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Electrolyte disturbances

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456121/establishment-of-colonic-dialysis-model-in-uremic-rats-by-right-nephrectomy-and-left-partial-nephrectomy
#1
Abdol-Mohammad Kajbafzadeh, Nastaran Sabetkish, Shabnam Sabetkish
BACKGROUND: Conventional treatments for patients suffering with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has several disadvantages, highlighting the importance of other reproducible modalities such as colonic dialysis (CD). OBJECTIVES: The aim was to establish a CD model in uremic rats and evaluate the effect of two different peritoneal dialysis (PD) solutions. METHODS: Thirty-two male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups. After right nephrectomy and left partial nephrectomy, a Malone antegrade continence enema (MACE) stoma was created...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447831/rhabdomyolysis-after-prolonged-surgery-report-of-2-cases-and-review-of-literature
#2
Rebecca Grammer, Jingping Wang, Edward Lahey
Rhabdomyolysis is a condition in which damaged muscle tissue breaks down and intracellular contents, including myoglobin, are released into the circulation. This produces a nonspecific clinical syndrome including electrolyte disturbances, hypovolemia, metabolic acidosis, coagulopathies, and risk of acute kidney injury. Rhabdomyolysis has been reported as a complication of prolonged surgical procedures but has rarely been reported in the oral and maxillofacial surgery literature. Early diagnosis and treatment of rhabdomyolysis are important to avoid long-term complications such as renal failure...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433768/ginger-polyphenols-attenuate-cyclosporine-induced-disturbances-in-kidney-function-potential-application-in-adjuvant-transplant-therapy
#3
Isiaka Ayofe Adekunle, Christian Eseigbe Imafidon, Ayowole Abraham Oladele, Abiodun Oladele Ayoka
Cyclosporine (CYA), a common immuno-suppressant drug that is used in organ transplants, is associated with nephrotoxic effects. Scientific exploration of natural products of plant origin should be considered; especially, in a world with increasing prevalence of kidney diseases. Effects of ginger polyphenols (GP) in Wistar rats with CYA-induced perturbations in electrolyte balance and kidney function was determined. Fifty Wistar rats were recruited for this study such that graded doses of GP were administered following CYA-induced kidney injury and comparisons were made against control and toxic groups at p < 0...
February 7, 2018: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396136/renal-replacement-therapy-in-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#4
Tze Yee Diane Mok, Min-Hua Tseng, Ming-Chou Chiang, Ju-Li Lin, Shih Ming Chu, Jen-Fu Hsu, Reyin Lien
BACKGROUND: Renal replacement therapy (RRT) is becoming increasingly necessary for supporting critically ill neonates. Few studies have reported the use of RRT in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Therefore, we performed a retrospective study to describe the use of RRT in our NICU and its associated efficacy, complications, and outcomes. METHODS: We identified patients requiring RRT between January 2009 and January 2017. Demographic data, mode of RRT, and associated factors were recorded...
December 21, 2017: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386712/cognitive-deficits-due-to-thermal-stress-an-exploratory-study-on-soldiers-in-deserts
#5
Rajiv Saini, Kalpana Srivastava, Sunil Agrawal, R C Das
Background: It is well known that environmental factors play an important role in human performance. High temperature and humidity particularly impair mental performance by altering brain neurochemistry and electrolyte disturbance which in turn affect one's overall efficiency. While the physiological responses to environmental heat have been well established, it is less clear about its impact on cognition. Study aims to investigate the impact of thermal strain on cognition. Methods: One hundred (100) healthy soldiers aged between 20 and 30 years who had spent minimum of one year in desert conditions prior to their induction in the study formed sample of the study...
October 2017: Medical Journal, Armed Forces India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384906/a-rare-case-report-of-multiple-myeloma-presenting-with-paralytic-ileus-and-type-ii-respiratory-failure-due-to-hypercalcemic-crisis
#6
Yuchen Guo, Liang He, Yiming Liu, Xueyuan Cao
RATIONALE: Paralytic ileus is characterized by the signs and symptoms of intestinal obstruction but without any mechanical lesions in the intestinal lumen. Several medical and surgical conditions can lead to this ailment, such as electrolyte disturbances that impair intestinal motility. However, hypercalcemia secondary to multiple myeloma as a major cause of paralytic ileus has rarely been reported. PATIENT CONCERNS: The patient got severe constipation with difficulty in the passage of both gas and feces for 7 days...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384316/continuous-tube-feeding-versus-intermittent-oral-feeding-for-intermediate-position-enterostomy-in-infants
#7
Weiwei Jiang, Jie Zhang, Xiaofeng Lv, Xiaoqun Xu, Qiming Geng, Weibing Tang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The stoma of intermediate position enterostomy (IPE) often leads to high output, which is related to electrolyte abnormalities, and prolongs patient recovery post-operatively. The continuous nasogastric tube feeding method has the advantage of reducing the risk of feeding intolerance, and improves nutrient absorption. In the current study, we review our experience with continuous tube feeding and compare the clinical outcomes with intermittent oral feeding in patients with an IPE post-operatively...
