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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666782/new-perspectives-on-diagnosis-and-therapy-of-malignant-pleural-mesothelioma
#1
REVIEW
Marika Rossini, Paola Rizzo, Ilaria Bononi, Anthony Clementz, Roberto Ferrari, Fernanda Martini, Mauro G Tognon
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare, but severe form of cancer, with an incidence that varies significantly within and among different countries around the world. It develops in about one to two persons per million of the general population, leading to thousands of deaths every year worldwide. To date, the MPM is mostly associated with occupational asbestos exposure. Asbestos represents the predominant etiological factor, with approximately 70% of cases of MPM with well-documented occupational exposure to asbestos, with the exposure time, on average greater than 40 years...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666281/pathogenic-effects-of-ifit2-and-interferon-%C3%AE-during-fatal-systemic-candida-albicans-infection
#2
Marcin Stawowczyk, Shamoon Naseem, Valeria Montoya, Darren P Baker, James Konopka, Nancy C Reich
A balanced immune response to infection is essential to prevent the pathology and tissue damage that can occur from an unregulated or hyperactive host defense. Interferons (IFNs) are critical mediators of the innate defense to infection, and in this study we evaluated the contribution of a specific gene coding for IFIT2 induced by type I IFNs in a murine model of disseminated Candida albicans Invasive candidiasis is a frequent challenge during immunosuppression or surgical medical interventions, and C. albicans is a common culprit that leads to high rates of mortality...
April 17, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666167/a-flexible-mhc-class-i-multimer-loading-system-for-large-scale-detection-of-antigen-specific-t-cells
#3
Jolien J Luimstra, Malgorzata A Garstka, Marthe C J Roex, Anke Redeker, George M C Janssen, Peter A van Veelen, Ramon Arens, J H Frederik Falkenburg, Jacques Neefjes, Huib Ovaa
Adaptive immunity is initiated by T cell recognition of specific antigens presented by major histocompatibility complexes (MHCs). MHC multimer technology has been developed for the detection, isolation, and characterization of T cells in infection, autoimmunity, and cancer. Here, we present a simple, fast, flexible, and efficient method to generate many different MHC class I (MHC I) multimers in parallel using temperature-mediated peptide exchange. We designed conditional peptides for HLA-A*02:01 and H-2Kb that form stable peptide-MHC I complexes at low temperatures, but dissociate when exposed to a defined elevated temperature...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663734/new-biological-research-and-understanding-of-papanicolaou-s-test
#4
REVIEW
Elizabeth R Smith, Sophia H George, Erin Kobetz, Xiang-Xi Xu
The development of the Papanicolaou smear test by Dr. George Nicholas Papanicolaou (1883-1962) is one of the most significant achievements in screening for disease and cancer prevention in history. The Papanicolaou smear has been used for screening of cervical cancer since the 1950s. The test is technically straightforward and practical and based on a simple scientific observation: malignant cells have an aberrant nuclear morphology that can be distinguished from benign cells. Here, we review the scientific understanding that has been achieved and continues to be made on the causes and consequences of abnormal nuclear morphology, the basis of Dr...
April 16, 2018: Diagnostic Cytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661791/interferon-%C3%AE-and-its-important-roles-in-promoting-and-inhibiting-spontaneous-and-therapeutic-cancer-immunity
#5
Elise Alspach, Danielle M Lussier, Robert D Schreiber
Originally identified in studies of cellular resistance to viral infection, interferon (IFN)-γ is now known to represent a distinct member of the IFN family and plays critical roles not only in orchestrating both innate and adaptive immune responses against viruses, bacteria, and tumors, but also in promoting pathologic inflammatory processes. IFN-γ production is largely restricted to T lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells and can ultimately lead to the generation of a polarized immune response composed of T helper (Th)1 CD4+ T cells and CD8+ cytolytic T cells...
