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Medium chain triglyceride

Letícia Pereira de Brito Sampaio
The ketogenic diet (KD), a high-fat, low-carbohydrate, and adequate-protein diet is an established, effective nonpharmacologic treatment option for intractable childhood epilepsy. The KD was developed in 1921 and even though it has been increasingly used worldwide in the past decade, many neurologists are not familiar with this therapeutic approach. In the past few years, alternative and more flexible KD variants have been developed to make the treatment easier and more palatable while reducing side effects and making it available to larger group of refractory epilepsy patients...
October 2016: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
Sun-Hyung Kim, Yeun-Sun Ji, Eui-Seok Lee, Soon-Taek Hong
Curcumin is a flavonoid found in the rhizome of the turmeric plant (Curcuma longa L.) and has recently attracted interest because it has numerous biological functions and therapeutic properties. In the present study, we attempted to incorporate curcumin into medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) nanoemulsions (0.15 wt% curcumin, 10 wt% MCT oil, and 10 wt% emulsifiers) with various emulsifiers [polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monolaurate (Tween-20), sorbitan monooleate (SM), and soy lecithin (SL)]. The physicochemical properties of the nanoemulsions including the Ostwald ripening stability were investigated...
September 2016: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
David F Driscoll
The first clinically successful lipid injectable emulsion was marketed in 1961, consisting of soybean oil triglycerides in sterile water for injection. Since that time, numerous products have entered the market, with the main difference being changes in the oil composition with triglycerides of plant and marine oil origin. With this change, the fatty acid profiles are unique, coming from medium- and long-chain triglycerides. The fatty acids can be saturated or unsaturated, having different pharmaceutical and metabolic activities that affect the safety and efficacy of these unique pharmaceutical dosage forms...
October 13, 2016: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Jennifer Popko, Cornelia Herrfurth, Kirstin Feussner, Till Ischebeck, Tim Iven, Richard Haslam, Mary Hamilton, Olga Sayanova, Jonathan Napier, Inna Khozin-Goldberg, Ivo Feussner
Oleaginous microalgae are considered as a promising resource for the production of biofuels. Especially diatoms arouse interest as biofuel producers since they are most productive in carbon fixation and very flexible to environmental changes in the nature. Naturally, triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation in algae only occurs under stress conditions like nitrogen-limitation. We focused on Phaeodactylum strain Pt4 (UTEX 646), because of its ability to grow in medium with low salinity and therefore being suited when saline water is less available or for wastewater cultivation strategies...
2016: PloS One
Jovana Trbojević Ivić, Nenad Milosavić, Aleksandra Dimitrijević, Marija Gavrović Jankulović, Dejan Bezbradica, Dušan Kolarski, Dušan Veličković
A commercial preparation of Candida rugosa lipases (CRL) was tested for the production of capsinoids by esterification of vanillyl alcohol (VA) with free fatty acids (FA) and coconut oil (CO) as acyl donors. Screening of FA chain length indicated that C8-C12 FA (the most common FA found in CO triglycerides) are the best acyl-donors, yielding 80-85% of their specific capsinoids. Hence, when CO, which is rich in these FA, was used as the substrate, a mixture of capsinoids (vanillyl caprylate, vanillyl decanoate and vanillyl laurate) was obtained...
March 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Manoj Kumar Sahu, Anuradha Singal, Ramesh Menon, Sarvesh Pal Singh, Alka Mohan, Mala Manral, Divya Singh, V Devagouru, Sachin Talwar, Shiv Kumar Choudhary
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Adequate nutritional supplementation in infants with cardiac malformations after surgical repair is a challenge. Critically ill infants in the early postoperative period are in a catabolic stress. The mismatch between estimated energy requirement (EER) and the intake in the postoperative period is multifactorial, predisposing them to complications such as immune deficiency, more infection, and growth failure. This study aimed to assess the feasibility and efficacy of enriched breast milk feed on postoperative recovery and growth of infants after open heart surgery...
October 2016: Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
Jarosław Szefel, Wiesław J Kruszewski, Mariusz Szajewski, Maciej Ciesielski, Ewa Sobczak, Maksymilian Czerepko, Wiesława Łysiak-Szydłowska
INTRODUCTION: Currently there are no established guidelines regarding the use of long-chain triglycerides (LCT) vs. medium-chain triglycerides medium-chain triglycerides (MCT)/long-chain triglycerides (LCT) in total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Severe malnutrition of patients with refractory cachexia (RC) often causes their disqualification from invasive methods of treatment thus decreasing their quality of life and survival time. AIM: To compare the changes in nutritional state of patients with RC receiving PN with LCT and LCT/MCT lipid emulsions and to assess the influence of enteral nutrition on their survival time...