2018: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382373/refeeding-syndrome-in-adults-with-celiac-crisis-a-case-report
#8
Sonia Hammami, Houda Lazreg Aref, Messouda Khalfa, Ines Kochtalli, Mohamed Hammami
BACKGROUND: Refeeding syndrome is a rare and life-threatening pathology with polyvisceral manifestations occurring in severely malnourished patients. It is rarely described in adults with celiac disease. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 28-year-old Tunisian woman followed up for celiac disease, who did not adhere to the gluten-free diet. She presented to our hospital with celiac crisis manifested by severe diarrhea, and metabolic and electrolyte disturbances...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379921/influence-of-a-silver-salt-on-the-nanostructure-of-a-au-111-ionic-liquid-interface-an-atomic-force-microscopy-study-and-theoretical-concepts
#9
Viktor Hoffmann, Giridhar Pulletikurthi, Timo Carstens, Abhishek Lahiri, Andriy Borodin, Max Schammer, Birger Horstmann, Arnulf Latz, Frank Endres
Ionic liquids (ILs) form a multilayered structure at the solid/electrolyte interface, and the addition of solutes can alter it. For this purpose, we have investigated the influence of the silver bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide (AgTFSA) concentration in 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide ([Py1,4]TFSA) on the layering using in situ atomic force microscopy. AFM investigations revealed that the Au(111)/electrolyte interface indeed depends on the concentration of the salt where a typical " IL" multilayered structure is retained only at quite low concentrations of the silver salt (e...
January 30, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373539/acute-limb-ischemia-much-more-than-just-a-lack-of-oxygen
#10
REVIEW
Florian Simon, Alexander Oberhuber, Nikolaos Floros, Albert Busch, Markus Udo Wagenhäuser, Hubert Schelzig, Mansur Duran
Acute ischemia of an extremity occurs in several stages, a lack of oxygen being the primary contributor of the event. Although underlying patho-mechanisms are similar, it is important to determine whether it is an acute or chronic event. Healthy tissue does not contain enlarged collaterals, which are formed in chronically malperfused tissue and can maintain a minimum supply despite occlusion. The underlying processes for enhanced collateral blood flow are sprouting vessels from pre-existing vessels (via angiogenesis) and a lumen extension of arterioles (via arteriogenesis)...
January 26, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373320/hypercalcemia-hyperkalemia-and-supraventricular-tachycardia-in-a-patient-with-subcutaneous-fat-necrosis
#11
Kandy A Bahadur, Stacey Johnson, Benjamin Lentzner, Mariam Gangat, Joann Carlson, Sadana Balachandar
BACKGROUND: Subcutaneous fat necrosis (SCFN) is a rare, self-limiting condition that has been associated with several complications including hypercalcemia. CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a 6-week-old male who presented to his pediatrician with a dime-sized erythematous nodule consistent with SCFN, who was also found to have supraventricular tachycardia (SVT). Laboratory findings revealed hypercalcemia and hyperkalemia. Extensive evaluation for the electrolyte disturbances revealed no other etiology...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357439/circadian-regulation-of-kidney-function-finding-a-role-for-bmal1
#12
Dingguo Zhang, David M Pollock
Mounting evidence suggests that there is an internal molecular "clock" within the kidney to help maintain normal renal function. Disturbance of the kidney circadian rhythm may pose a threat to water and electrolyte homeostasis and blood pressure regulation, amongst many other problems. The identification of circadian genes facilitated a more comprehensive appreciation of the importance of "keeping the body on time"; however, our knowledge is very limited with regard to how circadian genes regulate kidney function...
December 20, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350175/update-on-the-nephrotoxicity-of%C3%A2-novel%C3%A2-anticancer-agents%C3%A2
#13
Eliezer Zachary Nussbaum, Mark A Perazella
Anticancer drug-induced kidney disease is a problem commonly encountered by nephrologists. The number of medications employed by oncologists causing acute and chronic kidney injury as well as electrolyte and acid-base disturbances has increased significantly over the past several decades. While conventional chemotherapeutic drugs induce a number of kidney lesions, emergence of very effective and well-tolerated targeted therapies and novel immunotherapies has increased the occurrence of drug-induced acute and chronic kidney injury in cancer patients...
January 19, 2018: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344358/the-global-problem-of-childhood-diarrhoeal-diseases-emerging-strategies-in-prevention-and-management
#14
REVIEW
Margaret Mokomane, Ishmael Kasvosve, Emilia de Melo, Jeffrey M Pernica, David M Goldfarb
Acute diarrhoeal diseases remain a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality particularly among young children in resource-limited countries. Recent large studies utilizing case-control design, prospective sampling and more sensitive and broad diagnostic techniques have shed light on particular pathogens of importance and highlighted the previously under recognized impact of these infections on post-acute illness mortality and growth. Vaccination, particularly against rotavirus, has emerged as a key effective means of preventing significant morbidity and mortality from childhood diarrhoeal disease...
