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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441069/interleukin-6-and-interferon-%C3%AE-signaling-via-jak1-stat-differentially-regulate-oncolytic-versus-cytoprotective-antiviral-states
#1
Oded Danziger, Tal Pupko, Eran Bacharach, Marcelo Ehrlich
Malignancy-induced alterations to cytokine signaling in tumor cells differentially regulate their interactions with the immune system and oncolytic viruses. The abundance of inflammatory cytokines in the tumor microenvironment suggests that such signaling plays key roles in tumor development and therapy efficacy. The JAK-STAT axis transduces signals of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interferons (IFNs), mediates antiviral responses, and is frequently altered in prostate cancer (PCa) cells. However, how activation of JAK-STAT signaling with different cytokines regulates interactions between oncolytic viruses and PCa cells is not known...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438321/the-intersection-of-hpv-epidemiology-genomics-and-mechanistic-studies-of-hpv-mediated-carcinogenesis
#2
Lisa Mirabello, Megan A Clarke, Chase W Nelson, Michael Dean, Nicolas Wentzensen, Meredith Yeager, Michael Cullen, Joseph F Boland, Mark Schiffman, Robert D Burk
Of the ~60 human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes that infect the cervicovaginal epithelium, only 12-13 "high-risk" types are well-established as causing cervical cancer, with HPV16 accounting for over half of all cases worldwide. While HPV16 is the most important carcinogenic type, variants of HPV16 can differ in their carcinogenicity by 10-fold or more in epidemiologic studies. Strong genotype-phenotype associations embedded in the small 8-kb HPV16 genome motivate molecular studies to understand the underlying molecular mechanisms...
February 13, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438228/antitumor-effect-of-the-newcastle-disease-viral-hemagglutinin-neuraminidase-gene-is-expressed-through-an-oncolytic-adenovirus-effect-in-osteosarcoma-cells
#3
Shuang Chen, Qinggao Zhang, Duo Xu, Yiquan Li, Yuanyuan Fan, Wenjie Li, Xunzhe Yin, Yang Zhang, Jingwei Liu, Xiao Li, Lili Sun, Ningyi Jin
Newcastle disease virus (NDV) can specifically kill cancer cells and has less toxicity to normal cells. The hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein is an important structural protein in NDV pathogenesis and has been postulated as a promising candidate for antitumor therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the anticancer potential of recombinant adenovirus Ad-HN-PEG3p-E1a. An MTS assay was performed to determine viral proliferation after viral infection, the data showed that the proliferation ability of osteosarcoma cells decreased, whereas there was no significant change in normal hepatic cells...
March 2018: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436691/novel-structural-approaches-concerning-hpv-proteins-insight-into-targeted-therapies-for-cervical-cancer-review
#4
Kalliopi I Pappa, Georgia Kontostathi, Vasiliki Lygirou, Jerome Zoidakis, Nicholas P Anagnou
Cervical cancer incidence is tightly linked to HPV infection, and particularly virus types 16 and 18 cause the majority of cases presenting with pre-cancerous stages of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Structural and functional information concerning HPV proteins can offer novel insight into the mechanism(s) of cancer progression in the cervical epithelium. Recently, novel structural determinants of the interactions of viral proteins with their targets in keratinocytes have been elucidated. These exciting findings open the way for the development of targeted anti-oncogenic therapies, and may eventually allow the introduction of novel approaches for a rational cervical cancer treatment...
February 9, 2018: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435938/transgene-like-animal-models-using-intronic-micrornas
#5
Shi-Lung Lin, Shin-Ju E Chang, Shao-Yao Ying
Transgenic animal models are valuable tools for testing gene functions and drug mechanisms in vivo. They are also the best similitude for a human body for etiological and pathological research of diseases. All pharmaceutically developed medicines must be proven to be safe and effective in animals before approval by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to be used in clinical trials. To this end, the transgenic animal models of diseases serve as the front line of drug evaluation. However, there is currently no transgenic animal model for microRNA (miRNA)-related research...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435080/a-novel-approach-to-glioma-therapy-using-an-oncolytic-adenovirus-with-two-specific-promoters
#6
Feng Liu, Kaya Xu, Hua Yang, Yuming Li, Jian Liu, Jixiang Wang, Zhizhong Guan
Gliomas are the most common type of primary brain tumor in adults, where more than half of the cases are malignant, and the prognosis is poor. The early viral 1A (E1A) protein has been widely recognized to be essential for adenoviral replication and production of progeny virions in human cells, a process that is regulated by human telomerase reverse transcriptase. The p53 gene, as a tumor suppressor, regulates diverse cellular processes, including cell cycle arrest, cell autophagy, senescence and apoptosis...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433450/pathogen-recognition-by-nk-cells-amplifies-the-pro-inflammatory-cytokine-production-of-monocyte-derived-dc-via-ifn-%C3%AE
#7
Tammy Oth, Thomas H P M Habets, Wilfred T V Germeraad, Marijke I Zonneveld, Gerard M J Bos, Joris Vanderlocht
BACKGROUND: Besides their prominent role in the elimination of infected or malignantly transformed cells, natural killer (NK) cells serve as modulators of adaptive immune responses. Enhancing bidirectional crosstalk between NK cells and dendritic cells (DC) is considered a promising tool to potentiate cancer vaccines. We investigated to what extent direct sensing of viral and bacterial motifs by NK cells contributes to the response of inflammatory DC against the same pathogenic stimulus...