April 16, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661260/implementing-routine-blood-borne-virus-testing-for-hcv-hbv-and-hiv-at-a-london-emergency-department-uncovering-the-iceberg
#6
S Parry, N Bundle, S Ullah, G R Foster, K Ahmad, C Y W Tong, S Balasegaram, C Orkin
UK guidelines recommend routine HIV testing in high prevalence emergency departments (ED) and targeted testing for HBV and HCV. The 'Going Viral' campaign implemented opt-out blood-borne virus (BBV) testing in adults in a high prevalence ED, to assess seroprevalence, uptake, linkage to care (LTC) rates and staff time taken to achieve LTC. Diagnosis status (new/known/unknown), current engagement in care, and severity of disease was established. LTC was defined as patient informed plus ⩾1 clinic visit. A total of 6211/24 981 ED attendees were tested (uptake 25%); 257 (4...
April 17, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660489/prevalence-of-mucosal-and-cutaneous-human-papillomavirus-in-moroccan-breast-cancer
#7
Amal ElAmrani, Tarik Gheit, Mustapha Benhessou, Sandrine McKay-Chopin, Mohammed Attaleb, Souha Sahraoui, Mohammed El Mzibri, Marilys Corbex, Massimo Tommasino, Meriem Khyatti
BACKGROUND: Due to recent technical improvements and some encouraging new results, there has been a resurgence of interest in the possibility that a substantial proportion of breast cancers (BCs) may be caused by viral infections, including Human papillomavirus (HPV). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of mucosal and cutaneous HPV in tumours from Moroccan BC patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Frozen tumours from 76 BC cases and 12 controls were evaluated for the presence of 62 HPV-types using highly sensitive assays that combine multiplex polymerase chain reaction and bead-based Luminex technology...
April 13, 2018: Papillomavirus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656422/role-of-lactoferrin-and-lactoferrin-derived-peptides-in-oral-and-maxillofacial-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Kabilan Velliyagounder, Dania Bahdila, Siddhi Pawar, Daniel H Fine
The oral cavity harbors different taxonomic groups, the evolutionary co-existence of which develops the oral ecosystem. These resident microorganisms can alter the balance between the physiologic and pathologic conditions that affect the host, both locally and systemically. This highly sophisticated nature of the oral cavity poses a significant therapeutic challenge. Numerous human and animal studies have been conducted to potentiate the efficacy and competence of current treatments of pathologic conditions as well as to develop novel therapeutic modalities...
April 14, 2018: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656236/advancing-systems-immunology-through-data-driven-statistical-analysis
#9
REVIEW
Linda E Fong, Andrés R Muñoz-Rojas, Kathryn Miller-Jensen
Systems biology provides an effective approach to decipher, predict, and ultimately manipulate the complex and inter-connected networks that regulate the immune system. Advances in high-throughput, multiplexed experimental techniques have increased the availability of proteomic and transcriptomic immunological datasets, and as a result, have also accelerated the development of new data-driven computational algorithms to extract biological insight from these data. This review highlights how data-driven statistical models have been used to characterize immune cell subsets and their functions, to map the signaling and intercellular networks that regulate immune responses, and to connect immune cell states to disease outcomes to generate hypotheses for novel therapeutic strategies...
April 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656135/two-cases-of-disseminated-infection-following-live-organism-anti-cancer-vaccine-administration-in-cancer-patients
#10
James D Denham, Dae Hyun Lee, Manuel Castro, Shuchi Pandya, Sadaf Aslam, Sowmya Nanjappa, John N Greene
Vaccines containing live attenuated bacterial or viral organisms are currently being investigated as potential therapy for locally advanced or metastatic cancers. However, the use of such live organisms in an immunocompromised population, such as patients who recently or are currently receiving chemotherapy, raises the concern that these organisms can themselves disseminate and cause frank infection. We report a hereunto unreported phenomenon of anti-cancer vaccines (containing live attenuated organisms) leading to frank, disseminated infection...
April 12, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651774/genome-editing-for-the-treatment-of-tumorigenic-viral-infections-and-virus-related-carcinomas
#11
REVIEW
Lan Yu, Xun Tian, Chun Gao, Ping Wu, Liming Wang, Bei Feng, Xiaomin Li, Hui Wang, Ding Ma, Zheng Hu
Viral infections cause at least 10%-15% of all human carcinomas. Over the last century, the elucidation of viral oncogenic roles in many cancer types has provided fundamental knowledge on carcinogenetic mechanisms and established a basis for the early intervention of virus-related cancers. Meanwhile, rapidly evolving genomeediting techniques targeting viral DNA/RNA have emerged as novel therapeutic strategies for treating virusrelated carcinogenesis and have begun showing promising results. This review discusses the recent advances of genome-editing tools for treating tumorigenic viruses and their corresponding cancers, the challenges that must be overcome before clinically applying such genome-editing technologies, and more importantly, the potential solutions to these challenges...
