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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534499/cis-perturbation-of-cancer-drivers-by-the-htlv-1-blv-proviruses-is-an-early-determinant-of-leukemogenesis
#1
Nicolas Rosewick, Keith Durkin, Maria Artesi, Ambroise Marçais, Vincent Hahaut, Philip Griebel, Natasa Arsic, Véronique Avettand-Fenoel, Arsène Burny, Carole Charlier, Olivier Hermine, Michel Georges, Anne Van den Broeke
Human T-cell leukaemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) and bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) infect T- and B-lymphocytes, respectively, provoking a polyclonal expansion that will evolve into an aggressive monoclonal leukaemia in ∼5% of individuals following a protracted latency period. It is generally assumed that early oncogenic changes are largely dependent on virus-encoded products, especially TAX and HBZ, while progression to acute leukaemia/lymphoma involves somatic mutations, yet that both are independent of proviral integration site that has been found to be very variable between tumours...
May 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534090/tooth-loss-and-liver-cancer-incidence-in-a-finnish-cohort
#2
Baiyu Yang, Jessica L Petrick, Christian C Abnet, Barry I Graubard, Gwen Murphy, Stephanie J Weinstein, Satu Männistö, Demetrius Albanes, Katherine A McGlynn
PURPOSE: Periodontal disease, a major cause of tooth loss in adults, may have systemic effects and has been associated with higher risk of several cancer types. However, the associations of periodontal disease or tooth loss with liver cancer have only been examined prospectively in two studies, neither of which had sufficient statistical power. In addition, no studies assessed the potential confounding by viral hepatitis or Helicobacter pylori infection status. METHODS: In this study, we examined the association between tooth loss and primary liver cancer incidence in a prospective cohort of Finnish male smokers (n = 29,096)...
May 22, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531552/the-role-of-next-generation-sequencing-in-infection-prevention-in-human-parainfluenza-virus-3-infections-in-immunocompromised-patients
#3
Atul Kothari, Mary J Burgess, Juan Carlos Rico Crescencio, Joshua L Kennedy, Jesse L Denson, Kurt C Schwalm, Ashley N Stoner, John C Kincaid, Faith E Davies, Darrell L Dinwiddie
BACKGROUND: Respiratory viral infections are a significant problem in patients with hematologic malignancies. We report a cluster of HPIV 3 infections in our myeloma patients, and describe the utility of next generation sequencing (NGS) to identify transmission linkages which can assist in infection prevention. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the utility of NGS to track respiratory viral infection outbreaks and delineate between community acquired and nosocomial infections in our cancer units...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531277/genome-wide-discovery-of-viral-micrornas-based-on-phylogenetic-analysis-and-structural-evolution-of-various-human-papillomavirus-subtypes
#4
Shun-Long Weng, Kai-Yao Huang, Julia Tzu-Ya Weng, Fang-Yu Hung, Tzu-Hao Chang, Tzong-Yi Lee
In mammals, microRNAs (miRNAs) play key roles in controlling posttranscriptional regulation through binding to the mRNAs of target genes. Recently, it was discovered that viral miRNAs may be involved in human cancers and diseases. It is likely that viral miRNAs help viruses enter the latent phase of their life cycle and become undetected by the host's immune system, while increasing the host's risk for cancer development. Cervical cancer is typically related to the infection of human papillomavirus (HPV) through sexual transmission...
May 20, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529542/frequency-and-geographic-distribution-of-tert-promoter-mutations-in-primary-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#5
REVIEW
Francesca Pezzuto, Luigi Buonaguro, Franco M Buonaguro, Maria Lina Tornesello
Primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) mainly develops in subjects chronically infected with hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) viruses through a multistep process characterized by the accumulation of genetic alterations in the human genome. Nucleotide changes in coding regions (i.e. TP53, CTNNB1, ARID1A and ARID2) as well as in non-coding regions (i.e. TERT promoter) are considered cancer drivers for HCC development with variable frequencies in different geographic regions depending on the etiology and environmental factors...
