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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878274/regulatory-t-cells-exhibit-neuroprotective-effect-in-a-mouse-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#1
Yunhu Yu, Fang Cao, Qishan Ran, Xiaochuan Sun
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major health and socioeconomic problem as it is associated with high rates of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been reported to reduce inflammatory response in several diseases, including myasthenia gravis, viral myocarditis and cerebral infarction. The present study investigated the role of Tregs in mediating neuro‑protective effects in a mouse model of TBI. Initially, Treg levels were determined, and compared between the controlled cortical impact (CCI) model for moderate TBI and the sham group, by using flow cytometry and ELISA...
November 18, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846860/purtscher-s-retinopathy-and-renal-cortical-necrosis-two-rare-vaso-occlusive-complications-in-a-patient-with-acute-pancreatitis-a-case-report
#2
Wasim Md Mohosin Ul Haque, Mehruba Alam Ananna, Hasna Fahmima Haque, Muhammad Abdur Rahim, Tabassum Samad, Sarwar Iqbal
BACKGROUND: Purtscher's retinopathy and renal cortical necrosis are two rare vaso-occlusive complications of acute pancreatitis. Purtscher's retinopathy causes sudden impairment of vision, which was first reported in a patient with head trauma. Subsequently, it was also reported as a complication of acute pancreatitis and few other clinical conditions. Acute pancreatitis also rarely causes renal cortical necrosis leading to acute kidney injury. However, the simultaneous presence of both complications is rarely reported...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833873/pre-operative-indicators-of-ossicular-necrosis-in-tubotympanic-csom
#3
Celina Lovely Jayakumar, Leeberk R Inbaraj, George J O Pinto
Ossicular necrosis and erosion is commonly seen in CSOM with cholesteatoma but can also occur in tubotympanic CSOM. This usually comes as a surprise during surgery. Preoperative knowledge of ossicular necrosis helps the surgeon to be better prepared for the surgery and ossicular construction if required. Hence, this study is intended to identify the pre-operative indicators of ossicular necrosis. This cross sectional study was conducted in Father Muller Medical College in Mangalore. Sixty nine consecutive patients with tubotympanic CSOM underwent a detailed clinical examination with pure tone audiometry and subsequently tympanoplasty with or without cortical mastoidectomy...
December 2016: Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822778/in-vivo-effects-of-radiofrequency-ablation-on-long-bones-and-the-repair-process-in-swine-models
#4
Wei Zhao, Jin-Zhou Chen, Ji-Hong Hu, Jian-Qiang Huang, Yong-Neng Jiang, Gang Luo, Gen-Fa Yi, Zhao-Hong Peng, Hui Wang, Jin Shen, Bu-Lang Gao
PURPOSE: To investigate in vivo effect of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) on swine long bones and the repair process. MATERIALS AND METHODS: RFA was performed in six swine at the end and middle part of the tibia or femur. After RFA, radiological examinations were performed, and the swine were killed immediately and at different time points post-RFA for histopathological examination. RESULTS: All swine had successful RFA. The RFA-induced elliptical necrotic area ranged from 3...
November 7, 2016: Japanese Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804173/imaging-diagnosis-radiography-and-computed-tomography-of-radioulnar-ischemic-necrosis-in-a-jack-russell-terrier
#5
Lisbeth Schmid, Andrea Klang, Nikola Katic, Agustina Ansón, Michaela Gumpenberger, Sibylle Kneissl
A 7-year-old Jack Russell Terrier with a history of minor trauma was presented for lameness of the left forelimb. Radiography and computed tomography demonstrated a localized radioulnar osteolytic lesion with cortical bone loss and enthesiophytes. Based on results of diagnostic imaging and histopathological examination, the final diagnosis was radioulnar ischemic necrosis (RUIN), complicated by pathologic fracture. A rare disorder of unknown etiology, RUIN may be secondary to tearing of the interosseous ligament and potential ischemia...