April 12, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648611/fine-mapping-the-interaction-between-dc-sign-and-the-cytomegalovirus-envelope-glycoprotein-b
#12
Coraline Chéneau, Flora Coulon, Vanessa Porkolab, Franck Fieschi, Stéphanie Laurant, Diane Razanajaona-Doll, Jean-Jacques Pin, Eva Maria Borst, Martin Messerle, Céline Bressollette-Bodin, Franck Halary
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a leading cause of virally-induced congenital disorders and morbidities in immunocompromised individuals, i.e. transplant, cancer or AIDS patients. HCMV infects virtually all cell types through the envelope glycoprotein complex gH/gL/gO with our without a contribution of the pentameric gH/gL/pUL128L. Together with gH/gL, the HCMV envelope glycoprotein B (gB) contributes to the viral fusion machinery. We previously showed that gB is a ligand for the C-type lectin Dendritic Cell-Specific ICAM-3 Grabbing Nonintegrin (DC-SIGN) contributing to HCMV attachment to and infection of DC-SIGN expressing cells...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643204/l1-retrotransposition-is-a-common-feature-of-mammalian-hepatocarcinogenesis
#13
Stephanie N Schauer, Patricia E Carreira, Ruchi Shukla, Daniel J Gerhardt, Patricia Gerdes, Francisco J Sanchez-Luque, Paola Nicoli, Michaela Kindlova, Serena Ghisletti, Alexandre Dos Santos, Delphine Rapoud, Didier Samuel, Jamila Faivre, Adam D Ewing, Sandra R Richardson, Geoffrey J Faulkner
The retrotransposon Long Interspersed Element 1 (LINE-1 or L1) is a continuing source of germline and somatic mutagenesis in mammals. Deregulated L1 activity is a hallmark of cancer, and L1 mutagenesis has been described in numerous human malignancies. We previously employed retrotransposon capture sequencing (RC-seq) to analyze hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) samples from patients infected with hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus and identified L1 variants responsible for activating oncogenic pathways. Here, we have applied RC-seq and whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to an Abcb4 (Mdr2) -/- mouse model of hepatic carcinogenesis and demonstrated for the first time that L1 mobilization occurs in murine tumors...
April 11, 2018: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642538/ddx5-rna-helicases-emerging-roles-in-viral-infection
#14
REVIEW
Wenyu Cheng, Guohua Chen, Huaijie Jia, Xiaobing He, Zhizhong Jing
Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp (DEAD)-box polypeptide 5 (DDX5), also called p68, is a prototypical member of the large ATP-dependent RNA helicases family and is known to participate in all aspects of RNA metabolism ranging from transcription to translation, RNA decay, and miRNA processing. The roles of DDX5 in cell cycle regulation, tumorigenesis, apoptosis, cancer development, adipogenesis, Wnt-β-catenin signaling, and viral infection have been established. Several RNA viruses have been reported to hijack DDX5 to facilitate various steps of their replication cycles...
April 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628341/the-human-cytomegalovirus-strain-db-activates-oncogenic-pathways-in-mammary-epithelial-cells
#15
Amit Kumar, Manoj Kumar Tripathy, Sébastien Pasquereau, Fatima Al Moussawi, Wasim Abbas, Laurie Coquard, Kashif Aziz Khan, Laetitia Russo, Marie-Paule Algros, Séverine Valmary-Degano, Olivier Adotevi, Stéphanie Morot-Bizot, Georges Herbein
BACKGROUND: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) establishes a persistent life-long infection and increasing evidence indicates HCMV infection can modulate signaling pathways associated with oncogenesis. Breast milk is an important route of HCMV transmission in humans and we hypothesized that mammary epithelial cells could be one of the main cellular targets of HCMV infection. METHODS: The infectivity of primary human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs) was assessed following infection with the HCMV-DB strain, a clinical isolate with a marked macrophage-tropism...
