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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932183/plant-polyphenols-and-exendin-4-prevent-hyperactivity-and-tnf-%C3%AE-release-in-lps-treated-in-vitro-neuron-astrocyte-microglial-networks
#1
Francesca Gullo, Michela Ceriani, Alessia D'Aloia, Enzo Wanke, Andrew Constanti, Barbara Costa, Marzia Lecchi
Increasing evidence supports a decisive role for neuroinflammation in the neurodegenerative process of several central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Microglia are essential mediators of neuroinflammation and can regulate a broad spectrum of cellular responses by releasing reactive oxygen intermediates, nitric oxide, proteases, excitatory amino acids, and cytokines. We have recently shown that also in ex-vivo cortical networks of neurons, astrocytes and microglia, an increased level of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) was detected a few hours after exposure to the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923326/effects-of-sulphasalazine-in-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rat
#2
Cansel Cetin, Ahmet Melih Erdogan, Gungor Cagdas Dincel, Bulent Bakar, Ucler Kisa
BACKGROUND: Management of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is still difficult process today. AIMS OF THE STUDY: Aim of present study was to investigate therapeutic properties of sulfasalazine in cerebral transient I/R injury in rat. METHODS: Except Control group (n = 5), 20 Wistar albino rats were allocated for acute and chronic stage investigation of I/R injury, and temporary aneurysm clips were attempted to both internal carotid arteries for thirty min...
April 2017: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914777/the-usefulness-of-contrast-enhanced-ultrasound-in-the-assessment-of-early-kidney-transplant-function-and-complications
#3
REVIEW
Sara Álvarez Rodríguez, Vital Hevia Palacios, Enrique Sanz Mayayo, Victoria Gómez Dos Santos, Víctor Díez Nicolás, María Dolores Sánchez Gallego, Javier Lorca Álvaro, Francisco Javier Burgos Revilla
OBJECTIVES: The routine diagnostic method for assessment of renal graft dysfunction is Doppler ultrasound. However, contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) may provide more information about parenchymal flow and vascular status of kidney allografts. The aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of CEUS in the immediate post-transplant period, focusing on acute vascular complications. A brief review of available literature and a report of our initial experience is made. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 15 kidney transplant (KT) cases with clinical suspicion of acute surgical complication were assessed with CEUS and conventional Doppler ultrasound (US)...
September 15, 2017: Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884073/connectome-based-lesion-symptom-mapping-clsm-a-novel-approach-to-map-neurological-function
#4
REVIEW
Ezequiel Gleichgerrcht, Julius Fridriksson, Chris Rorden, Leonardo Bonilha
Lesion-symptom mapping is a key tool in understanding the relationship between structure and function in neuroscience as it can provide objective evidence about which regions are crucial for a given process. Initial limitations with this approach were largely overcome by voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM), a method introduced in the early 2000s, which allows for a whole-brain approach to study the association between damaged areas and behavioral impairment by applying an independent statistical test at every voxel...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884034/snakebite-induced-thrombotic-microangiopathy-leading-to-renal-cortical-necrosis
#5
Ying Mao Gn, Arvind Ponnusamy, Vikram Thimma
Renal complications from snakebite result in high mortality and morbidity. Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs in 5-30% of cases. Renal manifestation could include acute tubular necrosis, cortical necrosis, interstitial nephritis, glomerulonephritis, and vasculitis. We present a case of thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) resulting in renal cortical necrosis. Renal biopsy showed fibrin thrombi in glomeruli and arterioles with cortical necrosis. Our patient progressed to end-stage renal disease.
2017: Case Reports in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807664/social-interaction-modulates-the-neuroinflammatory-response-to-global-cerebral-ischemia-in-male-mice
#6
Monica M Gaudier-Diaz, Ning Zhang, Adam H Haines, Surbhi, Min Zhou, A Courtney DeVries
Social isolation is a risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, although the underlying mechanisms remain underspecified. Considering the potential of microglia to become sensitized by stressors and their role in neuroinflammation, we hypothesized that social isolation primes microglia, resulting in an exaggerated neuroimmune response to experimental cerebral ischemia. First, major histocompatibility complex II (MHC II) gene expression, an indicator of microglial priming, was compared between mice that were socially isolated or pair-housed...