2017: Infectious Agents and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529540/the-potential-role-of-infectious-agents-and-pelvic-inflammatory-disease-in-ovarian-carcinogenesis
#6
REVIEW
Kasper Ingerslev, Estrid Hogdall, Tine Henrichsen Schnack, Wojciech Skovrider-Ruminski, Claus Hogdall, Jan Blaakaer
BACKGROUND: The etiological cause of ovarian cancer is poorly understood. It has been theorized that bacterial or viral infection as well as pelvic inflammatory disease could play a role in ovarian carcinogenesis. AIM: To review the literature on studies examining the association between ovarian cancer and bacterial or viral infection or pelvic inflammatory disease. METHODS: Database search through MEDLINE, applying the medical subject headings: "Ovarian neoplasms", AND "Chlamydia infections", "Neisseria gonorrhoeae", "Mycoplasma genitalium", "Papillomaviridae", or "pelvic inflammatory disease"...
2017: Infectious Agents and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528689/human-papillomaviruses-in-epigenetic-regulations
#7
REVIEW
Julia Durzynska, Krzysztof Lesniewicz, Elzbieta Poreba
Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs) are double-stranded DNA viruses, that infect epithelial cells and are etiologically involved in the development of human cancer. Today, over 200 types of human papillomaviruses are known. They are divided into low-risk and high-risk HPVs depending on their potential to induce carcinogenesis, driven by two major viral oncoproteins, E6 and E7. By interacting with cellular partners, these proteins are involved in interdependent viral and cell cycles in stratified differentiating epithelium, and concomitantly induce epigenetic changes in infected cells and those undergoing malignant transformation...
April 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528686/hpv-entry-into-cells
#8
REVIEW
Pinar Aksoy, Elinor Y Gottschalk, Patricio I Meneses
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a sexually transmitted virus responsible for the development of cervical cancer, anal cancer, head and throat cancers, as well as genital area warts. A major focus of current HPV research is on preventing the virus from entering a cell and transferring its genetic material to the nucleus, thus potentially preventing the development of cancer. Although the available HPV vaccines are extremely successful, approximately 15 additional cancer-causing HPVs have been identified that the vaccines do not protect against...
April 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526972/patient-experiences-attitudes-and-expectations-towards-receiving-information-about-anti-tnf-medication-a-quantitative-study
#9
Jon Packham, Paul Arkell, Tom Sheeran, Ann Brownfield, Anthony Cadwgan, Sarah Ryan
The objective of the study was to measure patient attitudes and experience of information received during drug counselling for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) medications. This is a cross-sectional UK postal questionnaire study. Three RA patient groups-disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) only, first anti-tumour necrosis factor (anti-TNF) and failed anti-TNF-were sent postal questionnaires. Data on patient history/demographics, drug counselling experience, knowledge of drug side effects, attitudes to vaccinations, cancer screening and blood borne virus testing was collected; 264/679 (39%) patients responded (median age 65 years, 66% female, median disease duration 15 years)...
May 19, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526132/old-and-novel-functions-of-caspase-2
#10
M A Miles, T Kitevska-Ilioski, C J Hawkins
Although caspase-2 is a highly conserved protease that has received a lot of research attention, consensus about its roles and the molecular mechanisms that underpin them has been elusive. Recent improvements to our understanding of the activities of caspase-2 have been facilitated by the development and refinement of techniques allowing identification of cellular processes instigated by this caspase. Following DNA damage, caspase-2 can be activated in a molecular complex called the "PIDDosome"; however, other stimuli provoke caspase-2-dependent activities that do not appear to involve this complex...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525366/mesenchymal-stem-cell-carriers-enhance-antitumor-efficacy-of-oncolytic-adenoviruses-in-an-immunocompetent-mouse-model
#11
Esther Rincón, Teresa Cejalvo, Deepak Kanojia, Arantzazu Alfranca, Miguel Ángel Rodríguez-Milla, Raul Andrés Gil Hoyos, Yu Han, Lingjiao Zhang, Ramón Alemany, Maciej S Lesniak, Javier García-Castro
Oncolytic virotherapy represents a promising alternative for cancer treatment; however, viral delivery to the tumor represents a major challenge. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) chemotax to tumors, and can serve as a viral delivery tool. Previously, we demonstrated antitumor therapeutic efficacy for mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) infected with the oncolytic human adenovirus ICOVIR5 (Celyvir) for treatment of neuroblastoma patients. Given the lack of suitable immunocompetent preclinical models, the mechanism underlying Celyvir antitumor activity remains unknown...