March 28, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627439/mir-155-5p-inhibits-pdk1-and-promotes-autophagy-via-the-mtor-pathway-in-cervical-cancer
#16
Fang Wang, Shu Shan, Yan Huo, Zipeng Xie, Yehong Fang, Zhiying Qi, Fengzhen Chen, Yongmei Li, Bei Sun
Cervical cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors and the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in women. Persistent cervical infection by high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) is related to cervical cancer. MicroRNAs could regulate autophagy caused by viral infection. The aim of the present study was to investigate the regulation of autophagy by miR-155-5p in cervical cancer. In HPV+ human cervical lesion tissues, miR-155-5p expression was found to be markedly decreased. Compared to C33A cancer cells (HPV-), the miR-155-5p expression was significantly lower in Siha and HeLa cells (HPV+), which are both hrHPV positive...
April 5, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625843/role-of-genetic-variations-on-mhc-class-i-antigen-processing-genes-in-human-cancer-and-viral-mediated-diseases
#17
Valerio D'Alicandro, Paolo Romania, Ombretta Melaiu, Doriana Fruci
Cytotoxic T lymphocytes constantly monitor peptide-MHC class I complexes on the cell surface to eliminate transformed and virally infected cells expressing peptides derived from abnormal proteins. The generation of antigenic peptides and their loading on MHC class I molecules is a multistep process involving different molecules that constitute the so-called antigen processing and presentation machinery (APM). To avoid immune-mediated elimination, human tumors and pathogens have adopted different strategies including loss of MHC class I expression and dysregulation of APM genes and proteins...
April 3, 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620933/dynamics-of-lymphocyte-reconstitution-following-hematopoietic-transplantation-during-chronic-lcmv-infection
#18
Mitra Bhattacharyya, Pablo Penaloza-MacMaster
Bone marrow transplantation is a treatment for various cancers and genetic diseases, and the only case of cured a HIV infection involved the use of this clinical procedure, highlighting the potential use of this therapy for curing many chronic diseases. However, little is known about how chronic viral infection influences lymphocyte reconstitution after bone marrow transplantation. To address this, we infected mice with chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), and performed bone marrow transplantation to assess lymphocyte reconstitution...
March 18, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620669/detection-and-genotyping-of-human-papillomavirus-hpv-in-hiv-infected-women-and-its-relationship-with-hpv-hiv-co-infection
#19
Rodolfo Miglioli Badial, Marina Carrara Dias, Bruna Stuqui, Patrícia Pereira Dos Santos Melli, Silvana Maria Quintana, Caroline Measso do Bonfim, José Antônio Cordeiro, Tatiana Rabachini, Marilia de Freitas Calmon, Paola Jocelan Scarin Provazzi, Paula Rahal
HPV have been identified as high-risk and low-risk, depending on their association with the development of cancer. HPV infections can be facilitated by co-infection with HIV. Here, we investigated HPV prevalence and genotypes and the risk factors affecting HPV/HIV co-infection. Forty HIV-positive patients had 80 cervical swab samples collected in 2 consecutive years. Polymerase chain reaction and DNA direct sequencing were used to perform HPV genotyping. Statistical analyses were performed regarding risk factors for HPV/HIV co-infection and the occurrence of cervical lesions...
April 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619379/eosinophils-from-physiology-to-disease-a-comprehensive-review
#20
REVIEW
Giuseppe A Ramirez, Mona-Rita Yacoub, Marco Ripa, Daniele Mannina, Adriana Cariddi, Nicoletta Saporiti, Fabio Ciceri, Antonella Castagna, Giselda Colombo, Lorenzo Dagna
Despite being the second least represented granulocyte subpopulation in the circulating blood, eosinophils are receiving a growing interest from the scientific community, due to their complex pathophysiological role in a broad range of local and systemic inflammatory diseases as well as in cancer and thrombosis. Eosinophils are crucial for the control of parasitic infections, but increasing evidence suggests that they are also involved in vital defensive tasks against bacterial and viral pathogens including HIV...
2018: BioMed Research International
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