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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775875/the-reduced-level-of-growth-factors-in-an-animal-model-of-depression-is-accompanied-by-regulated-necrosis-in-the-frontal-cortex-but-not-in-the-hippocampus
#1
Mateusz Kucharczyk, Anna Kurek, Bartosz Pomierny, Jan Detka, Mariusz Papp, Katarzyna Tota, Bogusława Budziszewska
In the present study, we asked if the different types of stress alter neuronal plasticity markers distinctively in the frontal cortex (FCx) and in the hippocampus (Hp). To do so, we implemented various stress regimens to analyze changes evoked in these rat brain structures. We utilized several molecular techniques, including western blot, ELISA, quantitative RT-PCR, and various biochemical assays, to examine a range of proteins and subjected rats to behavioral tests to evaluate potential maladaptive alterations...
May 14, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772993/shoulder-lesion-in-a-69-year-old-woman
#2
Andrew J Hayden, Srinivas Kolla, Adele L Boskey, Steven Burekhovich, Chuanyong Lu, Michael Stracher, Aditya V Maheshwari
Milwaukee Shoulder Syndrome (MSS) is a painful progressive arthropathy in which hydroxyapatite crystal deposition in synovial tissue induces lysosomal release of collagenase and neutral proteases. These enzymes are destructive to periarticular tissue, including the synovium, articular cartilage, rotator cuff muscles, and the intrasynovial cortical bone. MSS predominantly occurring in women (90%) over the age of 70 years of age with a clinical history marked by recurrent joint effusions and pain, which classically worsens at night...
2018: Journal of Long-term Effects of Medical Implants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765306/microglial-activation-is-modulated-by-captopril-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-studies
#3
Keren Asraf, Nofar Torika, Ron N Apte, Sigal Fleisher-Berkovich
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is an important peripheral system involved in homeostasis modulation, with angiotensin II (Ang II) serving as the main effector hormone. The main enzyme involved in Ang II formation is angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). ACE inhibitors (ACEIs) such as captopril (Cap) are predominantly used for the management of hypertension. All of the components of the RAS have also been identified in brain. Centrally located hormones such as Ang II can induce glial inflammation. Moreover, in Alzheimer's disease (AD) models, where glial inflammation occurs and is thought to contribute to the propagation of the disease, increased levels of Ang II and ACE have been detected...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749917/a-novel-neural-prosthesis-providing-long-term-electrocorticography-recording-and-cortical-stimulation-for-epilepsy-and-brain-computer-interface
#4
Pantaleo Romanelli, Marco Piangerelli, David Ratel, Christophe Gaude, Thomas Costecalde, Cosimo Puttilli, Mauro Picciafuoco, Alim Benabid, Napoleon Torres
OBJECTIVE Wireless technology is a novel tool for the transmission of cortical signals. Wireless electrocorticography (ECoG) aims to improve the safety and diagnostic gain of procedures requiring invasive localization of seizure foci and also to provide long-term recording of brain activity for brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). However, no wireless devices aimed at these clinical applications are currently available. The authors present the application of a fully implantable and externally rechargeable neural prosthesis providing wireless ECoG recording and direct cortical stimulation (DCS)...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746630/ripk3-mlkl-mediated-neuronal-necroptosis-modulates-the-m1-m2-polarization-of-microglia-macrophages-in-the-ischemic-cortex
#5
Jiping Yang, Youyi Zhao, Li Zhang, Hong Fan, Chuchu Qi, Kun Zhang, Xinyu Liu, Lin Fei, Siwei Chen, Mengmeng Wang, Fang Kuang, Yazhou Wang, Shengxi Wu
Cell death and subsequent inflammation are 2 key pathological changes occurring in cerebral ischemia. Active microglia/macrophages play a double-edged role depending on the balance of their M1/M2 phenotypes. Necrosis is the predominant type of cell death following ischemia. However, how necrotic cells modulate the M1/M2 polarization of microglia/macrophages remains poorly investigated. Here, we reported that ischemia induces a rapid RIPK3/MLKL-mediated neuron-dominated necroptosis, a type of programmed necrosis...
May 9, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735631/renal-specific-silencing-of-tnf-tumor-necrosis-factor-unmasks-salt-dependent-increases-in-blood-pressure-via-an-nkcc2a-na-k-2cl-cotransporter-isoform-a-dependent-mechanism
#6
Shoujin Hao, Mary Hao, Nicholas R Ferreri
We tested the hypothesis that TNF (tumor necrosis factor)-α produced within the kidney and acting on the renal tubular system is part of a regulatory mechanism that attenuates increases in blood pressure in response to high salt intake. Intrarenal administration of a lentivirus construct, which specifically silenced TNF in the kidney, did not affect baseline blood pressure. However, blood pressure increased significantly 1 day after mice with intrarenal silencing of TNF ingested 1% NaCl in the drinking water...