January 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322961/perioperative-strokes-following-combined-coronary-artery-bypass-grafting-and-carotid-endarterectomy-a-nationwide-perspective
#15
REVIEW
Reshmi Udesh, Hannah Cheng, Amol Mehta, Parthasarathy D Thirumala
BACKGROUND: To assess the risk of perioperative stroke on in-hospital morbidity and mortality following combined coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and carotid endarterectomy (CEA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database for all patients who underwent CABG with CEA were identified using ICD-9 codes. Combined procedures were identified as CEA and CABG procedures that happened on the same day. Various preoperative and perioperative risk factors and their association with in-hospital mortality and morbidity were studied...
January 2018: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321950/manifestations-of-renal-impairment-in-fructose-induced-metabolic-syndrome
#16
Kameliya Bratoeva, George S Stoyanov, Albena Merdzhanova, Mariya Radanova
Introduction International studies show an increased incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in patients with metabolic syndrome (MS). It is assumed that the major components of MS - obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension - are linked to renal damage through the systemic release of several pro-inflammatory mediators, such as uric acid (UA), C-reactive protein (CRP), and generalized oxidative stress. The aim of the present study was to investigate the extent of kidney impairment and manifestations of dysfunction in rats with fructose-induced MS...
November 7, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318728/diagnosis-and-management-of-hyponatraemia-in-the-older-patient
#17
REVIEW
Michael Woodward, Peter Gonski, Mathis Grossmann, John Obeid, Ron Scholes, Duncan J Topliss
Hyponatraemia (serum sodium concentration below 135 mmol/L) is the most common electrolyte disturbance and occurs commonly in older people. The causes can be complex to diagnose and treat and many published guidelines do not focus on the issues in an older patient group. Here, we are principally concerned with diagnosis and management of euvolaemic and hypervolaemic hyponatraemia in hospitalised patients over 70 years old. We also aim to increase awareness of hyponatraemia in residential aged care facilities and the community...
January 2018: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295830/treatment-of-severe-hyponatremia
#18
Richard H Sterns
Patients with severe (serum sodium ≤120 mEq/L), symptomatic hyponatremia can develop life-threatening or fatal complications from cerebral edema if treatment is inadequate and permanent neurologic disability from osmotic demyelination if treatment is excessive. Unfortunately, as is true of all electrolyte disturbances, there are no randomized trials to guide the treatment of this challenging disorder. Rather, therapeutic decisions rest on physiologic principles, animal models, observational studies, and single-patient reports...
January 2, 2018: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248268/trifluoroacetic-acid-three-times-the-fluoride-three-times-the-toxicity
#19
Christie Sun, Bryan Corbett
Trifluoroacetic acid (TFAA) is a carboxylic acid, similar to acetic acid, used industrially and in laboratories. There is a paucity of data regarding exposure and the concern is that toxicity may mimic that of hydrofluoric acid (HF), causing electrolyte abnormalities, dysrhythmia, and cardiac arrest. We report a case of a 27-year-old male that presents with a dermal exposure to TFAA. His exam was remarkable for a 4% body surface area partial thickness burn to the right forearm. There were no initial electrolyte abnormalities or dysrhythmias and the patient was admitted to telemetry monitoring overnight...
December 12, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242247/chip-regulates-aquaporin-2-quality-control-and-body-water-homeostasis
#20
Qi Wu, Hanne B Moeller, Donté A Stevens, Rebekah Sanchez-Hodge, Gabrielle Childers, Marleen L A Kortenoeven, Lei Cheng, Lena L Rosenbaek, Carrie Rubel, Cam Patterson, Trairak Pisitkun, Jonathan C Schisler, Robert A Fenton
The importance of the kidney distal convoluted tubule (DCT) and cortical collecting duct (CCD) is highlighted by various water and electrolyte disorders that arise when the unique transport properties of these segments are disturbed. Despite this critical role, little is known about which proteins have a regulatory role in these cells and how these cells can be regulated by individual physiologic stimuli. By combining proteomics, bioinformatics, and cell biology approaches, we found that the E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP is highly expressed throughout the collecting duct; is modulated in abundance by vasopressin; interacts with aquaporin-2 (AQP2), Hsp70, and Hsc70; and can directly ubiquitylate the water channel AQP2 in vitro shRNA knockdown of CHIP in CCD cells increased AQP2 protein t1/2 and reduced AQP2 ubiquitylation, resulting in greater levels of AQP2 and phosphorylated AQP2...
December 14, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
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