Read by QxMD icon Read

cortical necrosis

Antonio Manzo, Francesca Benaglio, Barbara Vitolo, Chandra Bortolotto, Francesca Zibera, Monica Todoerti, Claudia Alpini, Serena Bugatti, Roberto Caporali, Fabrizio Calliada, Carlomaurizio Montecucco
BACKGROUND: Emerging research on the mechanisms of disease chronicity in experimental arthritis has included a new focus on the draining lymph node (LN). Here, we combined clinical-serological analyses and power Doppler ultrasound (PDUS) imaging to delineate noninvasively the reciprocal relationship in vivo between the joint and the draining LN in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Forty consecutive patients refractory to conventional synthetic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs were examined through parallel PDUS of the hand-wrist joints and axillary LNs and compared with 20 healthy subjects...
October 22, 2016: Arthritis Research & Therapy
Grazyna Nowak, Diana Takacsova Bakajsova, Judit Megyesi
Previously, we documented that activation of protein kinase C-ε (PKC-ε) mediates mitochondrial dysfunction in cultured renal proximal tubule cells (RPTC). This study tested whether deletion of the PKC-ε decreases dysfunction of renal cortical mitochondria and improves kidney function after renal ischemia. PKC-ε levels in mitochondria of ischemic kidneys increased 24h after ischemia. Complex I- and complex II-coupled state 3 respirations were reduced 44% and 27%, respectively, in wild-type (WT) but unchanged and increased in PKC-ε-deficient (KO) mice after ischemia...
October 19, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Kenneth I Strauss, Kost V Elisevich
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy patients have distinct immune/inflammatory cell profiles and inflammatory mediator levels in the blood. Although the neural origin of inflammatory cells and mediators has been implied, few studies have measured these inflammatory components in the human brain itself. This study examines the brain levels of chemokines (8), cytokines (14), and vascular injury mediators (3) suspected of being altered in epilepsy. METHODS: Soluble protein extracts of fresh frozen resected hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, and temporal cortex from 58 medically refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy subjects and 4 nonepileptic neurosurgical subjects were assayed for 25 inflammation-related mediators using ultrasensitive low-density arrays...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Jason Misurac
Neonatal chronic kidney disease (CKD) occurs with an estimated incidence of 1 in 10,000 live births, whereas the incidence of neonatal end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is about 7.1 per million age-related population. The most frequent etiologies are renal hypoplasia/dysplasia, posterior urethral valves, and other congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract. Other etiologies include polycystic kidney disease, cortical necrosis, and renal vascular thrombosis. Management of CKD focuses primarily on replacing renal functions such as erythropoietin, 1,25-hydroxylation of vitamin D, electrolyte homeostasis/excretion, and, in ESRD, waste product removal...
October 9, 2016: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Oyinbo A Charles, Igbigbi S Patrick, Avwioro O Godwin
BACKGROUND: Alcohol-induced neurodegeneration, a consequence of chronic ethanol exposure, is a neuroadaptation that drives the progression of alcohol use disorder (AUD). Unfortunately, conventional drugs for AUDs do not prevent neurodegeneration as part of their pharmacological repertoire. Multimodal neuroprotective therapeutic agents are hypothesized to have high therapeutic utility in the treatment of central nervous system. Interestingly, nutraceuticals by nature are multimodal in mechanisms of action...
September 2016: Annals of Neurosciences
André Struglics, Marcin Okroj, Per Swärd, Richard Frobell, Tore Saxne, L Stefan Lohmander, Anna M Blom
BACKGROUND: The complement system is suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA), and proinflammatory cytokines may play a role in OA development by inducing proteases. The association between complement factors, cytokines and OA has not been investigated. The aim of the present study was to explore the involvement of the complement system after knee trauma and in OA. METHODS: C4d, C3bBbP and soluble terminal complement complex (sTCC) resulting from complement activation were immunoassayed in synovial fluid from subjects with healthy knees (reference), OA, rheumatoid arthritis (RA; positive control), pyrophosphate arthritis (PPA; positive control) and knee injury; other biomarkers were previously assessed...