October 15, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793394/tranexamic-acid-induced-acute-renal-cortical-necrosis-in-post-endoscopic-papillectomy-bleeding
#7
Doo Hyun Ko, Tae Hyung Kim, Jong Wook Kim, Ja Joong Gu, Baek Hyun Yoon, Ji Hong Oh, Seung Goun Hong
Acute renal failure can be the result of acute renal cortical necrosis (RCN), which commonly occurs from complications occurring during pregnancy. RCN is rarely caused by medications, although tranexamic acid, which is used in patients with acute bleeding for its antifibrinolytic effects, reportedly causes acute RCN in rare cases. An 82-year-old woman experienced gastrointestinal bleeding after endoscopic papillectomy of an ampullary adenoma. The bleeding was controlled with tranexamic acid administration; however, 4 days later, her urine volume decreased and she developed pulmonary edema and dyspnea...
August 9, 2017: Clinical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774741/histopathological-evaluation-and-redox-assessment-in-blood-and-kidney-tissues-in-a-rabbit-contrast-induced-nephrotoxicity-model
#8
Maria-Malvina Tsamouri, Maria Rapti, Paraskevi Kouka, Charitini Nepka, Konstantinos Tsarouhas, Anestis Soumelidis, George Koukoulis, Aristides Tsatsakis, Demetrios Kouretas, Christina Tsitsimpikou
Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is a leading cause of hospital-acquired acute kidney injury as a result of iodinated contrast-media use for diagnostic purposes. Pathophysiology remains unclear. In the present study iopromide was administered to New Zealand white rabbits without any prior intervention. Oxidative stress was assessed in blood and tissue level at three anatomical kidney areas (medullary, cortical, juxtamedullary). Histopathological evaluation was also performed. Serum creatinine and urea increased in the CIN groups over 25% at two hours after administration and returned to baseline at 48 h...
July 31, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755281/radiation-induced-focal-cortical-necrosis-of-the-femur-presenting-as-a-lytic-lesion
#9
Hakan Ilaslan, Jean Schils, Michael Joyce, Chirag Shah, Yaxia Zhang
Management of soft tissue sarcomas is often complicated, requiring radiation before and in some cases after limb-sparing surgery. Radiation necrosis is a severe complication after radiation treatment and is typically dose related and involves medullary bone. We report on two cases of hitherto unreported focal circumscribed intra-cortical lytic lesions within the radiation portal, which appeared 19 months and 31 months, respectively, after the conclusion of radiation treatment. Both patients had a history of soft tissue sarcoma treated with radiation (66 Gy) and surgical resection...
July 28, 2017: Skeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742156/ct-pattern-analysis-of-necrotizing-and-nonnecrotizing-lymph-nodes-in-kikuchi-disease
#10
Eun Jung Shim, Kyung Mi Lee, Eui Jong Kim, Hyug-Gi Kim, Ji Hye Jang
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether a CT interpretation with imaging pattern analysis differentiates Kikuchi disease (KD) from the two more frequently encountered differential lymph nodes diagnoses of tuberculous lymphadenopathy (TL) and reactive hyperplasia (RH). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between January 2012 and July 2015, 20 patients with KD (6 men, 14 women; mean age, 27.80 years), 36 patients with RH (10 men, 26 women; mean age, 33.08 years) and 34 patients with TL (17 men, 17 women; mean age, 39...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739514/inhibition-of-blood-brain-barrier-efflux-transporters-promotes-seizure-in-pregnant-rats-role-of-circulating-factors
#11
Abbie C Johnson, Erica S Hammer, Sophie Sakkaki, Sarah M Tremble, Gregory L Holmes, Marilyn J Cipolla
Seizure-provoking factors circulate late in gestation during normal pregnancy, but do not readily gain access to the brain due to the protective nature of the blood-brain barrier. In particular, efflux transporters are powerful ATP-driven pumps that actively prevent unwanted compounds from entering the brain. We hypothesized that acute inhibition of efflux transporters at the blood-brain barrier would result in spontaneous seizures in pregnant rats. We further hypothesized that the blood-brain barrier protects the maternal brain from seizure by increasing expression and/or activity of p-glycoprotein (P-gp), a major efflux transporter...