November 2, 2016: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796050/inflammatory-bowel-disease-in-a-rodent-model-alters-osteocyte-protein-levels-controlling-bone-turnover
#6
Corinne E Metzger, A Narayanan, D C Zawieja, S A Bloomfield
Bone loss is a common comorbidity of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), leading to elevated fracture risk in these patients. Inflammatory factors associated with IBD cause increased bone resorption and decreased bone formation with multiple factors implicated as instigators of these alterations. In this project, we examined the influence of IBD on osteocytes proteins in male rats (2 months old) divided into two groups: induced gut inflammation via TNBS enema and vehicle control. We examined the prevalence of two pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), an anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-10 (IL-10), the anabolic factor insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), osteoclastogenesis regulators RANKL and OPG, and the bone formation inhibitor sclerostin in osteocytes in three bone compartments 4 weeks after initiation of gut inflammation...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793702/clinical-and-biological-predictors-of-response-to-electroconvulsive-therapy-ect-a-review
#7
REVIEW
Martina Pinna, Mirko Manchia, Rossana Oppo, Filomena Scano, Gianluca Pillai, Anna Paola Loche, Piergiorgio Salis, Gian Paolo Minnai
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), developed in the 30's by Bini and Cerletti, remains a key element of the therapeutic armamentarium in psychiatry, particularly for severe and life-threatening psychiatric symptoms. However, despite its well-established clinical efficacy, the prescription of ECT has declined constantly over the years due to concerns over its safety (cognitive side effects) and an increasingly negative public perception. As for other treatments in the field of psychiatry, ECT is well suited to a personalized approach that would increment its efficacy, as well as reducing the impact of side effects...
October 25, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791020/essential-protective-role-of-tumor-necrosis-factor-receptor-2-in-neurodegeneration
#8
Yun Dong, Roman Fischer, Petrus J W Naudé, Olaf Maier, Csaba Nyakas, Maëlle Duffey, Eddy A Van der Zee, Doortje Dekens, Wanda Douwenga, Andreas Herrmann, Eric Guenzi, Roland E Kontermann, Klaus Pfizenmaier, Ulrich L M Eisel
Despite the recognized role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in inflammation and neuronal degeneration, anti-TNF therapeutics failed to treat neurodegenerative diseases. Animal disease models had revealed the antithetic effects of the two TNF receptors (TNFR) in the central nervous system, whereby TNFR1 has been associated with inflammatory degeneration and TNFR2 with neuroprotection. We here show the therapeutic potential of selective inhibition of TNFR1 and activation of TNFR2 by ATROSAB, a TNFR1-selective antagonistic antibody, and EHD2-scTNFR2, an agonistic TNFR2-selective TNF, respectively, in a mouse model of NMDA-induced acute neurodegeneration...
October 25, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788792/outcome-of-abo-incompatible-living-donor-renal-transplantations-a-single-center-experience-from-eastern-india
#9
D S Ray, S Thukral
BACKGROUND: With the incessantly increasing number of patients on the waiting list for renal transplants, crossing the blood group barrier can substantially increase the donor pool. We started ABO-incompatible (ABOi) renal transplantation in 2013 with a relatively low-cost preconditioning protocol (additional cost, ∼$1200). This study reports the short-term outcome of ABOi renal transplantations performed at our institution. METHODS: A total of 45 adult ABOi kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) were included in the study...
October 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770827/power-doppler-ultrasonographic-assessment-of-the-joint-draining-lymph-node-complex-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-a-prospective-proof-of-concept-study-on-treatment-with-tumor-necrosis-factor-inhibitors
#10
Antonio Manzo, Francesca Benaglio, Barbara Vitolo, Chandra Bortolotto, Francesca Zibera, Monica Todoerti, Claudia Alpini, Serena Bugatti, Roberto Caporali, Fabrizio Calliada, Carlomaurizio Montecucco
BACKGROUND: Emerging research on the mechanisms of disease chronicity in experimental arthritis has included a new focus on the draining lymph node (LN). Here, we combined clinical-serological analyses and power Doppler ultrasound (PDUS) imaging to delineate noninvasively the reciprocal relationship in vivo between the joint and the draining LN in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Forty consecutive patients refractory to conventional synthetic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs were examined through parallel PDUS of the hand-wrist joints and axillary LNs and compared with 20 healthy subjects...
