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Renal physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155925/exposure-biomarkers-indicate-more-than-just-exposure
#1
David A Savitz, Gregory A Wellenius
Biomarkers of environmental exposures have notable strengths in integrating across diverse sources and routes of exposure and providing a marker reflecting biological dose. However, the physiologic determinants of biomarker toxicokinetics and measured levels may also affect or be affected by disease determinants and thus introduce confounding. Sagiv et al. (1) sought empirical evidence on the role of renal clearance in biasing the association between perfluoroalkyl compounds measured in plasma during pregnancy and infant birth weight and found little empirical support for such bias...
November 16, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153556/fatty-acids-in-nephrotic-syndrome-and-chronic-kidney-disease
#2
REVIEW
Stefano Turolo, Alberto Edefonti, Marie Louise Syren, Franca Marangoni, William Morello, Carlo Agostoni, Giovanni Montini
The role of fatty acids (FAs) in inflammation and in the related chronic diseases has been demonstrated. However, there is a lack of consistent and agreed knowledge about the role of FA profile and renal physiology and pathology, most articles focusing on the effect of polyunsaturated FAs supplementation, without considering the impact of basal FA metabolism on the efficacy of the supplementation. Here, we have summarized the specific literature concerning the assessment of circulating FA in 2 renal diseases, namely nephrotic syndrome and chronic kidney disease, also under hemodialytic treatment, and have received the most significant contributions in the last years...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Renal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153025/annals-express-gestational-age-specific-reference-intervals-for-15-biochemical-measurands-during-normal-pregnancy-in-china
#3
Yanpeng Dai, Junjie Liu, Enwu Yuan, Yushan Lee, Quanxian Wang, Liting Jia, Linkai Wang, Yanhua Su
AIMS: Physiological changes that occur during pregnancy can influence biochemical parameters. Therefore, using reference intervals based on specimens from non-pregnant women to interpret laboratory results during pregnancy may be inappropriate. This study aimed to establish essential to establish reference intervals for a range of analytes during pregnancy. METHODS: The cross-sectional study was performed in 13656 healthy pregnant and 2634 non-pregnant women. Fifteen biochemical measurands relating to renal and hepatic function were analyzed using an Olympus AU5400 analyzer (Olympus, Tokyo, Japan)...
January 1, 2017: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150543/toxicokinetics-and-physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-modeling-of-the-shellfish-toxin-domoic-acid-in-nonhuman-primates
#4
Jing Jing, Rebekah Petroff, Sara Shum, Brenda Crouthamel, Ariel R Topletz, Kimberly S Grant, Thomas M Burbacher, Nina Isoherranen
Domoic acid (DA), a neurotoxin, is produced by marine algae and has caused toxications worldwide in animals and humans. However, the toxicokinetics of DA has not been fully evaluated, and information is missing on the disposition of DA following oral exposures at doses that are considered safe for human consumption. In this study, toxicokinetics of DA were investigated in cynomolgus monkeys, following single doses of 5 µg/kg DA iv, 0.075 mg/kg DA po and 0.15 mg/kg DA po. Following iv dosing, DA had a systemic clearance of 124 ± 71 ml/hr/kg, volume of distribution at steady state of 131±71 ml/kg and elimination half-life of 1...
November 17, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150416/-bicarbonate-from-physiology-to-treatment-for-all-clinicians
#5
Julie Beaume, Antoine Braconnier, Thibault Dolley-Hitze, Jean-Philippe Bertocchio
Acid-base regulation is essential to maintain homeostasis in humans. Carbonic acid/bicarbonate (H2CO3/HCO3(-)) couple is the most predominant extracellular buffer to keep plasma pH within a physiological range. The ability to (re)generate such a buffer is a key milestone that necessitates to understand a precise physiology of both renal tubule and digestive tract. Here, we first reviewed renal and digestive cycles of bicarbonate in physiology. We also reviewed pathological findings where acid-base disequilibrium is involved and nutritional and/or alkali therapy could be necessary...
November 14, 2017: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144825/salt-hypertension-and-immunity
#6
A Justin Rucker, Nathan P Rudemiller, Steven D Crowley
The link between inappropriate salt retention in the kidney and hypertension is well recognized. However, growing evidence suggests that the immune system can play surprising roles in sodium homeostasis, such that the study of inflammatory cells and their secreted effectors has provided important insights into salt sensitivity. As part of the innate immune system, myeloid cells have diverse roles in blood pressure regulation, ranging from prohypertensive actions in the kidney, vasculature, and brain, to effects in the skin that attenuate blood pressure elevation...