October 6, 2016: Arthritis Research & Therapy
Jian Zhan, Wenyi Qin, Ying Zhang, Jing Jiang, Hongmei Ma, Qiongli Li, Yong Luo
BACKGROUND: Zinc finger protein A20 (tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced protein 3) functions as a potent negative feedback inhibitor of the nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB) signaling. It exerts these effects by interrupting the activation of IkB kinase beta (IKKβ), the most critical kinase in upstream of NF-kB, and thereby controlling inflammatory homeostasis. We reported previously that electroacupuncture (EA) could effectively suppress IKKβ activation. However, the mechanism underlying these effects was unclear...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
M Y Al-Shorbagy, Noha N Nassar
In the present study, the role of octreotide (OCT) in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) kindling as well as in acute convulsion models was evaluated. Mice were allocated in groups as (1) control saline; (2) acute PTZ (PTZ-a; 60 mg/kg, i.p.), as a single convulsive dose; and (3) kindled (PTZ-k) receiving nine subconvulsive doses of PTZ (40 mg/kg, i.p.) for 17 days. Groups 4-7 received either valproic acid (VPA) 50 mg/kg or OCT (50 μg/kg, Sandostatin®) 30 min by oral gavage before PTZ-a or PTZ-k. The median seizure stage, latency onset of first stage 4/5 seizures, and incidence of convulsing animals were recorded...
October 1, 2016: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
Paula Pierozan, Helena Biasibetti, Felipe Schmitz, Helena Ávila, Carolina Gonçalves Fernandes, Regina Pessoa-Pureur, Angela T S Wyse
In the present work, we focused on mechanisms of methylmercury (MeHg) toxicity in primary astrocytes and neurons of rats. Cortical astrocytes and neurons exposed to 0.5-5 μM MeHg present a link among morphological alterations, glutathione (GSH) depletion, glutamate dyshomeostasis, and cell death. Disrupted neuronal cytoskeleton was assessed by decreased neurite length and neurite/neuron ratio. Astrocytes presented reorganization of actin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) networks and reduced cytoplasmic area...
September 22, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Jin Hwan Lee, Zheng Z Wei, Wenyuan Cao, Soonmi Won, Xiaohuan Gu, Megan Winter, Thomas A Dix, Ling Wei, Shan Ping Yu
Stroke is a leading threat to human life and health in the US and around the globe, while very few effective treatments are available for stroke patients. Preclinical and clinical studies have shown that therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is a potential treatment for stroke. Using novel neurotensin receptor 1 (NTR1) agonists, we have demonstrated pharmacologically induced hypothermia and protective effects against brain damages after ischemic stroke, hemorrhage stroke, and traumatic brain injury (TBI) in rodent models...
September 19, 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
Lea Pogačnik, Katja Pirc, Inês Palmela, Mihaela Skrt, Kim S Kwang, Dora Brites, Maria Alexandra Brito, Nataša Poklar Ulrih, Rui F M Silva
Natural food sources constitute a promising source of new compounds with neuroprotective properties, once they have the ability to reach the brain. Our aim was to evaluate the brain accessibility of quercetin, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) in relation to their neuroprotective capability. Primary cortical neuron cultures were exposed to oxidative insult in the absence and presence of the selected compounds, and neuroprotection was assessed through evaluation of apoptotic-like and necrotic-like cell death...
September 14, 2016: Brain Research
Miroslav Flieger, Hana Bandouchova, Jan Cerny, Milada Chudíčková, Miroslav Kolarik, Veronika Kovacova, Natália Martínková, Petr Novák, Ondřej Šebesta, Eva Stodůlková, Jiri Pikula
Pathogenic and non-pathogenic related microorganisms differ in secondary metabolite production. Here we show that riboflavin overproduction by a fungal pathogen and its hyperaccumulation in affected host tissue exacerbates a skin infection to necrosis. In white-nose syndrome (WNS) skin lesions caused by Pseudogymnoascus destructans, maximum riboflavin concentrations reached up to 815 μg ml(-1), indicating bioaccumulation and lack of excretion. We found that high riboflavin concentrations are cytotoxic under conditions specific for hibernation, affect bats' primary fibroblasts and induce cell detachment, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, polymerization of cortical actin, and cell necrosis...
