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cortical necrosis

Naif E Al Omairi, Omyma K Radwan, Yahea A Alzahrani, Rami B Kassab
Due to the high ability of cadmium to cross the blood-brain barrier, cadmium (Cd) causes severe neurological damages. Hence, the purpose of this study was to investigate the possible protective effect of Mangifera indica leaf extract (MLE) against Cd-induced neurotoxicity. Rats were divided into eight groups. Group 1 served as vehicle control group, groups 2, 3 and 4 received MLE (100, 200, 300 mg /kg b.wt, respectively). Group 5 was treated with CdCl2 (5 mg/kg b.wt). Groups 6, 7 and 8 were co-treated with MLE and CdCl2 using the same doses...
March 20, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Yu-Ru Guo, Hsiu-Chuan Lee, Yun-Chun Lo, Shao-Chuan Yu, Shih-Yi Huang
Nutritional deficit of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is closely related to cognitive impairment and depression in later life. Cognitive impairment and depression lead to comorbidities, such as metabolic syndrome, in elderly people. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of dietary n-3 PUFAs on cognition and depressive-like behavior in an accelerated senescence rat model with prediabetic status. Rats were cotreated with d-gal and sucrose solution for 7 months and then fed fish-oil- or flaxseed-oil-rich diets for 3 months...
March 19, 2018: Food & Function
Chengjie Meng, Juyi Zhang, Baoqi Dang, Haiying Li, Haitao Shen, Xiang Li, Zhong Wang
The protein kinase R (PKR)-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) signaling pathway was reported to exert an important role in neuronal apoptosis. The present study was designed to investigate the roles of the PERK signaling pathway in the secondary brain injury (SBI) induced by intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and its potential mechanisms. Sprague-Dawley rats were used to establish ICH models by injecting autologous blood (100 μl), and cultured primary rat cortical neurons were exposed to oxyhemoglobin (10 μM) to mimic ICH in vitro ...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Irini Papazian, Vasiliki Kyrargyri, Maria Evangelidou, Anda Voulgari-Kokota, Lesley Probert
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) provide therapeutic effects in experimental CNS disease models and show promise as cell-based therapies for humans, but their modes of action are not well understood. We previously show that MSC protect rodent neurons against glutamate excitotoxicity in vitro, and in vivo in an epilepsy model. Neuroprotection is associated with reduced NMDA glutamate receptor (NMDAR) subunit expression and neuronal glutamate-induced calcium (Ca2+ ) responses, and increased expression of stem cell-associated genes...
February 25, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jacqueline Y K Leung, William R Bennett, Anna E King, Roger S Chung
BACKGROUND: The extracellular environment plays an important role in supporting the regeneration of axons after injury. Metallothionein-II (MTII) is a metal-binding protein known for its neuroprotective effect by directly stimulating the growth of axons after injury. Previous studies have shown that MTII also modulates the response of astrocytes and microglia after injury. However, a detailed analysis describing how MTII modulates the interaction between microglia and neurons is lacking...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Ricardo Morais, Filipe Sobral, Gil Cunha, Olga Brito, Isabel Santana
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 14, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Elda E Sánchez, Roschman González, Sara Lucena, Stefanie García, Héctor J Finol, Montamas Suntravat, María E Girón, Irma Fernández, Alexis Rodríguez-Acosta
Crotamine is a cationic, non-enzymatic, protein integrating a minor family of myotoxins, composed of 42 amino acid residues, described in Viperidae and Crotalidae snake's families that has been used in neuroscience research, drug progressing and molecular diversity reports. Crotamine-like protein (CLP) from C.o.helleri venom was isolated in fraction 5 from 7 peaks obtained by sulfopropyl waters protein pak cationic exchange column. In tricine-SDS-PAGE under non-reduced conditions this CLP showed a single band of ~8 kDa molecular weight...