July 21, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736098/posterior-canal-wall-reposition-for-management-of-cholesteatoma-technique-and-results
#12
Mohammad Kamal Mobashir, Waleed M Basha, Abd ElRaof Said Mohamed, Mohammed Elsayed Elmaghawry
OBJECTIVE: The main goal of surgery in acquired middle ear cholesteatomas is the complete eradication of the disease with an ear free of discharge. This can be performed either by open or closed techniques with their benefits and drawbacks. We present the technique of reposition of the posterior canal wall for the management of cholesteatoma cases and its results and outcome. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study included 31 patients with primary acquired middle ear cholesteatoma...
July 20, 2017: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712634/management-of-dens-invaginatus-type-ii-associated-with-immature-apex-and-large-periradicular-lesion-using-platelet-rich-fibrin-and-biodentine
#13
Shruti Goel, Ruchika Roongta Nawal, Sangeeta Talwar
Dens invaginatus (DI) poses peculiar challenges in endodontic treatment of teeth because of distortion of pulpal space. A case of Oehlers type II DI with open apex and large periapical lesion is reported. The case was managed using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), operating microscope, platelet-rich fibrin (PRF), and Biodentine. A 15-year-old male patient presented with palatal swelling. Pulp sensibility testing of right maxillary lateral incisor was negative. Intraoral periapical digital radiograph revealed an Oehlers type II DI with open apex and periapical radiolucency...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703794/impaired-autophagosome-clearance-contributes-to-neuronal-death-in-a-piglet-model-of-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#14
Derong Cui, Dawei Sun, Xintao Wang, Liye Yi, Ewa Kulikowicz, Michael Reyes, Junchao Zhu, Zeng-Jin Yang, Wei Jiang, Raymond C Koehler
To examine the temporal relationship of cortical autophagic flux with delayed neuronal cell death after hypoxia-ischemia (HI) in neonatal piglets. HI was produced with 45-min hypoxia and 7-min airway occlusion in 3-5-day-old piglets. Markers of autophagic, lysosomal and cell death signaling were studied via immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting, and histochemistry in piglet brains. In vitro, autophagy was impaired in cultured mouse cortical neurons treated with chloroquine with or without rapamycin for 1 d in the presence of Z-VAD-fmk, cyclosporine A, or vehicle control, and cell viability was assessed with the MTT assay...
July 13, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690033/schisantherin-a-attenuates-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-neuronal-injury-in-rats-via-regulation-of-tlr4-and-c5ar1-signaling-pathways
#15
Yun Wei Shi, Xiao Chuan Zhang, Chen Chen, Miao Tang, Zhi Wei Wang, Xin Miao Liang, Fei Ding, Cai Ping Wang
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and C5aR1 (CD88) have been recognized as potential therapeutic targets for the reduction of inflammation and secondary damage and improvement of outcome after ischemia and reperfusion (I/R). The inflammatory responses which induce cell apoptosis and necrosis after I/R brain injury lead to a limited process of neural repair. To further comprehend how these targets function in I/R state, we investigated the pathological changes and TLR4 and C5aR1 signaling pathways in vitro and in vivo models of I/R brain injury in this study...