November 16, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142988/proximal-tubular-expression-patterns-of-megalin-and-cubilin-in-proteinuric-nephropathies
#7
Jia Sun, Kjell Hultenby, Jonas Axelsson, Johan Nordström, Bing He, Annika Wernerson, Karin Lindström
Introduction: Receptor-mediated endocytosis is responsible for protein reabsorption in the proximal tubules. For albumin this process involves at least 2 interacting receptors, megalin and cubilin. Albumin is not usually present in the urine, indicating a highly efficient tubular reuptake under physiological conditions. However, early appearance of albuminuria may mean that the tubular system is overwhelmed by large quantities of albumin or that the function is impaired. Methods: To better understand the physiological role of megalin and cubilin in human renal disease, renal biopsies from 15 patients with a range of albuminuria and 3 healthy living donors were analyzed for proximal tubular expression of megalin and cubilin using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and semiquantitative immune-electron microscopy...
July 2017: KI Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138217/effectiveness-of-interprofessional-education-in-renal-physiology-curricula-for-health-sciences-graduate-students
#8
Lisa M Harrison-Bernard, Mihran V Naljayan, Jane M Eason, Donald E Mercante, Tina P Gunaldo
The primary purpose of conducting an interprofessional education (IPE) experience during the renal physiology block of a graduate-level course was to provide basic science, physical therapy, and physician assistant graduate students with an opportunity to work as a team in the diagnosis, treatment, and collaborative care of a patient with acute kidney injury. The secondary purpose was to enhance the understanding of basic renal physiology principles with a patient case presentation of renal pathophysiology...
December 1, 2017: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133765/geriatric-anesthesia-related-morbidity-and-mortality-in-china-current-status-and-trend
#9
REVIEW
Yang Liu, Wei Xiao, Ling-Zhong Meng, Tian-Long Wang
OBJECTIVE: The population of elderly patients and the amount of geriatric anesthesia have been growing rapidly in China. Thus, understanding the morbidity and mortality associated with geriatric anesthesia in China is critical to the improvement of anesthesia quality and outcome. The aim of the review was to discuss the geriatric anesthesia-related morbidity and mortality in China, as well as to point out the future trend. DATA SOURCES: Articles in this review were all searched from Wanfang, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), VIP, PubMed, and Web of Science databases, based on the reports originated in China from January 2011 to December 2016...
November 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129269/partial-two-thirds-nephrectomy-in-pigs-a-comparison-of-three-surgical-approaches
#10
Hai-Feng Liu, Wei-Jing Meng, Xiang-Dong Kong, Ge Bai, Hui Li, Jian-Tao Zhang, Hong-Gang Fan, Hong-Bin Wang
Partial (2/3) nephrectomy can be performed via the laparoscopic, retroperitoneal, and transperitoneal approach. Outcomes of the three approaches were compared in this study. 2/3 nephrectomy were performed in 21 healthy Bama miniature pigs (mean bodyweight 20.59±2.78kg). Pigs were divided into three groups: those that underwent 2/3 nephrectomy via laparoscopy (LN group, n=7), the retroperitoneal approach (RN group, n=7), or the transperitoneal approach (TN group, n=7). We monitored pre- and postoperative physiologic parameters, blood cell count, and stress and renal function biomarkers...
November 7, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123839/relationship-between-nitrogen-loss-and-blood-urea-nitrogen-concentrations-in-patients-requiring-continuous-renal-replacement-therapy
#11
Takeaki Sato, Shigeki Kushimoto
Aim: It is well known that continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) produces some amount of nitrogen loss, but there are few tools that are easily applied to measure it. This study aimed to evaluate nitrogen loss using blood urea nitrogen (BUN) measurement in patients receiving CRRT. Methods: The subjects were 28 patients who received CRRT (except for liver failure) between 2010 and 2012. Nutrition data and nitrogen excretion in dialysate and urine were measured...
January 2017: Acute Medicine & Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121774/sphingolipids-and-redox-signaling-in-renal-regulation-and-chronic-kidney-diseases
#12
Owais M Bhat, Xinxu Yuan, Guangbi Li, RaMi Lee, Pin Lan Li
SIGNIFICANCE: Sphingolipids play critical roles in the membrane biology and intracellular signaling events that influence cellular behavior and function. Our review focuses on the cellular mechanisms and functional relevance of the cross talk between sphingolipids and redox signaling, which may be critically implicated in the pathogenesis of different renal diseases. Recent Advances: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and sphingolipids can regulate cellular redox homeostasis through the regulation of NADPH oxidase, mitochondrial integrity, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and antioxidant enzymes...
