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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339906/interstitial-fibrosis-scored-on-whole-slide-digital-imaging-of-kidney-biopsies-is-a-predictor-of-outcome-in-proteinuric-glomerulopathies
#1
Laura H Mariani, Sebastian Martini, Laura Barisoni, Pietro A Canetta, Jonathan P Troost, Jeffrey B Hodgin, Matthew Palmer, Avi Z Rosenberg, Kevin V Lemley, Hui-Ping Chien, Jarcy Zee, Abigail Smith, Gerald B Appel, Howard Trachtman, Stephen M Hewitt, Matthias Kretzler, Serena M Bagnasco
Background.: Interstitial fibrosis (IF), tubular atrophy (TA) and interstitial inflammation (II) are known determinants of progression of renal disease. Standardized quantification of these features could add value to current classification of glomerulopathies. Methods.: We studied 315 participants in the Nephrotic Syndrome Study Network (NEPTUNE) study, including biopsy-proven minimal change disease (MCD = 98), focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS = 121), membranous nephropathy (MN = 59) and IgA nephropathy (IgAN = 37)...
February 27, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330972/fatal-cerebral-edema-with-status-epilepticus-in-children-with-dravet-syndrome-report-of-5-cases
#2
Kenneth A Myers, Jacinta M McMahon, Simone A Mandelstam, Mark T Mackay, Renate M Kalnins, Richard J Leventer, Ingrid E Scheffer
Dravet syndrome (DS) is a well-recognized developmental and epileptic encephalopathy associated with SCN1A mutations and 15% mortality by 20 years. Although over half of cases succumb to sudden unexpected death in epilepsy, the cause of death in the remainder is poorly defined. We describe the clinical, radiologic, and pathologic characteristics of a cohort of children with DS and SCN1A mutations who developed fatal cerebral edema causing mass effect after fever-associated status epilepticus. Cases were identified from a review of children with DS enrolled in the Epilepsy Genetics Research Program at The University of Melbourne, Austin Health, who died after fever-associated status epilepticus...
March 22, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317877/transcription-factor-nf-kappa-b-represses-ant1-transcription-and-leads-to-mitochondrial-dysfunctions
#3
Chen Zhang, Hui Jiang, Pin Wang, Heng Liu, Xiulian Sun
Mitochondria are intracellular organelles involved in cell survival and death, and dysfunctions of mitochondria are related to neurodegenerative diseases. As the most abundant protein in the mitochondrial inner membrane, adenine nucleotide translocator 1 (ANT1) plays a critical role in mitochondrial function, including the exchange of adenosine triphosphate/adenosine diphosphate (ATP/ADP) in mitochondria, basal proton leak and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP). Here, we show that ANT1 transcription is regulated by transcription factor NF-kappa B (NF-κB)...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301595/mir-146a-regulates-glucose-induced-upregulation-of-inflammatory-cytokines-extracellular-matrix-proteins-in-the-retina-and-kidney-in-diabetes
#4
Shali Chen, Biao Feng, Anu Alice Thomas, Subrata Chakrabarti
Hyperglycemic damage to the endothelial cells (ECs) leads to increased synthesis of inflammatory cytokines. We have previously shown miR-146a downregulation in ECs and in the tissues of diabetic mice. Here we investigated the role of miR-146a, in the production of specific inflammatory cytokines and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in retina and kidneys in diabetes. We generated an endothelial specific miR-146a overexpressing transgenic mice (TG). We investigated these mice and wild type (WT) controls with or without streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298566/ultrasound-evaluation-of-the-entheses-in-daily-clinical-practice-during-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-blocking-therapy-in-patients-with-ankylosing-spondylitis
#5
Fréke Wink, George A Bruyn, Fiona Maas, Ed N Griep, Eveline van der Veer, Hendrika Bootsma, Elisabeth Brouwer, Suzanne Arends, Anneke Spoorenberg
OBJECTIVE: To assess structural and inflammatory ultrasound (US) lesions of entheses in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients with active disease and to evaluate inflammatory lesions after 6 months of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) blocking therapy, in daily clinical practice. METHODS: Consecutive patients with AS were clinically evaluated and underwent US examination of 9 bilateral entheses before and after 6 months of TNF-α blocking therapy. US examination included the following as inflammatory lesions: bone erosions/cortical irregularities, enthesophytes, calcifications as structural lesions; adjacent bursitis, effusion, increased tendon hypoechogenicity or thickness; and positive power Doppler (PD) signal...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296984/implant-stability-and-bone-characteristics-in-free-fibula-flaps-used-for-jaw-reconstruction-a-prospective-cohort-study
#6
Vinay V Kumar, Ullash Kumar, Vijay Pillai, Vinotha Ponnusamy, Bilal Al-Nawas, Moni A Kuriakose
PURPOSE: The primary objective of this prospective cohort study was to evaluate primary and secondary implant stability values of implants placed into healed free fibula-reconstructed mandibles. The secondary objective was to investigate whether a correlation existed between primary implant stability and the quantity of cortical bone-implant contact and of cortical fibular bone in contact with the implants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study participants are patients enrolled in a registered trial (No...