May 2, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521532/new-antivirals-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-hepatitis-b
#12
Vincent Soriano, Pablo Barreiro, Laura Benitez, Jose M Peña, Carmen de Mendoza
Current treatment with oral nucleos(t)ides entecavir or tenofovir provide sustained suppression of HBV replication and clinical benefit in most chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infected persons. However, HBV rebound generally occurs upon drug discontinuation due to persistence of genomic HBV reservoirs as episomic cccDNA and chromosomic integrated HBV-DNA. There is renewed enthusiasm on HBV drug discovery following recent successes with antivirals for hepatitis C and immunotherapies for some cancers. Areas covered: New drugs that target distinct steps of the HBV life cycle are been developed, including inhibitors of viral entry, new polymerase inhibitors, capsid and assembly inhibitors, virus release blockers, and disruptors of cccDNA formation and transcription...
May 18, 2017: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521287/5azadc-treatment-upregulates-mir-375-level-and-represses-hpv16-e6-expression
#13
Adrien Morel, Aurélie Baguet, Jérôme Perrard, Caroline Demeret, Elise Jacquin, David Guenat, Christiane Mougin, Jean-Luc Prétet
High risk human papillomaviruses are the etiological agents of cervical cancer and HPV16 is the most oncogenic genotype. Immortalization and transformation of infected cells requires the overexpression of the two viral oncoproteins E6 and E7 following HPV DNA integration into the host cell genome. Integration often leads to the loss of the E2 open reading frame and the corresponding protein can no longer act as a transcriptional repressor on p97 promoter. Recently, it has been proposed that long control region methylation also contributes to the regulation of E6/E7 expression...
May 2, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515303/spontaneous-and-vaccine-induced-clearance-of-mus-musculus-papillomavirus-type-1-mmupv1-muspv1-infection
#14
Rosie T Jiang, Joshua W Wang, Shiwen Peng, Tsui-Chin Huang, Chenguang Wang, Fabiana Cannella, Yung-Nien Chang, Raphael P Viscidi, Simon R A Best, Chien-Fu Hung, Richard B S Roden
Mus musculus Papillomavirus1 (MmuPV1/MusPV1) induces persistent papillomas in immunodeficient mice but not common laboratory strains. To facilitate study of immune control, we sought an outbred and immune competent laboratory mouse strain in which persistent papillomas could be established. We found that challenge of SKH1 mice (Crl:SKH1-Hrhr) by scarification on their tail with MmuPV1 resulted in three clinical outcomes: 1) persistent (>2 months) papillomas (∼20%), 2) transient papillomas that spontaneously regress typically within 2 months (∼15%), 3) no visible papillomas and viral clearance (∼65%)...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515256/opportunities-and-challenges-human-papillomavirus-and-cancer
#15
Christina S Chu, David G Pfister
Mucosal exposure to human papillomavirus (HPV) can lead to anogenital and head and neck (H&N) cancer. Vaccination at a young age can be almost 100% effective in preventing HPV infection with the viral subtypes in both men and women, at least for disease in the anogenital tract. Therapeutic strategies targeting HPV in cervical dysplasia and cancer are showing promise as well in regressing dysplasia and controlling disease. That HPV-positive H&N cancer is a different disease from HPV-negative disease, with different molecular and clinical features and prognosis, is becoming better appreciated...