October 22, 2016: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760765/deletion-of-protein-kinase-c-%C3%AE%C2%B5-attenuates-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-ameliorates-ischemic-renal-injury
#11
Grazyna Nowak, Diana Takacsova Bakajsova, Judit Megyesi
Previously, we documented that activation of protein kinase C-ε (PKC-ε) mediates mitochondrial dysfunction in cultured renal proximal tubule cells (RPTC). This study tested whether deletion of the PKC-ε decreases dysfunction of renal cortical mitochondria and improves kidney function after renal ischemia. PKC-ε levels in mitochondria of ischemic kidneys increased 24h after ischemia. Complex I- and complex II-coupled state 3 respirations were reduced 44% and 27%, respectively, in wild-type (WT) but unchanged and increased in PKC-ε-deficient (KO) mice after ischemia...
October 19, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737716/brain-region-and-epilepsy-associated-differences-in-inflammatory-mediator-levels-in-medically-refractory-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#12
Kenneth I Strauss, Kost V Elisevich
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy patients have distinct immune/inflammatory cell profiles and inflammatory mediator levels in the blood. Although the neural origin of inflammatory cells and mediators has been implied, few studies have measured these inflammatory components in the human brain itself. This study examines the brain levels of chemokines (8), cytokines (14), and vascular injury mediators (3) suspected of being altered in epilepsy. METHODS: Soluble protein extracts of fresh frozen resected hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, and temporal cortex from 58 medically refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy subjects and 4 nonepileptic neurosurgical subjects were assayed for 25 inflammation-related mediators using ultrasensitive low-density arrays...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733241/chronic-kidney-disease-in-the-neonate-etiologies-management-and%C3%A2-outcomes
#13
Jason Misurac
Neonatal chronic kidney disease (CKD) occurs with an estimated incidence of 1 in 10,000 live births, whereas the incidence of neonatal end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is about 7.1 per million age-related population. The most frequent etiologies are renal hypoplasia/dysplasia, posterior urethral valves, and other congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract. Other etiologies include polycystic kidney disease, cortical necrosis, and renal vascular thrombosis. Management of CKD focuses primarily on replacing renal functions such as erythropoietin, 1,25-hydroxylation of vitamin D, electrolyte homeostasis/excretion, and, in ESRD, waste product removal...
October 9, 2016: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721582/jobelyn%C3%A2-supplement-lowered-neuronal-degeneration-significance-of-altered-p53-and-%C3%A9-enolase-protein-expressions-in-prefrontal-cortex-of-rat-exposed-to-ethanol
#14
Oyinbo A Charles, Igbigbi S Patrick, Avwioro O Godwin
BACKGROUND: Alcohol-induced neurodegeneration, a consequence of chronic ethanol exposure, is a neuroadaptation that drives the progression of alcohol use disorder (AUD). Unfortunately, conventional drugs for AUDs do not prevent neurodegeneration as part of their pharmacological repertoire. Multimodal neuroprotective therapeutic agents are hypothesized to have high therapeutic utility in the treatment of central nervous system. Interestingly, nutraceuticals by nature are multimodal in mechanisms of action...
September 2016: Annals of Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716448/the-complement-system-is-activated-in-synovial-fluid-from-subjects-with-knee-injury-and-from-patients-with-osteoarthritis
#15
André Struglics, Marcin Okroj, Per Swärd, Richard Frobell, Tore Saxne, L Stefan Lohmander, Anna M Blom
BACKGROUND: The complement system is suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA), and proinflammatory cytokines may play a role in OA development by inducing proteases. The association between complement factors, cytokines and OA has not been investigated. The aim of the present study was to explore the involvement of the complement system after knee trauma and in OA. METHODS: C4d, C3bBbP and soluble terminal complement complex (sTCC) resulting from complement activation were immunoassayed in synovial fluid from subjects with healthy knees (reference), OA, rheumatoid arthritis (RA; positive control), pyrophosphate arthritis (PPA; positive control) and knee injury; other biomarkers were previously assessed...