March 17, 2017: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293064/involvement-of-toll-like-receptor-2-signaling-in-secondary-injury-during-experimental-diffuse-axonal-injury-in-rats
#7
Yonglin Zhao, Junjie Zhao, Ming Zhang, Yahui Zhao, Jiaxi Li, Xudong Ma, Tingqin Huang, Honggang Pang, Bo Wang, Jinning Song
Treatment of diffuse axonal injury (DAI) remains challenging in clinical practice due to the unclear pathophysiological mechanism. Uncontrolled, excessive inflammation is one of the most recognized mechanisms that contribute to the secondary injury after DAI. Toll like receptor 2 (TLR2) is highlighted for the initiation of a vicious self-propagating inflammatory circle. However, the role and detailed mechanism of TLR2 in secondary injury is yet mostly unknown. In this study, we demonstrated the expression of TLR2 levels in cortex, corpus callosum, and internal capsule and the localization of TLR2 in neurons and glial cells in rat DAI models...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274274/a-novel-form-of-necrosis-triad-occurs-in-human-huntington-s-disease
#8
Emiko Yamanishi, Kazuko Hasegawa, Kyota Fujita, Shizuko Ichinose, Saburo Yagishita, Miho Murata, Kazuhiko Tagawa, Takumi Akashi, Yoshinobu Eishi, Hitoshi Okazawa
We previously reported transcriptional repression-induced atypical cell death of neuron (TRIAD), a new type of necrosis that is mainly regulated by Hippo pathway signaling and distinct from necroptosis regulated by RIP1/3 pathway. Here, we examined the ultrastructural and biochemical features of neuronal cell death in the brains of human HD patients in parallel with the similar analyses using mutant Htt-knock-in (Htt-KI) mice. LATS1 kinase, the critical regulator and marker of TRIAD, is actually activated in cortical neurons of postmortem human HD and of Htt-KI mouse brains, while apoptosis promoter kinase Plk1 was inactivated in human HD brains...
March 8, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271402/cortical-bilateral-adaptations-in-rats-submitted-to-focal-cerebral-ischemia-emphasis-on-glial-metabolism
#9
Yasmine Nonose, Pedro E Gewehr, Roberto F Almeida, Jussemara S da Silva, Bruna Bellaver, Leo A M Martins, Eduardo R Zimmer, Samuel Greggio, Gianina T Venturin, Jaderson C Da Costa, André Quincozes-Santos, Luc Pellerin, Diogo O de Souza, Adriano M de Assis
This study was performed to evaluate the bilateral effects of focal permanent ischemia (FPI) on glial metabolism in the cerebral cortex. Two and 9 days after FPI induction, we analyze [(18)F]FDG metabolism by micro-PET, astrocyte morphology and reactivity by immunohistochemistry, cytokines and trophic factors by ELISA, glutamate transporters by RT-PCR, monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) by western blot, and substrate uptake and oxidation by ex vivo slices model. The FPI was induced surgically by thermocoagulation of the blood in the pial vessels of the motor and sensorimotor cortices in adult (90 days old) male Wistar rats...
March 7, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258518/adrenocortical-carcinoma-arising-in-an-adrenal-rest-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#10
Kristine M Cornejo, Henrietta A Afari, Peter M Sadow
Carcinomas arising from embryonic adrenal rests are rare with only a handful of reported cases. We report a case of an adrenocortical carcinoma arising from an adrenal rest located between the bladder and prostate in a 51 year-old man. The patient presented following a year of rectal pain and constipation. Computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a 9 cm pelvic mass that appeared to arise from the soft tissue between the bladder and prostate, with displacement of the organs and narrowing of the rectal lumen, suspected to be a sarcoma...