March 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
Wei Liu, Yuhua Chen, Jiao Meng, Minfei Wu, Fangfang Bi, Cuicui Chang, Hua Li, Liangjun Zhang
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a critical public health and socioeconomic problem throughout the world. Inflammation-induced secondary injury is one of the vital pathogenic parameters of TBI. Molecular signaling cascades of pyroptosis, a specific type of cellular necrosis, are key drivers of TBI-induced inflammation. METHODS: In this study, mice with genetically ablated caspase-1 (caspase-1-/- ) were subjected to controlled cortical impact injury in vivo, and primary neuron deficient in caspase-1 through siRNA knockdown and pharmacologic inhibition was stimulated by mechanical scratch, equiaxial stretch, and LPS/ATP in vitro...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Zvonimir Katic, Tomislav Jukic, David Stubljar
AIM: To compare temperatures of the crestal bone during implant site preparation for different osteotomy lengths and implant systems. METHODS: Bovine ribs were used to simulate the cortical bone of the human mandible. Three different implant systems were tested: Astra Tech, Ankylos, and XiVE. Six drills per system were performed, meaning each drilling set was used for 2 drills per 3 osteotomy lengths (8, 12, and 16 mm). Drilling force, drilling speed, drilling length, and temperature were recorded...
February 13, 2018: Implant Dentistry
Sam Sadigh, Preya Shah, Kristy Weber, Ronnie Sebro, Paul J Zhang
The present study investigated the case of a 46-year-old female with primary malignant perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasm (PEComa) of the femur. The patient presented with a 5-month history of right distal thigh pain following trauma. Radiographs of the right distal femur revealed a mixed lytic and sclerotic lesion with subtle areas of cortical destruction and soft tissue extension, consistent with an aggressive tumor. A core biopsy revealed an epithelioid tumor with granular cell features, but a definitive diagnosis could not be made...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
Baojin Chi, Shuqiu Wang, Sheng Bi, Wenbo Qin, Dongmei Wu, Zhenguo Luo, Shiliang Gui, Dongwei Wang, Xingzhong Yin, Fangfang Wang
For several thousand years, Ganoderma lucidum (Ling-Zhi in Chinese and Reishi in Japanese) has been widely used as a traditional medication for the prevention and treatment of various diseases in Asia. Its major biologically active components, ganoderic acids (GAs), exhibit significant medicinal value due to their anti-inflammatory effects. Dysregulation of microglial function may cause seizures or promote epileptogenesis through release of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α...
January 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
A Feldmann, P Wili, G Maquer, P Zysset
Surgical interventions close to vulnerable structures, such as nerves, require precise handling of surgical instruments and tools. These tools not only pose the risk of mechanical damage to soft tissues, but they also generate heat, which can lead to thermal necrosis of bone or soft tissues. Researchers and engineers are trying to improve those tools through experimentation and simulations. To simulate temperature distributions in anatomical structures, reliable material constants are needed. Therefore, this study aimed at investigating the thermal conductivity of cortical and cancellous bone...
January 28, 2018: European Cells & Materials
Giovanna Casili, Michela Campolo, Irene Paterniti, Marika Lanza, Alessia Filippone, Salvatore Cuzzocrea, Emanuela Esposito
TBI is a serious neuropathology that causes secondary injury mechanisms, including dynamic interplay between ischemic, inflammatory and cytotoxic processes. Fumaric acid esters (FAEs) showed beneficial effects in preclinical models of neuroinflammation and toxic oxidative stress, so the aim of the present work was to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of dimethyl fumarate (DMF), the most pharmacologically effective molecules among the FAEs, in a mouse model of TBI induced by controlled cortical impact (CCI)...
