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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524007/the-proinflammatory-cytokine-gitrl-contributes-to-trail-mediated-neurotoxicity-in-the-hcn-2-human-neuronal-cell-line
#1
Giulia Di Benedetto, Salvatore Saccone, Laurence Lempereur, Nicole Ronsisvalle, Giuseppe Nocentini, Rodolfo Bianchini, Carlo Riccardi, Renato Bernardini, Giuseppina Cantarella
Cytokines belonging to the TNF superfamily play a relevant role in neurodegenerative processes. Tumor Necrosis Factor-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL), released during neuronal injury, has proven to potently mediate and sustain neurotoxic processes leading to neuronal death. Similarly to TRAIL, the cytokine Glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor ligand (GITRL) is able to transduce proapoptotic signals. In spite of the array of reports suggesting relationships between TRAIL and other cytokines, scanty data are, so far, available about a GITRL/TRAIL crosstalk...
May 18, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521609/adrenal-obliteration-by-balloon-occluded-retrograde-venous-ethanol-injection-in-a-swine-model
#2
Akitoshi Inoue, Shinichi Ohta, Norihisa Nitta, Shizuka Tsuboi, Akinaga Sonoda, Yuki Tomozawa, Shobu Watanabe, Kenichi Mukaisho, Kiyoshi Murata
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of adrenal obliteration by balloon-occluded retrograde venous ethanol injection. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We inserted a micro-balloon catheter into the left adrenal vein of six pigs and retrogradely injected absolute ethanol (0.06 ml/kg) under balloon occlusion. Two pigs were sacrificed on day 3, 7, and 14 after the procedure, respectively. We evaluated adrenal cortical and medullary hormones of the left renal vein, venograms, magnetic resonance imaging scans obtained before and after the procedure, autopsy and microscopic findings, and the weight of the bilateral adrenal glands...
May 19, 2017: Minimally Invasive Therapy & Allied Technologies: MITAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512372/characterization-of-lilium-longiflorum-cv-nellie-white-infection-with-root-lesion-nematode-pratylenchus-penetrans-by-bright-field-and-transmission-electron-microscopy
#3
Paulo Vieira, Joseph Mowery, James Kilcrease, Jonathan D Eisenback, Kathryn Kamo
Lilium longiflorum cv. Nellie White, commonly known as Easter lily, is an important floral crop with an annual wholesale value of over $26 million in the United States. The root-lesion nematode, Pratylenchus penetrans, is a major pest of lily due to the significant root damage it causes. In this study, we investigated the cytological aspects of this plant-nematode interaction using bright-field and transmission electron microscopy. We took advantage of an in vitro culture method to multiply lilies and follow the nematode infection over time...
March 2017: Journal of Nematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511590/temperature-rise-in-kirschner-wires-inserted-using-two-drilling-methods-forward-and-oscillation
#4
Scott Richard Anderson, Serkan Inceoglu, Montri D Wongworawat
BACKGROUND: Kirschner wires (K-wires) are commonly used in orthopedic surgery. However, the loosening of the pins can lead to delayed or improper healing or infection. Wire loosening can occur by thermal necrosis that occurs due to heat produced during wire insertion. Although the parameters that affect temperature rise in cortical bone during wire insertion and drilling have been studied, the effect of drilling mode (oscillation versus forward) is unknown. The purpose of this study was to compare the temperature changes occurring in cortical bone during wire insertions by oscillating and forward drills...
May 1, 2017: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499974/prefrontal-cortical-glutathione-dependent-defense-and-proinflammatory-mediators-in-chronically-isolated-rats-modulation-by-fluoxetine-or-clozapine
#5
Nevena Todorović, Dragana Filipović
Chronic psychosocial stress modulates brain antioxidant systems and causes neuroinflammation that plays a role in the pathophysiology of depression. Although the antidepressant fluoxetine (FLX) represents the first-line treatment for depression and the atypical antipsychotic clozapine (CLZ) is considered as a second-line treatment for psychotic disorders, the downstream mechanisms of action of these treatments, beyond serotonergic or dopaminergic signaling, remain elusive. We examined behavioral changes, glutathione (GSH)-dependent defense and levels of proinflammatory mediators in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of adult male Wistar rats exposed to 21days of chronic social isolation (CSIS)...