May 7, 2018: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722472/fulminant-group-a-streptococcal-infection-without-gangrene-in-the-extremities-analysis-of-five-autopsy-cases
#7
Shu Kato, Motoi Yanazaki, Kino Hayashi, Fumiko Satoh, Ichiro Isobe, Yutaka Tsutsumi
Five autopsy cases of fulminant group A streptococcal infection without gangrene in the extremities are presented. Clinical course of the fulminant illness was short (2-4 days). One pathological autopsy case was aged (86-years-old), and hemorrhagic cystitis was observed. The other four forensic autopsy cases were young (24-38 years-old) with the mean age of 32, and the primary infective lesions were located in the postpartum endometrium, tonsil and bronchus (2 cases). Systemic coccal dissemination with poor neutrophilic reaction was seen in two of five cases...
May 3, 2018: Pathology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704015/reverse-rim-sign-acute-renal-cortical-necrosis
#8
REVIEW
Yassar Shiekh, Mohd Ilyas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 27, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686269/lysosomal-damage-after-spinal-cord-injury-causes-accumulation-of-ripk1-and-ripk3-proteins-and-potentiation-of-necroptosis
#9
Shuo Liu, Yun Li, Harry M C Choi, Chinmoy Sarkar, Eugene Y Koh, Junfang Wu, Marta M Lipinski
Necroptosis, a regulated necrosis pathway mediated by the receptor-interacting protein kinases 1 and 3 (RIPK1 and RIPK3), is induced following spinal cord injury (SCI) and thought to contribute to neuronal and glial cell death. However, mechanisms leading to activation of necroptosis after SCI remain unclear. We have previously shown that autophagy, a catabolic pathway facilitating degradation of cytoplasmic proteins and organelles in a lysosome-dependent manner, is inhibited following SCI in rats. Our current data confirm that inhibition of autophagy also occurs after thoracic contusive SCI in the mouse model, as indicated by accumulation of both the autophagosome marker, LC3-II and autophagy cargo protein, p62/SQSTM1...
April 23, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683870/isosteviol-sodium-injection-improves-outcomes-by-modulating-tlrs-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-dependent-inflammatory-responses-following-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rats
#10
Jie Zan, Hao Zhang, Min-Yi Lu, Hui-Min Beng, Kai-Lun Zhong, Xiao-Ou Sun, Wen Tan
Previous studies have shown that isosteviol sodium (STVNa) protects against permanent cerebral ischemia injury by inhibition of the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB)-mediated inflammatory responses. Overwhelming evidence shows that toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the upstream regulators of NF-κB. On the basis of the similarity of the pathology caused by traumatic brain injury (TBI) and stroke, we speculated that STVNa may have a therapeutic effect against TBI through regulation of the TLRs/NF-κB signaling-mediated inflammatory response...
April 20, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668250/the-effects-of-baicalein-on-cortical-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-and-the-intestinal-microbiome-in-senescence-accelerated-mouse-prone-8
#11
Li Gao, Jia-Qi Li, Yu-Zhi Zhou, Xudong Huang, Xue-Mei Qin, Guan-Hua Du
Baicalein, a flavonoid derived from the roots of Scutellariae baicalensis Georgi, has shown health benefits for an array of human diseases including dementia. The senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) strain is extensively used as a senile dementia model. To further investigate the effects of baicalein in SAMP8 mice, behavioral testing, biochemical detection and gut microbiota analysis were performed. The results demonstrated that treatment with baicalein ameliorated the senescence status of the SAMP8 mice, as manifested by reducing the grading score of senescence...
April 18, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659397/scintigraphic-and-sonographic-findings-of-subcapsular-cortical-necrosis-in-a-transplanted-kidney
#12
Bulent Yazici, Emrah Gunay, Aysegül Akgün, Sait Sen, Suha Sureyya Ozbek
Renal transplant scintigraphy, performed in a 23-year-old man who had renal graft from a living donor, showed nearly normal perfusion and moderately low function of the graft. But the margins of the graft were blurred, and it was interestingly appearing enlarged late in the study. Ultrasound demonstrated a hypoechoic rim surrounding the whole kidney. Biopsy revealed necrosis besides normal cortical tissue. Necrosis was thought to be limited to the subcapsular cortical area. It should be considered that these scintigraphic findings could be due to greatly reduced and delayed perfusion of edematous subcapsular necrotic area of the graft even in normal perfusion images...
April 13, 2018: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653382/acute-exposure-of-white-tailed-deer-cortical-bone-to-staphylococcus-aureus-did-not-result-in-reduced-bone-stiffness
#13
Ariel Nicole Kunde, Victoria Jane Frost, Meir Max Barak
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is the main source of osteomyelitis in adults. The end-result of untreated osteomyelitis is bone necrosis and distraction of bone structure. While bone tissue can heal and remodel its structure to ameliorate its mechanical properties, so far no study has tested the mechanical properties of cortical bone tissue exposed to S. aureus. With the increase usage of bone banks as a source of bone graft supply, it is important to screen for any possible pathology that may affect the bone graft success to function normally in the receiving patient...