2016: Przegla̜d Gastroenterologiczny
Gaurav Pahouja, Kalpit Patel, Daniel J Ricchiuti
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to present a case series of the sparsely reported complication of chylous ascites (CA) after left sided robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (RALPN), identify possible risk factors for the development of postoperative CA, and explore current recommendations for identification, management and prevention of CA. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective review of patients that were treated with a RALPN during a one year time period (August 2012 to August 2013) by one surgeon at our institution was conducted...
October 5, 2016: Archivio Italiano di Urologia, Andrologia
Soon-Seok Hong, Ju Yeon Choi, Jong Oh Kim, Mi-Kyung Lee, So Hee Kim, Soo-Jeong Lim
Studies have highlighted the challenge of developing injectable liposomes as a paclitaxel (PTX) carrier, a challenge attributable to the limitations in liposomal stability caused by PTX loading. Poor stability of PTX-loaded liposomes is caused by PTX-triggered aggregation or fusion of liposomal membranes and is exacerbated in the presence of PEGylated lipid. In the present study, the effect of triglyceride incorporation on the stability of PTX-loaded/PEGylated liposomes was explored. Incorporation of a medium chain triglyceride Captex 300 into saturated phosphatidylcholine (PC)-based liposomes (1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine [DMPC]:cholesterol [CHOL]:N-(Carbonyl-methoxypolyethyleneglycol 2000)-1, 2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-ethanolamine [PE-PEG]), produced a fine, homogeneous, and membrane-filterable PTX-loaded liposomes fulfilling the requirement of an injectable lipid formulation...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Xinsheng Zhang, Yong Zhang, Yinghua Liu, Jin Wang, Qing Xu, Xiaoming Yu, Xueyan Yang, Zhao Liu, Changyong Xue
We previously observed that medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) could reduce body fat mass and improve the metabolism of cholesterol. We hypothesized that MCTs can improve atherosclerosis by promoting the reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) process. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the roles of MCTs in macrophage RCT and the progression of atherosclerosis. To test this hypothesis, 30 4-week-old ApoE-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice were randomly divided into 2 groups and fed a diet of 2% MCTs or long-chain triglycerides (LCTs) for 16 weeks...
September 2016: Nutrition Research
Atsushi Shima, Tetsuhiko Yasuno, Kenji Yamada, Miyoko Yamaguchi, Ryuichi Kohno, Seiji Yamaguchi, Hiroshi Kido, Hidetoshi Fukuda
Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT II) deficiency is a rare inherited disorder related to recurrent episodes of rhabdomyolysis. The adult myopathic form of CPT II deficiency is relatively benign and difficult to diagnose. The point mutation S113L in CPT2 is very common in Caucasian patients, whereas F383Y is the most common mutation among Japanese patients. We herein present a case of CPT II deficiency in a Japanese patient homozygous for the missense mutation S113L. The patient showed a decreased frequency of rhabdomyolysis recurrence after the administration of a diet containing medium-chain triglyceride oil and supplementation with carnitine and bezafibrate...
2016: Internal Medicine
T Lam, R Harmancey, H Vasquez, B Gilbert, N Patel, V Hariharan, A Lee, M Covey, H Taegtmeyer
We have previously observed the reversal of lipid droplet deposition in skeletal muscle of morbidly obese patients following bariatric surgery. We now investigated whether activation of autophagy is the mechanism underlying this observation. For this purpose, we incubated rat L6 myocytes over a period of 6 days with long-chain fatty acids (an equimolar, 1.0 mM, mixture of oleate and palmitate in the incubation medium). At day 6, the autophagic inhibitor (bafilomycin A1, 200 nM) and the autophagic activator (rapamycin, 1 μM) were added separately or in combination for 48 h...
2016: Cell Death Discovery
Raida Jallouli, Goetz Parsiegla, Frédéric Carrière, Youssef Gargouri, Sofiane Bezzine
The gene coding for a lipase of Fusarium solani, designated as FSL2, shows an open reading frame of 906bp encoding a 301-amino acid polypeptide with a molecular mass of 30kDa. Based on sequence similarity with other fungal lipases, FSL2 contains a catalytic triad, consisting of Ser144, Asp198, and His256. FSL2 cDNA was subcloned into the pGAPZαA vector containing the Saccharomyces cerevisiae α-factor signal sequence and this construct was used to transform Pichia pastoris and achieve a high-level extracellular production of a FSL2 lipase...