March 3, 2017: Endocrine Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241053/release-of-hiv-1-sequestered-in-the-vesicles-of-oral-and-genital-mucosal-epithelial-cells-by-epithelial-lymphocyte-interaction
#11
Aizezi Yasen, Rossana Herrera, Kristina Rosbe, Kathy Lien, Sharof M Tugizov
Oropharyngeal mucosal epithelia of fetuses/neonates/infants and the genital epithelia of adults play a critical role in HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission and sexual transmission of virus, respectively. To study the mechanisms of HIV-1 transmission through mucosal epithelium, we established polarized tonsil, cervical and foreskin epithelial cells. Analysis of HIV-1 transmission through epithelial cells showed that approximately 0.05% of initially inoculated virions transmigrated via epithelium. More than 90% of internalized virions were sequestered in the endosomes of epithelial cells, including multivesicular bodies (MVBs) and vacuoles...
February 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239640/serum-il-8-is-a-marker-of-white-matter-hyperintensities-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Yanan Zhu, Yuek Ling Chai, Saima Hilal, M Kamran Ikram, Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian, Boon-Seng Wong, Christopher P Chen, Mitchell K P Lai
INTRODUCTION: Neuroinflammation and cerebrovascular disease (CeVD) have been implicated in cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease (AD). The present study aimed to examine serum inflammatory markers in preclinical stages of dementia and in AD, as well as to investigate their associations with concomitant CeVD. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional case-control study including 96 AD, 140 cognitively impaired no dementia (CIND), and 79 noncognitively impaired participants...
2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197987/effects-of-frutalin-on-early-follicle-morphology-ultrastructure-and-gene-expression-in-cultured-goat-ovarian-cortical-tissue
#13
Maria A A Soares, José J N Costa, Gisvani L Vasconcelos, Regislane P Ribeiro, José C Souza, André L C Silva, Robert Van den Hurk, José R V Silva
Frutalin is a galactose-binding lectin that has an irreversible cytotoxic effect on HeLa cervical cancer cells, by inducing apoptosis and inhibiting cell proliferation. It was previously shown that after in vitro incubation, frutalin is internalized into HeLa cells nucleus, which indicates that frutalin apoptosis-inducing activity might be linked with its nuclear localization. Considering that drugs commonly used for cancer treatment have a deleterious effect on germ cells, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of frutalin on the activation, survival, ultrastructure and gene expression in follicles cultured within ovarian tissue...
February 15, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188764/modulation-of-cerebral-rage-expression-following-nitric-oxide-synthase-inhibition-in-rats-subjected-to-focal-cerebral-ischemia
#14
Rosaria Greco, Chiara Demartini, Anna Maria Zanaboni, Fabio Blandini, Diana Amantea, Cristina Tassorelli
The receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) is a key mediator of neuroinflammation following cerebral ischemia. Nitric oxide (NO) plays a dualistic role in cerebral ischemia, depending on whether it originates from neuronal, inducible or endothelial synthase. Although a dynamic interplay between RAGE and NO pathways exists, its relevance in ischemic stroke has not been investigated. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of the NO synthase (NOS) inhibition on RAGE expression in rats subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAo)...
April 5, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182045/thrombotic-microangiopathy-an-unusual-cause-of-renal-failure-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#15
R Sakthirajan, J Dhanapriya, T Dineshkumar, N Gopalakrishnan, S Murugan, T Balasubramaniyan
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is one of the commonest rheumatological diseases. Renal involvement is not common but can occur as a result of chronic inflammation as part of disease process or drug toxicity. Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is characterized by microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and organ failure of variable severity. Only a few cases of TMA in patients with RA were reported to date. We describe a 45-year-old female patient with RA who presented with oliguria and edema. Renal biopsy showed TMA with patchy cortical necrosis...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162180/-an-analysis-of-clinical-characteristics-of-twelve-cases-of-mesenteric-panniculitis
#16
Q W Jiang, F D Wang, W Z Wang, X Wu, H J Shu, J N Li, A M Yang, J M Qian, D Wu
Objective: Mesenteric panniculitis is an idiopathic, uncommon disease involving the adipose tissue of mesentery. The etiology, diagnosis and treatment are still unnoticed. We thus reported a case series to improve the understanding of this rare disorder. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 12 patients with mesenteric panniculitis including manifestation, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. Results: We found a male predominance (M∶F 3∶1) with the median age of 58 years old at diagnosis...