April 4, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642394/neuroprotective-effects-of-platonin-a-therapeutic-immunomodulating-medicine-on-traumatic-brain-injury-in-mice-after-controlled-cortical-impact
#14
Ting-Lin Yen, Chao-Chien Chang, Chi-Li Chung, Wen-Chin Ko, Chih-Hao Yang, Cheng-Ying Hsieh
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide and leads to persistent cognitive, sensory, motor dysfunction, and emotional disorders. TBI-caused primary injury results in structural damage to brain tissues. Following the primary injury, secondary injuries which are accompanied by neuroinflammation, microglial activation, and additional cell death subsequently occur. Platonin, a cyanine photosensitizing dye, has been used to treat trauma, ulcers, and some types of acute inflammation...
April 6, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603737/clinical-presentation-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging-findings-in-11-dogs-with-eosinophilic-meningoencephalitis-of-unknown-aetiology
#15
T J A Cardy, I Cornelis
OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical presentation, MRI findings and outcome in dogs with eosinophilic meningoencephalitis of unknown origin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dogs were included in this retrospective study if they had complete medical records, complete neurological examination, MR imaging, cerebellomedullary cerebrospinal fluid sample consistent with eosinophilic pleocytosis and negative infectious disease testing. RESULTS: Eleven dogs were included with a median age of 22·0 months (range 7·6 to 92·0 months)...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600800/hypertonic-saline-alleviates-brain-edema-after-traumatic-brain-injury-via-downregulation-of-aquaporin-4-in-rats
#16
Jian Yin, Haixiao Zhang, Huai Chen, Qingping Lv, Xuhong Jin
BACKGROUND Hypertonic saline (HS) has been successfully used for treatment of various forms of brain edema. Decreased expression of aquaporin (AQP)4 and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-a and interleukin (IL)-1b have been linked to edema pathogenesis. This study examined the effect of 3% HS on brain edema in a rat model of traumatic brain injury (TBI). MATERIAL AND METHODS Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to TBI induced by a controlled cortical impactor. The HS group was injected with 3% NaCl until the end of the study period...
March 30, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593006/purpura-fulminans-causing-acute-cortical-necrosis-in-postpartum-period
#17
Mohan Kumar, Kundan Mishra, Vikas Suri, Savita Kumari
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 28, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29592973/cortical-laminar-necrosis-in-a-case-of-migrainous-cerebral-infarction
#18
Vikram Khardenavis, Davala Krishna Karthik, Sharvari Kulkarni, Anirudda Deshpande
We report a 27-year-old woman, a known case of classical migraine headache, on oral contraceptive pills. She had a severe episode of migraine with visual aura attack, which continued late into the night. The next early morning, her headache persisted and she developed abrupt onset of dysarthria, right hemiparaesthesias. She attributed symptoms to her long-standing headache problem, and hence did not seek medical help for the next two weeks. The symptoms persisted despite her headache subsiding over the next 24 hours...
March 28, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557530/neuroprotective-efficiency-of-mangifera-indica-leaves-extract-on-cadmium-induced-cortical-damage-in-rats
#19
Naif E Al Omairi, Omyma K Radwan, Yahea A Alzahrani, Rami B Kassab
Due to the high ability of cadmium to cross the blood-brain barrier, cadmium (Cd) causes severe neurological damages. Hence, the purpose of this study was to investigate the possible protective effect of Mangifera indica leaf extract (MLE) against Cd-induced neurotoxicity. Rats were divided into eight groups. Group 1 served as vehicle control group, groups 2, 3 and 4 received MLE (100, 200, 300 mg /kg b.wt, respectively). Group 5 was treated with CdCl2 (5 mg/kg b.wt). Groups 6, 7 and 8 were co-treated with MLE and CdCl2 using the same doses...
March 20, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552684/n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-prevent-d-galactose-induced-cognitive-deficits-in-prediabetic-rats
#20
Yu-Ru Guo, Hsiu-Chuan Lee, Yun-Chun Lo, Shao-Chuan Yu, Shih-Yi Huang
Nutritional deficit of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is closely related to cognitive impairment and depression in later life. Cognitive impairment and depression lead to comorbidities, such as metabolic syndrome, in elderly people. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of dietary n-3 PUFAs on cognition and depressive-like behavior in an accelerated senescence rat model with prediabetic status. Rats were cotreated with d-gal and sucrose solution for 7 months and then fed fish-oil- or flaxseed-oil-rich diets for 3 months...
March 19, 2018: Food & Function
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