February 13, 2018: BMC Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431896/on-taking-the-sting-out-of-immune-activation
#8
REVIEW
Andra Banete, Kyle Seaver, Devyani Bakshi, Katrina Gee, Sameh Basta
Nearly a decade ago, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) adaptor protein called stimulator of interferon genes (STING) was found to be critical in the induction of type I IFN production in response to DNA virus infection. STING functions by sensing cytoplasmic DNA and activates key transcription factors, including IFN regulatory factor (IRF)-3 and IRF7, to initiate type I IFN expression. Type I IFNs are vital in immunity against viral infections and can influence cancer cell proliferation, migration, and apoptosis...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431533/bright-field-in-situ-hybridization-detects-gene-alterations-and-viral-infections-useful-for-personalized-management-of-cancer-patients
#9
Chiara C Volpi, Ambra V Gualeni, Filippo Pietrantonio, Emanuela Vaccher, Antonino Carbone, Annunziata Gloghini
Bright-field in situ hybridization (ISH) methods detect gene alterations that may improve diagnostic precision and personalized management of cancer patients. Areas covered. This review focuses on some bright-field ISH techniques for detection of gene amplification or viral infection that have already been introduced in tumor pathology, research and diagnostic practice. Other emerging ISH methods, for the detection of translocation, mRNA and microRNA have recently been developed and need both an optimization and analytical validation...
February 12, 2018: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425228/kshv-oral-shedding-and-plasma-viremia-result-in-significant-changes-in-the-extracellular-tumorigenic-mirna-expression-profile-in-individuals-infected-with-the-malaria-parasite
#10
Minako Ikoma, Soren Gantt, Corey Casper, Yuko Ogata, Qing Zhang, Ryan Basom, Michael R Dyen, Timothy M Rose, Serge Barcy
Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiological agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). Both KSHV and HIV infections are endemic in Uganda, where KS is among the most common cancers in HIV-infected individuals. Recent studies examined the use of small RNAs as biomarkers of disease, including microRNAs (miRNAs), with viral and tumor-derived miRNAs being detected in exosomes from individuals with KSHV-associated malignancies. In the current study, the host and viral extracellular mature miRNA expression profiles were analyzed in blood of KS-negative individuals in Uganda, comparing those with or without KSHV detectable from the oropharynx...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425215/friend-virus-limits-adaptive-cellular-immune-responses-by-imprinting-a-maturation-resistant-and-t-helper-type-2-biased-immunophenotype-in-dendritic-cells
#11
Limei Shen, Stefan Tenzer, Moritz Hess, Ute Distler, Ingrid Tubbe, Evelyn Montermann, Simone Schimmer, Ulf Dittmer, Stephan Grabbe, Matthias Bros
The murine Friend virus (FV) retrovirus model has been widely used to study anti-viral immune responses, and virus-induced cancer. Here we analyzed FV immune evasion mechanisms on the level of dendritic cells (DC) essential for the induction of primary adaptive immune responses. Comparative quantitative proteome analysis of FV-infected DC (FV-DC) of different genotypes (BALB/c, C57BL/6) and non-infected DC revealed numerous genotype-independently regulated proteins rergulating metabolic activity, cytoskeletal rearrangements, and antigen processing/presentation...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424653/seroprevalence-of-hepatitis-b-surface-antigenaemia-and-viral-infectivity-among-liver-cancer-patients-accessing-care-at-a-tertiary-health-facility-in-southwest-nigeria
#12
Adeleye Solomon Bakarey, Olukemi Jabaru, Olusola Olayiwola
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 9, 2018: Journal of Immunoassay & Immunochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423541/autoantibody-to-apolipoprotein-a-1-in-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-a-role-in-atherosclerosis
#13
Simon H Bridge, Sabrina Pagano, Meleri Jones, Graham R Foster, Dermot Neely, Nicolas Vuilleumier, Margaret F Bassendine
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: One to three per cent of the world's population has hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, which is not only a major cause of liver disease and cancer but also associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis, despite an ostensibly favourable lipid profile. Autoantibodies are frequent in HCV infection and emerging evidence shows that autoantibodies could be valuable for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk stratification. This study investigated a novel independent biomarker of CVD, autoantibodies to apolipoprotein A-1 (anti-apoA-1 IgG) and lipids in patients with chronic HCV before, during and after direct-acting anti-viral (DAA) therapy...