May 10, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495139/high-yield-primary-microglial-cultures-using-granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating-factor-from-embryonic-murine-cerebral-cortical-tissue
#6
Adam C Yu, Sarah E Neil, Jacqueline A Quandt
BACKGROUND: Microglia play vital roles in neurotrophic support and modulating immune or inflammatory responses to pathogens or damage/stressors during disease. This study describes the ability to establish large numbers of microglia from embryonic tissues with the addition of granulocyte-macrophage stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and characterizes their similarities to adult microglia examined ex vivo as well as their responses to inflammatory mediators. METHOD: Microglia were seeded from a primary embryonic mixed cortical suspension with the addition of GM-CSF...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437822/osmotic-demyelination-syndrome-due-to-severe-hyponatremia-mimicking-hypoxic-encephalopathy
#7
Felix Wicke, Sasha Moreitz, Stefan Weidauer
Hyponatremia and its rapid correction is a well-known cause of osmotic demyelination most commonly affecting the pons. We report on a case of severe hyponatremia likely due to psychogenic polydipsia resulting in hypotonic hyperhydration with resulting cortical laminar necrosis on initial imaging, mimicking hypoxic brain damage. Pontine myelinolysis became apparent on follow-up imaging, illustrating the diagnostic challenges of extrapontine manifestations of severe hyponatremia.
April 2017: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427358/cortical-laminar-necrosis-in-dengue-encephalitis-a-case-report
#8
Ravindra Kumar Garg, Imran Rizvi, Rajan Ingole, Amita Jain, Hardeep Singh Malhotra, Neeraj Kumar, Dhruv Batra
BACKGROUND: Dengue encephalitis is a rare neurological manifestation of dengue fever. Its clinical presentation is similar to other viral encephalitides and encephalopathy. No single specific finding on magnetic resonance imaging of dengue encephalitis has yet been documented. They are highly variable and atypical. CASE PRESENTATION: A 15-year boy presented with fever, the headache and altered sensorium of 12-day duration. On neurological examination, his Glasgow Coma Scale score was 10 (E3M4V3)...
April 20, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418711/silibinin-improves-tnf-%C3%AE-and-m30-expression-and-histological-parameters-in-rat-kidneys-after-hepatic-ischemia-reperfusion
#9
Georgios Kyriakopoulos, Alexandra K Tsaroucha, Georgia Valsami, Maria Lambropoulou, Nikolaos Kostomitsopoulos, Eirini Christodoulou, Zacharias Kakazanis, Constantinos Anagnostopoulos, Christos Tsalikidis, Constantinos E Simopoulos
BACKGROUND: Remote kidney damage is a sequel of hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Silibinin is the main ingredient of the milk thistle plant seed extract with known antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity. Our study investigates the nephroprotective potential of intravenously administered silibinin, as a lyophilized SLB-hydoxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin product, in hepatic I/R injury. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 63 Wistar rats were divided into three groups: Sham (virtual intervention); Control (45 min ischemia and reperfusion); and Silibinin (200 μL intravenous silibinin administration after 45 min of ischemia)...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Investigative Surgery: the Official Journal of the Academy of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395089/methylmalonate-induces-inflammatory-and-apoptotic-potential-a-link-to-glial-activation-and-neurological-dysfunction
#10
Patricia Gabbi, Leandro Rodrigo Ribeiro, Gutierres Jessié Martins, Alexandra Seide Cardoso, Fernanda Haupental, Fernanda Silva Rodrigues, Alencar Kolinski Machado, Juliana Sperotto Brum, M M Medeiros Frescura Duarte, Maria Rosa Chitolina Schetinger, Ivana Beatrice Mânica da Cruz, Ana Flávia Furian, Mauro Schneider Oliveira, Adair Roberto Soares Dos Santos, Luiz Fernando Freire Royes, Michele Rechia Fighera, Mayara Lutchemeyer de Freitas
Methylmalonic acid (MMA) accumulates in tissues in methylmalonic acidemia, a heterogeneous group of inherited childhood diseases characterized by neurological dysfunction, oxidative stress and neuroinflammation; it is associated with degeneration of striatal neurons and cerebral cortical atrophy. It is presently unknown, however, whether transient exposure to MMA in the neonatal period is sufficient to trigger inflammatory and apoptotic processes that lead to brain structural damage. Here, newborn mice were given a single intracerebroventricular dose of MMA at 12 hours after birth...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374134/the-p38-cyld-pathway-is-involved-in-necroptosis-induced-by-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-combined-with-zvad-in-primary-cortical-neurons
#11
Tao Feng, WeiWei Chen, CaiYi Zhang, Jie Xiang, HongMei Ding, LianLian Wu, DeQin Geng
Recently, necroptosis, a form of programmed necrosis, has been widely studied. It has previously been shown that knockout of lysine 63 deubiquitinase CYLD significantly inhibits necroptosis in other cell lines, and serum response factor (SRF) could regulate CYLD gene expression through p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK). In the following study, we show oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) combined with a caspase inhibitor, ZVAD (OGD/ZVAD), induced CYLD protein expression in a time-dependent manner...
