in cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) that encourages clients to reflect on their problems and draw conclusions from newly-gained insights. However, assumptions about the superior efficacy of Socratic Method over non-Socratic (didactic) approaches remain largely untested. The aim of this study was to compare the perceived helpfulness of therapists' questions, autonomy supportiveness, likelihood of engaging in therapeutic tasks and preference for Socratic Method versus a didactic approach using a video analogue and ratings of lay observers...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Sócrates Avilés-Vázquez, Antonieta Chávez-González, Alfredo Hidalgo-Miranda, Dafne Moreno-Lorenzana, Lourdes Arriaga-Pizano, Miguel Á Sandoval-Esquivel, Manuel Ayala-Sánchez, Rafael Aguilar, Luis Alfaro-Ruiz, Hector Mayani
In this study, we determined the gene expression profiles of bone marrow-derived cell fractions, obtained from normal subjects and Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) patients, that were highly enriched for hematopoietic stem (HSCs) and progenitor (HPCs) cells. Our results indicate that the profiles of CML HSCs and HPCs were closer to that of normal progenitors, whereas normal HSCs showed the most different expression profile of all. We found that the expression profiles of HSCs and HPCs from CML marrow were closer to each other than those of HSCs and HPCs from normal marrow...
October 13, 2017: Cancer Medicine
Francisco Humberto Xavier-Junior, Alexandre Maciuk, Andreza Rochelle do Vale Morais, Everton do Nascimento Alencar, Vera Lucia Garcia, Eryvaldo Sócrates Tabosa do Egito, Christine Vauthier
A rapid, simple, precise and economic method for the quantification of main compounds of copaiba resin and essential oils (Copaifera langsdorffii Desf.) by gas chromatography (GC) has been developed and validated. Copaiba essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation from the copaiba resin. Resin derivatization allowed the identification of diterpenes compounds. A gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) method was developed to identify compounds composing the copaiba resin and essential oil. Then the GC/MS method was transposed to be used with a flame ionization detector (FID) and validated as a quantitative method...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Chromatographic Science
Mateus Feitosa Alves, Diogo Vilar da Fonsec, Sílvia Adelaide Linhares de Melo, Marcus Tullius Scotti, Luciana Scotti, Sócrates Golzio Dos Santos, Margareth de Fátima Formiga Melo Diniz
Asthma is an inflammatory disease which affects millions of people worldwide. Therefore, it is necessary search for new sources of therapies for the treatment of these patients in order to improve their quality of life. From content analysis of new therapeutic targets literature, there are various targets and drugs reported as promising for treatment asthma. Interleukins involved in inflammatory processes are often presented as candidate targets for new drugs. The action of such therapeutics would not only affect interleukins, but also in their receptors...
September 27, 2017: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
John S Tzartos, Christos Stergiou, Dimitrios Daoussis, Paraskevi Zisimopoulou, Andrew P Andonopoulos, Vassiliki Zolota, Socrates J Tzartos
Objectives: Several aquaporins (AQPs) are present in the salivary glands, likely contributing to their secretions. AQP dysfunction may contribute to the salivary gland dysfunction in SS. Antibodies to AQP4 and AQP1 are detected in neuromyelitis optica and are believed to play a pathogenic role. We aimed to search for antibodies to several AQPs in the sera from SS patients in an effort to shed light on the pathogenic mechanisms of SS. Methods: We searched for antibodies to six AQPs in the sera of 34 SS patients without neurological findings using ELISAs with synthetic peptides corresponding to the three extracellular domains of each AQP, radioimmunoassays with AQPs, Western blots and competition experiments with cell-embedded AQPs...
August 31, 2017: Rheumatology
Myriam Arévalo-Herrera, Lina Rengifo, Mary Lopez-Perez, Maria I Arce-Plata, Jhon García, Sócrates Herrera
BACKGROUND: Complicated malaria remains an important public health problem, particularly in endemic settings where access to health services is limited and consequently malaria fatal outcomes occur. Few publications describing the clinical course and outcomes of complicated malaria in Latin America are found in the literature. This prospective study approached the clinical and laboratory characteristics of hospitalized patients with complicated malaria in different endemic areas of the Colombian Pacific Coast with the aim to provide epidemiological knowledge and guide to further reducing malaria severity and mortality...
2017: PloS One
Dean M Thompson, John Taylor, Deborah A Hall, Dawn-Marie Walker, Mary McMurran, Amanda Casey, David Stockdale, Debbie Featherstone, Derek J Hoare
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine which components of psychological therapies are most important and appropriate to inform audiologists' usual care for people with tinnitus. DESIGN: A 39-member panel of patients, audiologists, hearing therapists, and psychologists completed a three-round Delphi survey to reach consensus on essential components of audiologist-delivered psychologically informed care for tinnitus. RESULTS: Consensus (≥80% agreement) was reached on including 76 of 160 components...
September 19, 2017: Ear and Hearing
Alexandre V Fassio, Pedro M Martins, Samuel da S Guimarães, Sócrates S A Junior, Vagner S Ribeiro, Raquel C de Melo-Minardi, Sabrina de A Silveira
BACKGROUND: A huge amount of data about genomes and sequence variation is available and continues to grow on a large scale, which makes experimentally characterizing these mutations infeasible regarding disease association and effects on protein structure and function. Therefore, reliable computational approaches are needed to support the understanding of mutations and their impacts. Here, we present VERMONT 2.0, a visual interactive platform that combines sequence and structural parameters with interactive visualizations to make the impact of protein point mutations more understandable...
September 13, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
Konstantinos Lazaridis, Ioannis Dalianoudis, Vasiliki Baltatzidi, Socrates J Tzartos
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is caused by autoantibodies, the majority of which target the muscle acetylcholine receptor (AChR). Plasmapheresis and IgG-immunoadsorption are useful therapy options, but are highly non-specific. Antigen-specific immunoadsorption would remove only the pathogenic autoantibodies, reducing the possibility of side effects while maximizing the benefit. We have extensively characterized such adsorbents, but in vivo studies are missing. We used rats with experimental autoimmune MG to perform antigen-specific immunoadsorptions over three weeks, regularly monitoring symptoms and autoantibody titers...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Kátia B Amaral, Thiago P Silva, Felipe F Dias, Kássia K Malta, Florence M Rosa, Sócrates F Costa-Neto, Rosana Gentile, Rossana C N Melo
The pathology of schistosomiasis mansoni, a neglected tropical disease of great clinical and socioeconomic importance, results from the parasite eggs that become trapped in host tissues, particularly in the liver and intestines. Continuous antigenic stimulation from these eggs leads to recruitment of inflammatory cells to the sites of infection with formation of periovular granulomas. These complex structures have variable size and composition and are the most striking histopathological feature of schistosomiasis mansoni...
2017: PloS One
Joel Yager
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The goal of this column is to assist readers in reflecting on their attitudes and responses toward clinical and nonclinical situations involving preplanned deaths by decisionally capable individuals. Such circumstances range from encountering individuals in one's personal and professional lives who desire and intend to end their lives under their own terms, to having such individuals request assistance with predeath and postdeath arrangements. METHODS: Attending to pertinent literature, this essay uses Socratic inquiry to question conventional assumptions and attitudes, push readers' thoughts beyond typical comfort zones, and consider alternative modes of responding to challenges posed by preplanned death...
September 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
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