February 8, 2018: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423229/recognition-criteria-for-occupational-cancers-in-relation-to-hepatitis-b-virus-and-hepatitis-c-virus-in-korea
#14
REVIEW
Hogil Kim, Yun Kyung Chung, Inah Kim
The goal of this study was to review the scientific basis for the recognition of occupational cancer, in relation to hepatitis viral infections in Korea. Most Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections in Korea occur as vertical infections, but these are decreasing rapidly due to vaccination. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is known to be transmitted through parenteral routes, but the transmission route is often unclear. Most occupational infections of hepatitis virus involve accidental injuries of medical institution workers while using virus-contaminated medical devices...
2018: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421038/microbial-production-of-uracil-by-an-isolated-methylobacterium-sp-wj4-using-methanol
#15
Wangjun Lee, Sangwoo Kim, Insu Song, Yuhyun Kwon, Soohyun Park, Byung-Keun Oh, Han Bin Oh, Jinwon Lee
In this study, we report the production of uracil from methanol by an isolated methylotrophic bacterium, Methylobacterium sp. WJ4. The use of methanol as alternative carbon feedstock is attractive option in biotechnology. As a feedstock of biotechnological processes, methanol has distinct advantages over methane. This is not only due to physical and chemical considerations, but also to the properties of the pertinent organisms. Besides, with a wide array of biological activities and synthetic accessibility, uracil is considered as privileged structures in drug discovery...
April 2018: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420595/combination-therapy-for-cancer-with-oncolytic-virus-and-checkpoint-inhibitor-a-mathematical-model
#16
Avner Friedman, Xiulan Lai
Oncolytic virus (OV) is a replication competent virus that selectively invades cancer cells; as these cells die under the viral burden, the released virus particles proceed to infect other cancer cells. Oncolytic viruses are designed to also be able to stimulate the anticancer immune response. Thus, one may represent an OV by two parameters: its replication potential and its immunogenicity. In this paper we consider a combination therapy with OV and a checkpoint inhibitor, anti-PD-1. We evaluate the efficacy of the combination therapy in terms of the tumor volume at some later time, for example, 6 months from initial treatment...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417403/implementing-a-program-of-talimogene-laherparepvec
#17
Frances Collichio, Lauren Burke, Amber Proctor, Diana Wallack, Anthony Collichio, Patricia K Long, David W Ollila
BACKGROUND: Oncolytic viruses are genetically engineered or naturally occurring viruses that selectively replicate in cancer cells without harming normal cells. Talimogene laherparepvec (Imlygic®), the first oncolytic viral therapy approved for treatment of cancer, was approved for treatment of locally advanced melanoma in October 2015. PURPOSE: As a biologic product, use of T. laherparepvec in the clinical setting requires pretreatment planning and a unique systematic approach to deliver the therapy...
February 7, 2018: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415435/review-of-current-cell-penetrating-antibody-developments-for-hiv-1-therapy
#18
REVIEW
Muhamad Alif Che Nordin, Sin-Yeang Teow
The discovery of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in 1996 has significantly reduced the global mortality and morbidity caused by the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). However, the therapeutic strategy of HAART that targets multiple viral proteins may render off-target toxicity and more importantly results in drug-resistant escape mutants. These have been the main challenges for HAART and refinement of this therapeutic strategy is urgently needed. Antibody-mediated treatments are emerging therapeutic modalities for various diseases...
February 6, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414918/high-whole-genome-sequence-diversity-of-human-papillomavirus-type-18-isolates
#19
Pascal van der Weele, Chris J L M Meijer, Audrey J King
BACKGROUND: The most commonly found human papillomavirus (HPV) types in cervical cancer are HPV16 and HPV18. Genome variants of these types have been associated with differential carcinogenic potential. To date, only a handful of studies have described HPV18 whole genome sequencing results. Here we describe HPV18 variant diversity and conservation of persistent infections in a longitudinal retrospective cohort study. METHODS: Cervical self-samples were obtained annually over four years and genotyped on the SPF10-DEIA-LiPA25 platform...
February 7, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414659/evaluation-of-immune-responses-induced-by-a-novel-human-papillomavirus-type-16-e7-peptide-based-vaccine-with-candida-skin-test-reagent-as-an-adjuvant-in-c57bl-6-mice
#20
Xingxuan Wang, Yuxin Che, Bingnan Chen, Yao Zhang, Mayumi Nakagawa, Xuelian Wang
Cell mediated immune (CMI) responses are crucial for the clearance of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and HPV-associated lesions. Activated CD8 T cells are critical effector cells in recognizing and killing HPV-infected or HPV-transformed cells. CD4 T cells provide help for priming the generation and maintenance of CD8 T cells as well as for tumors immunity. An ideal therapeutic HPV peptide-based vaccine should induce both a robust CD8 T-cell response as well as a CD4 T-cell response for ensuring their efficiency...
January 30, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
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