April 4, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370165/neuroprotective-effects-of-a-novel-poly-adp-ribose-polymerase-1-inhibitor-jpi-289-in-hypoxic-rat-cortical-neurons
#12
Youngchul Kim, Young Seo Kim, Min-Young Noh, Hanchang Lee, Boyoung Joe, Hyun Young Kim, Jeongmin Kim, Seung Hyun Kim, Jiseon Park
Excessive activation of Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is known to develop neuronal apoptosis, necrosis and inflammation after ischemic brain injury. Therefore, PARP-1 inhibition after ischemic stroke has been attemptedin successful animal studies. The purpose of present work was to develop a novel water soluble PARP-1 inhibitor (JPI-289) and explore its neuroprotective effect on ischemic injury in an in vitro model. The half-life of JPI-289 after Intravenous or oral administration in rats was relatively long (1...
April 2, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359334/cytokine-cascades-induced-by-mechanical-trauma-injury-alter-voltage-gated-sodium-channel-activity-in-intact-cortical-neurons
#13
Weiqiang Chen, Jiangtao Sheng, Jingfang Guo, Guoyi Peng, Jinfang Hong, Bingbing Li, Xiaoxuan Chen, Kangsheng Li, Shousen Wang
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) triggers both immediate (primary) and long-term (secondary) tissue damages. Secondary damages can last from hours to days or even a lifetime. Secondary damages implicate several mechanisms, including influence of inflammatory mediators, mainly cytokines, on excitability of ion channels. However, studies should further explore the effects of inflammatory cytokines on voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) and excitability in distal intact neurons...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356740/peg-b-pelg-g-pll-nanoparticles-as-tnf-%C3%AE-nanocarriers-potential-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-therapeutic-applications
#14
Guangtao Xu, Huan Gu, Bo Hu, Fei Tong, Daojun Liu, Xiaojun Yu, Yongxia Zheng, Jiang Gu
Brain ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury (BI/RI) is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. However, the outcome of pharmacotherapy for BI/RI remains unsatisfactory. Innovative approaches for enhancing drug sensitivity and recovering neuronal activity in BI/RI treatment are urgently needed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-loaded poly(ethylene glycol)-b-(poly(ethylenediamine L-glutamate)-g-poly(L-lysine)) (TNF-α/PEG-b-(PELG-g-PLL)) nanoparticles on BI/RI...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356675/thrombotic-microangiopathy-due-to-viperidae-bite-two-case-reports
#15
T Dineshkumar, J Dhanapriya, R Sakthirajan, K Thirumalvalavan, A A Kurien, T Balasubramaniyan, N Gopalakrishnan
Snake bite is mainly an occupational hazard and causes serious health problems in rural India. Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs in 5-30% cases. Renal pathologic findings include acute tubular necrosis, cortical necrosis, interstitial nephritis, glomerulonephritis, and vasculitis. Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) occurrence after a snake bite is reported rarely. Here, we present two patients who developed TMA after viper bite treated with hemodialysis and plasmapheresis. Renal biopsy showed fibrin thrombi in glomeruli and arterioles with cortical necrosis...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348952/radiation-induced-abnormal-cortical-thickness-in-patients-with-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-after-radiotherapy
#16
Jiabao Lin, Xiaofei Lv, Meiqi Niu, Lizhi Liu, Jun Chen, Fei Xie, Miao Zhong, Shijun Qiu, Li Li, Ruiwang Huang