2016: Scientific Reports
King-Chuen Wu, Ka-Shun Cheng, Yu-Wen Wang, Yuh-Fung Chen, Kar-Lok Wong, Tzu-Hui Su, Paul Chan, Yuk-Man Leung
Cells switch to anaerobic glycolysis when there is a lack of oxygen during brain ischemia. Extracellular pH thus drops and such acidosis causes neuronal cell death. The fate of astrocytes, mechanical and functional partners of neurons, in acidosis is less studied. In this report we investigated the signaling in acidosis-challenged rat cortical astrocytes and whether these signals were related to mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death. Exposure to acidic pH (6.8, 6.0) caused Ca(2+) release and influx, p38 MAPK activation and Akt inhibition...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Qing-Yu Fan, Yong Zhou, Minghua Zhang, Baoan Ma, Tongtao Yang, Hua Long, Zhe Yu, Zhao Li
BACKGROUND: The current application of limb salvage process has some unsolved problems, such as prosthesis loosening, which severely limits the function of the preserved limbs. Innovative approaches are needed to further improve functional outcome. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Instead of en-bloc resection of tumor-bearing bone, it is dissected from the surrounding normal tissues, followed by devitalizing the bone segment and the extra-cortical bulk by microwave induced hyperthermia in situ through the antenna array...
2016: SpringerPlus
Olivia A Skrobot, Johannes Attems, Margaret Esiri, Tibor Hortobágyi, James W Ironside, Rajesh N Kalaria, Andrew King, George A Lammie, David Mann, James Neal, Yoav Ben-Shlomo, Patrick G Kehoe, Seth Love
There are no generally accepted protocols for post-mortem assessment in cases of suspected vascular cognitive impairment. Neuropathologists from seven UK centres have collaborated in the development of a set of vascular cognitive impairment neuropathology guidelines (VCING), representing a validated consensus approach to the post-mortem assessment and scoring of cerebrovascular disease in relation to vascular cognitive impairment. The development had three stages: (i) agreement on a sampling protocol and scoring criteria, through a series of Delphi method surveys; (ii) determination of inter-rater reliability for each type of pathology in each region sampled (Gwet's AC2 coefficient); and (iii) empirical testing and validation of the criteria, by blinded post-mortem assessment of brain tissue from 113 individuals (55 to 100 years) without significant neurodegenerative disease who had had formal cognitive assessments within 12 months of death...
September 2, 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Luwen Zhu, Tao Ye, Qiang Tang, Yan Wang, Xiaojun Wu, Hongyu Li, Yunfei Jiang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the influence of exercise preconditioning (EP) on the activity of the toll-like receptor (TLR)4/nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling pathway in a rat model of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) inflammatory injury. METHODS: Ischemia was induced in rats using transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) after 3 weeks of EP. Fifty-four rats were divided into sham, MCAO, and EP+MCAO groups. Following the induction of cerebral I/R injury, rats were scored for neurological deficits...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Josef Finsterer, Salma Majid Wakil
PURPOSE: Stroke-like episodes (SLEs) are a hallmark of various mitochondrial disorders, in particular MELAS syndrome. SLEs manifest with vasogenic oedema (DWI and ADC hyperintensity) or partial cytotoxic oedema (DWI hyperintensity, ADC hypointensity) in the acute and subacute stage, and with gyriform T1-hyperintensity (cortical necrosis) in the chronic stage. PRINCIPAL RESULTS: SLEs must be clearly distinguished from ischaemic stroke, since management of these two entities is different...
November 2016: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Shiori Maeda, Keita Sasaki, Sebok Kumar Halder, Wakako Fujita, Hiroshi Ueda
Prothymosin alpha (ProTα) suppresses stress-induced necrosis of cultured cortical neurons. As neuroprotection alone could not explain the long-lasting protective actions against cerebral ischemia by ProTα, we further examined whether ProTα, in addition to neuroprotective effects, has other anti-ischemic activities. When recombinant mouse ProTα (rmProTα) at 0.3 mg/kg was intravenously (i.v.) given 2 h after the start of tMCAO, all mice survived for more than 14 days. In evaluation of CD31- and tomato lectin-labeling as well as IgG and Evans blue leakage, rmProTα treatment (0...
September 2016: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
N Raveendran, K Gandhi, A Dsouza, D Prasad, V Malhotra, D Agrawal, P Beniwal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Indian Journal of Nephrology
J Prakash, P Pant, S Prakash, M Sivasankar, R Vohra, P K Doley, L K Pandey, U Singh
The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) in pregnancy is declining in developing countries but still remains a major cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The aim of the study was to analyze the changing trends in pregnancy related AKI (PR-AKI) over a period of thirty-three years. Clinical characteristics of PR-AKI with respect to incidence, etiology and fetal and maternal outcomes were compared in three study periods, namely 1982-1991,1992-2002 and 2003-2014. The incidence of PR-AKI decreased to 10...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Nephrology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"