January 23, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Nuzhath F Tajuddin, Hee-Yong Kim, Michael A Collins
Utilizing rat adult-age hippocampal-entorhinal cortical (HEC) slice cultures we examined the role of poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase (PARP) in binge ethanol's brain inflammatory and neurodegenerative mechanisms. Activated by DNA strand breaks, PARP (principally PARP1 in brain) promotes DNA repair via poly [ADP-ribose] (PAR) products, but PARP overactivation triggers regulated neuronal necrosis, e.g., parthanatos. Previously we found that brain PARP1 levels were upregulated by neurotoxic ethanol binges in adult rats and HEC slices, and PARP inhibitor PJ34 abrogated slice neurodegeneration...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Zhen Wang, Li-Min Guo, Yong Wang, Hong-Kang Zhou, Shu-Chao Wang, Dan Chen, Ju-Fang Huang, Kun Xiong
Heat shock protein 90α (HSP90α) maintains cell stabilization and regulates cell death, respectively. Recent studies have shown that HSP90α is involved in receptor interacting protein 3 (RIP3)-mediated necroptosis in HT29 cells. It is known that oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) can induce necroptosis, which is regulated by RIP3 in neurons. However, it is still unclear whether HSP90α participates in the process of OGD-induced necroptosis in cultured neurons via the regulation of RIP3. Our study found that necroptosis occurs in primary cultured cortical neurons and PC-12 cells following exposure to OGD insult...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Jacob C Zbesko, Thuy-Vi V Nguyen, Tao Yang, Jennifer Beischel Frye, Omar Hussain, Megan Hayes, Amanda Chung, W Anthony Day, Kristina Stepanovic, Maj Krumberger, Justine Mona, Frank M Longo, Kristian P Doyle
Following stroke, the damaged tissue undergoes liquefactive necrosis, a stage of infarct resolution that lasts for months, although the exact length of time is currently unknown. One method of repair involves reactive astrocytes and microglia forming a glial scar to compartmentalize the area of liquefactive necrosis from the rest of the brain. The formation of the glial scar is a critical component of the healing response to stroke, as well as other central nervous system (CNS) injuries. The goal of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of the extracellular fluid present in areas of liquefactive necrosis and determine how effectively it is segregated from the remainder of the brain...
January 10, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Hiroshi Ueda, Shiori Maeda
Prothymosin alpha (ProTα) has been identified as an anti-necrotic factor from the conditioned medium of primary cultured of rat cortical neurons under the serum-free starving condition. ProTα is released in a non-vesicular manner from neurons or astrocytes by the help of cargo protein S100A13. Thus released ProTα is found to have robustness roles in the brain under the condition of neuronal necrosis or apoptosis. ProTα inhibits necrosis by plasma membrane-translocation of glucose transporters endocytosed by ischemia/starving stress, through an activation of unidentified G protein-coupled receptor and protein kinase Cβ...
2018: Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica Japonica
Xiaogang Zhang, Xinsen Xu, Yina Jiang, Jianyu He, Wenjing Wang, Wei Li, Xufeng Zhang, Yi Lv
Objective: To investigate the potential role of alpha1-adrenoceptor (α1-AR) in the pathogenesis of hepatorenal syndrome. Methods: Hepatorenal syndrome was induced in male rats by intraperitoneal injection of D-galactosamine and orally treatment with α1-AR antagonist tamsulosin. Hyperresponsiveness of the renal artery contraction was evaluated by the laser-Doppler flowmetry and multimyograph system, while renal blood flow (cortical and medullary perfusion) was simultaneously measured...
December 12, 2017: Oncotarget
Jai Prakash, Vivek C Ganiger, Suraj Prakash, Mohammad Iqbal, Deba Prasad Kar, Usha Singh, Ashish Verma
INTRODUCTION: There are numerous reports in the literature describing acute kidney injury in pregnancy (P-AKI) due to various obstetric complications. However, there is a dearth of studies on AKI related to pregnancy-specific disorders from India. We aimed to analyze clinical features and outcome of P-AKI related to pregnancy-specific disorders compared to total pregnancy, in India. METHOD: All pregnant women attending the department of Obstetrics and Gynecology from November 2014 to July 2016 were screened for AKI based on: (1) sudden elevation of serum creatinine ≥ 1 mg/dl; (2) oligoanuria for > 12 h; and (3) need for dialysis...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Nephrology
Sun Ae Hwang, Chi Dae Kim, Won Suk Lee
In this study, we aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), an active component of propolis purified from honeybee hives, on photothrombotic cortical ischemic injury in mice. Permanent focal ischemia was achieved in the medial frontal and somatosensory cortices of anesthetized male C57BL/6 mice by irradiation of the skull with cold light laser in combination with systemic administration of rose bengal. The animals were treated with CAPE (0.5-5 mg/kg, i.p.) twice 1 and 6 h after ischemic insult...
January 2018: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
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