Conventional MRI studies showed that radiation-induced brain necrosis in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in years after radiotherapy (RT) could involve brain gray matter (GM) and impair brain function. However, it is still unclear the radiation-induced brain morphological changes in NPC patients with normal-appearing GM in the early period after RT. In this study, we acquired high-resolution brain structural MRI data from three groups of patients, 22 before radiotherapy (pre-RT) NPC patients with newly diagnosed but not yet medically treated, 22 NPC patients in the early-delayed stage after radiotherapy (post-RT-ED), and 20 NPC patients in the late-delayed stage after radiotherapy (post-RT-LD), and then analyzed the radiation-induced cortical thickness alteration in NPC patients after RT...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339906/interstitial-fibrosis-scored-on-whole-slide-digital-imaging-of-kidney-biopsies-is-a-predictor-of-outcome-in-proteinuric-glomerulopathies
#17
Laura H Mariani, Sebastian Martini, Laura Barisoni, Pietro A Canetta, Jonathan P Troost, Jeffrey B Hodgin, Matthew Palmer, Avi Z Rosenberg, Kevin V Lemley, Hui-Ping Chien, Jarcy Zee, Abigail Smith, Gerald B Appel, Howard Trachtman, Stephen M Hewitt, Matthias Kretzler, Serena M Bagnasco
Background.: Interstitial fibrosis (IF), tubular atrophy (TA) and interstitial inflammation (II) are known determinants of progression of renal disease. Standardized quantification of these features could add value to current classification of glomerulopathies. Methods.: We studied 315 participants in the Nephrotic Syndrome Study Network (NEPTUNE) study, including biopsy-proven minimal change disease (MCD = 98), focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS = 121), membranous nephropathy (MN = 59) and IgA nephropathy (IgAN = 37)...
February 27, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330972/fatal-cerebral-edema-with-status-epilepticus-in-children-with-dravet-syndrome-report-of-5-cases
#18
Kenneth A Myers, Jacinta M McMahon, Simone A Mandelstam, Mark T Mackay, Renate M Kalnins, Richard J Leventer, Ingrid E Scheffer
Dravet syndrome (DS) is a well-recognized developmental and epileptic encephalopathy associated with SCN1A mutations and 15% mortality by 20 years. Although over half of cases succumb to sudden unexpected death in epilepsy, the cause of death in the remainder is poorly defined. We describe the clinical, radiologic, and pathologic characteristics of a cohort of children with DS and SCN1A mutations who developed fatal cerebral edema causing mass effect after fever-associated status epilepticus. Cases were identified from a review of children with DS enrolled in the Epilepsy Genetics Research Program at The University of Melbourne, Austin Health, who died after fever-associated status epilepticus...
March 22, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317877/transcription-factor-nf-kappa-b-represses-ant1-transcription-and-leads-to-mitochondrial-dysfunctions
#19
Chen Zhang, Hui Jiang, Pin Wang, Heng Liu, Xiulian Sun
Mitochondria are intracellular organelles involved in cell survival and death, and dysfunctions of mitochondria are related to neurodegenerative diseases. As the most abundant protein in the mitochondrial inner membrane, adenine nucleotide translocator 1 (ANT1) plays a critical role in mitochondrial function, including the exchange of adenosine triphosphate/adenosine diphosphate (ATP/ADP) in mitochondria, basal proton leak and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP). Here, we show that ANT1 transcription is regulated by transcription factor NF-kappa B (NF-κB)...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301595/mir-146a-regulates-glucose-induced-upregulation-of-inflammatory-cytokines-extracellular-matrix-proteins-in-the-retina-and-kidney-in-diabetes
#20
Shali Chen, Biao Feng, Anu Alice Thomas, Subrata Chakrabarti
Hyperglycemic damage to the endothelial cells (ECs) leads to increased synthesis of inflammatory cytokines. We have previously shown miR-146a downregulation in ECs and in the tissues of diabetic mice. Here we investigated the role of miR-146a, in the production of specific inflammatory cytokines and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in retina and kidneys in diabetes. We generated an endothelial specific miR-146a overexpressing transgenic mice (TG). We investigated these mice and wild type (WT) controls with or without streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes...
2017: PloS One
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