October 6, 2016: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716383/upregulation-of-neuronal-zinc-finger-protein-a20-expression-is-required-for-electroacupuncture-to-attenuate-the-cerebral-inflammatory-injury-mediated-by-the-nuclear-factor-kb-signaling-pathway-in-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-rats
#16
Jian Zhan, Wenyi Qin, Ying Zhang, Jing Jiang, Hongmei Ma, Qiongli Li, Yong Luo
BACKGROUND: Zinc finger protein A20 (tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced protein 3) functions as a potent negative feedback inhibitor of the nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB) signaling. It exerts these effects by interrupting the activation of IkB kinase beta (IKKβ), the most critical kinase in upstream of NF-kB, and thereby controlling inflammatory homeostasis. We reported previously that electroacupuncture (EA) could effectively suppress IKKβ activation. However, the mechanism underlying these effects was unclear...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695956/octreotide-ameliorates-inflammation-and-apoptosis-in-acute-and-kindled-murine-ptz-paradigms
#17
M Y Al-Shorbagy, Noha N Nassar
In the present study, the role of octreotide (OCT) in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) kindling as well as in acute convulsion models was evaluated. Mice were allocated in groups as (1) control saline; (2) acute PTZ (PTZ-a; 60 mg/kg, i.p.), as a single convulsive dose; and (3) kindled (PTZ-k) receiving nine subconvulsive doses of PTZ (40 mg/kg, i.p.) for 17 days. Groups 4-7 received either valproic acid (VPA) 50 mg/kg or OCT (50 μg/kg, Sandostatin®) 30 min by oral gavage before PTZ-a or PTZ-k. The median seizure stage, latency onset of first stage 4/5 seizures, and incidence of convulsing animals were recorded...
October 1, 2016: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660266/neurotoxicity-of-methylmercury-in-isolated-astrocytes-and-neurons-the-cytoskeleton-as-a-main-target
#18
Paula Pierozan, Helena Biasibetti, Felipe Schmitz, Helena Ávila, Carolina Gonçalves Fernandes, Regina Pessoa-Pureur, Angela T S Wyse
In the present work, we focused on mechanisms of methylmercury (MeHg) toxicity in primary astrocytes and neurons of rats. Cortical astrocytes and neurons exposed to 0.5-5 μM MeHg present a link among morphological alterations, glutathione (GSH) depletion, glutamate dyshomeostasis, and cell death. Disrupted neuronal cytoskeleton was assessed by decreased neurite length and neurite/neuron ratio. Astrocytes presented reorganization of actin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) networks and reduced cytoplasmic area...
September 22, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659107/regulation-of-therapeutic-hypothermia-on-inflammatory-cytokines-microglia-polarization-migration-and-functional-recovery-after-ischemic-stroke-in-mice
#19
Jin Hwan Lee, Zheng Z Wei, Wenyuan Cao, Soonmi Won, Xiaohuan Gu, Megan Winter, Thomas A Dix, Ling Wei, Shan Ping Yu
Stroke is a leading threat to human life and health in the US and around the globe, while very few effective treatments are available for stroke patients. Preclinical and clinical studies have shown that therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is a potential treatment for stroke. Using novel neurotensin receptor 1 (NTR1) agonists, we have demonstrated pharmacologically induced hypothermia and protective effects against brain damages after ischemic stroke, hemorrhage stroke, and traumatic brain injury (TBI) in rodent models...
December 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639810/potential-for-brain-accessibility-and-analysis-of-stability-of-selected-flavonoids-in-relation-to-neuroprotection-in-vitro
#20
Lea Pogačnik, Katja Pirc, Inês Palmela, Mihaela Skrt, Kim S Kwang, Dora Brites, Maria Alexandra Brito, Nataša Poklar Ulrih, Rui F M Silva
Natural food sources constitute a promising source of new compounds with neuroprotective properties, once they have the ability to reach the brain. Our aim was to evaluate the brain accessibility of quercetin, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) in relation to their neuroprotective capability. Primary cortical neuron cultures were exposed to oxidative insult in the absence and presence of the selected compounds, and neuroprotection was assessed through evaluation of apoptotic-like and necrotic-like cell death...
September 14, 2016: Brain Research
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