February 1, 2017: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145995/dynamic-alterations-of-the-levels-of-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-interleukin-6-and-interleukin-1%C3%AE-in-rat-primary-motor-cortex-during-transhemispheric-functional-reorganization-after-contralateral-seventh-cervical-spinal-nerve-root-transfer-following-brachial-plexus
#17
Ming-Jie Yang, Shuang Li, Chen-Song Yang, Xu-Jia Wang, Shi-Min Chang, Gui-Xin Sun
The transfer of a contralateral healthy seventh cervical spinal nerve root (cC7) to the recipient nerve in the injured side is considered a reliable and effective procedure for restoration of the physiological functions of an injured hand after brachial plexus root avulsion injury (BPAI). Growing evidence shows that the transhemispheric cortical reorganization is induced after cC7 nerve transfer surgery. However, little is known about the underlying molecular mechanism. Proinflammatory cytokines reportedly play an important role in the neural plasticity...
January 31, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143446/kikuchi-fujimoto-disease-histiocytic-necrotizing-lymphadenitis-with-atypical-encephalitis-and-painful-testitis-a-case-report
#18
Hidenori Kido, Osamu Kano, Asami Hamai, Hiroyuki Masuda, Yutaka Fuchinoue, Masaaki Nemoto, Chiaki Arai, Teppei Takeda, Fumihito Yamabe, Toshihiro Tai, Mizuki Kasahara, Kenichi Suzuki, Nobuyuki Shiraga, Sota Sadamoto, Megumi Wakayama, Yukitoshi Takahashi, Yasuo Iwasaki, Kazutoshi Shibuya, Yoshihisa Urita
BACKGROUND: Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease is a self-limited clinicopathologic entity that is increasingly recognized worldwide. Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease is characterized by cervical lymphadenopathy occurring in young adults. Neurologic involvement is rare, and testitis directly caused by Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease has not yet been reported. CASE PRESENTATION: A 19-year-old man was brought to our clinic with complaints of fever, headache, fatigue, and left lower quadrant pain that had persisted for 3 weeks...
February 1, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139520/effect-of-15-deoxy-%C3%AE-12-14-prostaglandin-j2nanocapsules-on-inflammation-and-bone-regeneration-in-a-rat-bone-defect-model
#19
Qi Tang, Li-Li Chen, Fen Wei, Wei-Lian Sun, Li-Hong Lei, Pei-Hui Ding, Jing-Yi Tan, Xiao-Tao Chen, Yan-Min Wu
BACKGROUND: 15-Deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2), one of the major metabolites from prostaglandin D2 in arachidonic acid metabolic pathway, has potential anti-inflammatory properties. The objective of this study was to explore the effects of 15d-PGJ2-loaded poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) nanocapsules (15d-PGJ2-NC) on inflammatory responses and bone regeneration in local bone defect. METHODS: The study was conducted on 96 Wistar rats from June 2014 to March 2016...
February 5, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135014/biocompatibility-bone-healing-and-safety-evaluation-in-rabbits-with-an-illuminoss-bone-stabilization-system
#20
Amanda L McSweeney, Brett G Zani, Rose Baird, James R L Stanley, Alison Hayward, Peter M Markham, Gregory A Kopia, Elazer R Edelman, Robert Rabiner
Bone healing, biocompatibility, and safety employing the IlluminOss System (IS), comprised of an inflatable balloon filled with photopolymerizable liquid monomer, was evaluated in New Zealand white rabbits. Successful bone healing and callus remodeling over 6 months was demonstrated radiologically and histologically with IS implants in fenestrated femoral cortices. Biocompatibility was demonstrated with IS implants in brushed, flushed femoral intramedullary spaces, eliciting no adverse, local, or systemic responses and with similar biocompatibility to K-wires in contralateral femurs up to 1 year post-implant...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
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