July 6, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685136/bilateral-renal-cortical-necrosis-associated-with-smoking-synthetic-cannabinoids
#16
Kanaan Mansoor, Ashley Zawodniak, Tibor Nadasdy, Zeid J Khitan
Synthetic cannabinoids have become a common drug of abuse in recent years and their toxicities have come to light as well. They are known to be notorious for the kidneys, with acute tubular necrosis, acute interstitial nephritis and rhabdomyolysis induced renal injury being the frequent nephrotoxic outcomes in users. We report a case of bilateral renal cortical necrosis, leading to irreversible renal damage and lifelong dialysis dependency.
June 16, 2017: World Journal of Clinical Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676433/the-neurotoxicant-pcb-95-by-increasing-the-neuronal-transcriptional-repressor-rest-down-regulates-caspase-8-and-increases-ripk1-ripk3-and-mlkl-expression-determining-necroptotic-neuronal-death
#17
Natascia Guida, Giusy Laudati, Angelo Serani, Luigi Mascolo, Pasquale Molinaro, Paolo Montuori, Gianfranco Di Renzo, Lorella M T Canzoniero, Luigi Formisano
Our previous study showed that the environmental neurotoxicant non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-95 increases RE1-silencing transcription factor (REST) expression, which is related to necrosis, but not apoptosis, of neurons. Meanwhile, necroptosis is a type of a programmed necrosis that is positively regulated by receptor interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1), RIPK3 and mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL) and negatively regulated by caspase-8. Here we evaluated whether necroptosis contributes to PCB-95-induced neuronal death through REST up-regulation...
July 1, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667922/combination-of-hydroxyapatite-platelet-rich-fibrin-and-amnion-membrane-as-a-novel-therapeutic-option-in-regenerative-periapical-endodontic-surgery-case-series
#18
Uday Kiran Uppada, Butchibabu Kalakonda, Pradeep Koppolu, Narendra Varma, Kiran Palakurthy, Venkatesh Manchikanti, Shilpa Prasad, Shereen Samar, Lingam Amara Swapna
INTRODUCTION: Periapical surgery is the last resort in the arsenal of an endodontist to effectively deal with periapical lesions that result from necrosis of the pulp. Bone grafts, growth factors and membranes form an array of regenerative materials that influence the healing outcome of periapical surgery. PRESENTATION OF CASE: The main purpose of the two cases reported here was to assess the potential benefits of a combination of bone graft, platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) and amnion membrane in terms of reduced post-operative discomfort, radiographic evidence of accelerated periapical bone healing and present a novel therapeutic option in the management of large periapical lesions...
2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655611/mir-137-attenuates-a%C3%AE-induced-neurotoxicity-through-inactivation-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-by-targeting-tnfaip1-in-neuro2a-cells
#19
Dan He, Jun Tan, Jiewen Zhang
BACKGROUND: Accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ) and neuroinflammation are implicated in the pathogenesis and development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Neuron-enriched miR-137 was aberrantly downregulated and may be associated with the pathogenesis of AD. However, the detailed function of miR-137 in AD pathogenesis and the molecular mechanism have not been elucidated. METHODS: The expressions of miR-137 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)-induced protein 1 (TNFAIP1) at mRNA and protein levels in primary mouse cortical neurons and Neuro2a (N2a) cells exposed to different concentrations of Aβ25-35 were examined by qRT-PCR and western blot...
August 26, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655291/naturally-acquired-canine-herpesvirus-associated-meningoencephalitis
#20
Mason C Jager, Erica A Sloma, Morgan Shelton, Andrew D Miller
Canid alphaherpesvirus 1 (CHV) causes morbidity and mortality in susceptible puppies. While the neuropathology of experimentally infected puppies has been detailed, characterization of naturally acquired infections is limited. The aim of this study was to describe the histologic, immunohistochemical, and in situ hybridization features of CHV encephalitis in the dog. Six female and 11 male puppies ranging in age from stillborn to 57 days old were included. Histologically, lesions included multifocal glial nodules (16/17, 94%), meningeal infiltrates (15/17, 88%), and cerebellar cortical necrosis (6/9, 67%); however, robust inflammation was not a significant feature in any of the cases...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
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