September 9, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Charles D Meyer, Ian K McLeod, Daniel J Gallagher
Chyle leaks are a rare but potentially fatal complication of head and neck surgery carrying an incidence as high as 8.3%. The development of a chyle leak carries significant morbidity ranging from delayed wound healing to oropharyngeal fistulas. Presented here is a case of a chyle leak that developed following a left posterolateral neck dissection that was successfully managed with a combination of drain suction, pressure dressing, and a fat-restricted diet. However, the patient's course was complicated by repeated chyle leak recurrences that may have been associated with the initiation of medium-chain triglyceride supplementation...
September 2016: Military Medicine
Anita Umerska, Viviane Cassisa, Nada Matougui, Marie-Laure Joly-Guillou, Matthieu Eveillard, Patrick Saulnier
Lipid nanocapsules (LNCs) are a new generation of biomimetic nanocarriers obtained via a phase inversion temperature method and have an oily core of medium-chain triglycerides that is surrounded by a shelf containing a lipophilic surfactant (lecithin) and a hydrophilic surfactant macrogol 15-hydroxystearate. The aim of the present study was to produce LNCs with antibacterial activity by replacing lecithin with other lipophilic surface active compounds, namely medium-chain fatty acids and their 1-monoglycerides, which are known to have antimicrobial properties...
September 2, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
J Vockley, J Charrow, J Ganesh, M Eswara, G A Diaz, E McCracken, R Conway, G M Enns, J Starr, R Wang, J E Abdenur, J Sanchez-de-Toledo, D L Marsden
Long-chain fatty acid oxidation disorders (LC-FAOD) can cause cardiac hypertrophy and cardiomyopathy, often presenting in infancy, typically leading to death or heart transplant despite ongoing treatment. Previous data on triheptanoin treatment of cardiomyopathy in LC-FAOD suggested a clinical benefit on heart function during acute failure. An additional series of LC-FAOD patients with critical emergencies associated with cardiomyopathy was treated with triheptanoin under emergency treatment or compassionate use protocols...
August 27, 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
Miho Ota, Junko Matsuo, Ikki Ishida, Kotaro Hattori, Toshiya Teraishi, Hidekazu Tonouchi, Kinya Ashida, Takeshi Takahashi, Hiroshi Kunugi
RATIONALE: Glucose is the principal energy substrate for the brain, although ketone bodies are an effective alternative. Evidence suggests that elevation of plasma ketone body levels through oral intake of medium chain triglycerides (MCTs) may improve cognitive function. OBJECTIVES: We tried to examine the possible effects of a ketogenic meal serving on cognition in elderly non-demented subjects. METHODS: Subjects were 19 non-demented elderly adults over 60 years old (13 females; mean age: 66...
October 2016: Psychopharmacology
Mark F McCarty, James J DiNicolantonio
Recently, medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) containing a large fraction of lauric acid (LA) (C12)-about 30%-have been introduced commercially for use in salad oils and in cooking applications. As compared to the long-chain fatty acids found in other cooking oils, the medium-chain fats in MCTs are far less likely to be stored in adipose tissue, do not give rise to 'ectopic fat' metabolites that promote insulin resistance and inflammation, and may be less likely to activate macrophages. When ingested, medium-chain fatty acids are rapidly oxidised in hepatic mitochondria; the resulting glut of acetyl-coenzyme A drives ketone body production and also provokes a thermogenic response...
2016: Open Heart
Manpreet S Mundi, Bradley R Salonen, Sara Bonnes
Since the first intravenous nutrition support attempt with olive oil in the 17th century, intravenous fat emulsions (IVFEs) have evolved to become an integral component in the management of patients receiving home parenteral nutrition (HPN). IVFEs serve as a calorie source and provide essential fatty acids (linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid) in patients unable to achieve adequate intake of these fatty acids through alternative means. However, IVFE use is also associated with multiple complications, including increased infection risk, liver disease, and systemic proinflammatory states...
October 2016: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
Saifudeen Ismael, Lakshmi S, Remani K, R Renuka Nair
BACKGROUND: Left ventricular hypertrophy is characterized by decrease in oxidation of long-chain fatty acids, possibly mediated by reduced expression of the cell-surface protein Cluster of differentiation-36 (CD36). Spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) was therefore supplemented with Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), a substrate that bypasses CD36; based on the assumption that the metabolic modulation will ameliorate ventricular remodeling. METHODS: The diet of 2-month-old and 6-month-old SHR was supplemented with 5% MCT (Tricaprylin), for 4 months...
August 12, 2016: Journal of Cardiac Failure
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