May 2017: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510446/modularly-constructed-synthetic-granzyme-b-molecule-enables-interrogation-of-intracellular-proteases-for-targeted-cytotoxicity
#16
Patrick Ho, Christopher Ede, Yvonne Y Chen
Targeted therapies promise to increase the safety and efficacy of treatments against diseases ranging from cancer to viral infections. However, the vast majority of targeted therapeutics relies on the recognition of extracellular biomarkers, which are rarely restricted to diseased cells and are thus prone to severe and sometimes-fatal off-target toxicities. In contrast, intracellular antigens present a diverse yet underutilized repertoire of disease markers. Here, we report a protein-based therapeutic platform-termed Cytoplasmic Oncoprotein VErifier and Response Trigger (COVERT)-which enables the interrogation of intracellular proteases to trigger targeted cytotoxicity...
May 22, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503555/surgical-options-for-intrahepatic-cholangiocarcinoma
#17
REVIEW
Kui Wang, Han Zhang, Yong Xia, Jian Liu, Feng Shen
Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is the second most common primary liver cancer, accounting for 10-15% of primary hepatic malignancy. The incidence and cancer-related mortality of ICC continue to increase worldwide. At present, hepatectomy is still the most effective treatment for ICC patients to achieve long-term survival, although its overall efficacy may not be as good as that for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) due to the unique pathogenesis and clinical-pathological profiles of ICC. Viral infection, lithiasis and metabolic factors may all be associated with the pathogenesis of ICC...
April 2017: Hepatobiliary Surgery and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498847/paradoxical-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cell-reduction-in-the-bone-marrow-of-siv-chronically-infected-macaques
#18
Yongjun Sui, Blake Frey, Yichuan Wang, Rolf Billeskov, Shweta Kulkarni, Katherine McKinnon, Tracy Rourke, Linda Fritts, Christopher J Miller, Jay A Berzofsky
Myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), which suppress anti-tumor or anti-viral immune responses, are expanded in the peripheral blood and tissues of patients/animals with cancer or viral infectious diseases. We here show that in chronic SIV infection of Indian rhesus macaques, the frequency of MDSCs in the bone marrow (BM) was paradoxically and unexpectedly decreased, but increased in peripheral blood. Reduction of BM MDSCs was found in both CD14+MDSC and Lin-CD15+MDSC subsets. The reduction of MDSCs correlated with high plasma viral loads and low CD4+ T cell counts, suggesting that depletion of BM MDSCs was associated with SIV/AIDS disease progression...
May 12, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497710/the-complex-diagnostic-challenge-in-children-with-non-central-nervous-system-cancer-and-cerebellar-mutism
#19
Kathleen Helton, Amy L Patterson, Raja B Khan, Zsila Sadighi
Multiple etiologies should be considered in the differential diagnosis of immunocompromised patients with non-central nervous system cancer and viral infections who develop mutism. Acute cerebellitis, caused by infections or by neurotoxicity resulting from chemotherapy; paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration; atypical posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome; and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis may all cause mutism in such patients. This condition warrants prompt recognition and may require treatment with immunotherapy, as it may be an immune-mediated process...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496337/immunogenicity-of-oncolytic-vaccinia-viruses-jx-gfp-and-tg6002-in-a-human-melanoma-in-vitro-model-studying-immunogenic-cell-death-dendritic-cell-maturation-and-interaction-with-cytotoxic-t-lymphocytes
#20
B Heinrich, J Klein, M Delic, K Goepfert, V Engel, L Geberzahn, M Lusky, P Erbs, X Preville, M Moehler
Oncolytic virotherapy is an emerging immunotherapeutic modality for cancer treatment. Oncolytic viruses with genetic modifications can further enhance the oncolytic effects on tumor cells and stimulate antitumor immunity. The oncolytic vaccinia viruses JX-594-GFP+/hGM-CSF (JX-GFP) and TG6002 are genetically modified by secreting granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or transforming 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) into 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). We compared their properties to kill tumor cells and induce an immunogenic type of cell death in a human melanoma cell model using SK29-MEL melanoma cells...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
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