November 9, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120088/assessment-of-chemotherapy-on-various-biochemical-markers-in-breast-cancer-patients
#13
Márcia Fernanda Correia Jardim Paz, Antonio Luiz Gomes Júnior, Muhammad Torequl Islam, Shams Tabrez, Nasimudeen R Jabir, Mohammad Zubair Alam, Kátia da Conceição Machado, Marcus Vinícius Oliveira Barros de Alencar, Keylla da Conceição Machado, Eunus S Ali, Siddhartha Kumar Mishra, Leonardo Fortes Gomes, João Marcelo de Castro E Sousa, Geane Felix de Souza, Ana Amélia de Carvalho Melo-Cavalcante, Juliana da Silva
Chemotherapy is a standard treatment method for the patients with locally advanced breast cancer. Lately, cyclophosphamide (CYP) and doxorubicin (DOX) are used as the major chemotherapeutic agents. Till date, no serum biomarker has been able to provide an early diagnosis of breast cancer. This study aimed to assess inflammatory, cardiac, renal and hematological markers in 56 breast cancer patients (BCP) before, during and after termination of chemotherapy with CYP and DOX. Blood samples were collected from the patients at the each treatment stages mentioned above...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120031/histopathological-immunohistochemical-and-stereological-analysis-of-the-effect-of-gingko-biloba-egb761-on-the-hippocampus-of-rats-exposed-to-long-term-cellphone-radiation
#14
Fikret Gevrek
Cellular phones are major sources of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) that can penetrate the human body and pose serious health hazards. The increasingly widespread use of mobile communication systems has raised concerns about the effects of cellphone radiofrequency (RF) on the hippocampus because of its close proximity to radiation during cellphone use. The effects of cellphone EMR exposure on the hippocampus of rats and the possible counteractive effects of ginkgo biloba (Egb761) were aimed to investigate...
November 9, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116996/leptospirosis-in-icu-a-retrospective-study-of-134-consecutive-admissions
#15
Benjamin Delmas, Julien Jabot, Paul Chanareille, Cyril Ferdynus, Jérôme Allyn, Nicolas Allou, Loïc Raffray, Bernard-Alex Gaüzere, Olivier Martinet, David Vandroux
OBJECTIVES: Leptospirosis causes reversible multiple organ failure, and its mortality remains high. The aim of this study was to determine the mortality rate of leptospirosis in an ICU offering all types of organ support available nowadays and to compare it with mortality in bacterial sepsis. DESIGN: Retrospective, descriptive, and single-center cohort study. SETTINGS: The largest ICU of Reunion Island (Indian Ocean) in a teaching hospital...
November 7, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114002/sdf-1%C3%AE-stromal-cell-derived-factor-1%C3%AE-induces-cardiac-fibroblasts-renal-microvascular-smooth-muscle-cells-and-glomerular-mesangial-cells-to-proliferate-cause-hypertrophy-and-produce-collagen
#16
Edwin K Jackson, Yumeng Zhang, Delbert D Gillespie, Xiao Zhu, Dongmei Cheng, Travis C Jackson
BACKGROUND: Activated cardiac fibroblasts (CFs), preglomerular vascular smooth muscle cells (PGVSMCs), and glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs) proliferate, cause hypertrophy, and produce collagen; in this way, activated CFs contribute to cardiac fibrosis, and activated PGVSMCs and GMCs promote renal fibrosis. In heart and kidney diseases, SDF-1α (stromal cell-derived factor 1α; endogenous CXCR4 [C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 4] receptor agonist) levels are often elevated; therefore, it is important to know whether and how the SDF-1α/CXCR4 axis activates CFs, PGVSMCs, or GMCs...
November 7, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104503/the-emerging-roles-of-microparticles-in-diabetic-nephropathy
#17
REVIEW
Chen Chen Lu, Kun Ling Ma, Xiong Zhong Ruan, Bi Cheng Liu
Microparticles (MPs) are a type of extracellular vesicles (EVs) shed from the outward budding of plasma membranes during cell apoptosis and/or activation. These microsized particles then release specific contents (e.g., lipids, proteins, microRNAs) which are active participants in a wide range of both physiological and pathological processes at the molecular level, e.g., coagulation and angiogenesis, inflammation, immune responses. Research limitations, such as confusing nomenclature and overlapping classification, have impeded our comprehension of these tiny molecules...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104159/physiological-and-pathophysiological-implications-of-pge2-and-the-pge2-synthases-in-the-kidney
#18
REVIEW
Jing Wang, Min Liu, Xiaoyan Zhang, Guangrui Yang, Lihong Chen
Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is the most abundant prostanoid synthesized in the kidney and plays an important role in renal function. Physiologically, PGE2 regulates renal hemodynamics, water and sodium metabolism, blood pressure, and so on. As a well-known proinflammatory lipid mediator, PGE2 also substantially mediates renal injury under many pathophysiological conditions. Multiple enzymes are involved in renal PGE2 biosynthesis, including the three main PGE2 terminal synthases, i.e. microsomal PGE2 synthase-1 (mPGES-1), mPGES-2 and cytosolic PGE2 synthase (cPGES)...
November 2, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102372/renal-potassium-physiology-integration-of-the-renal-response-to-dietary-potassium-depletion
#19
REVIEW
Kamel S Kamel, Martin Schreiber, Mitchell L Halperin
We summarize the current understanding of the physiology of the renal handling of potassium (K(+)), and present an integrative view of the renal response to K(+) depletion caused by dietary K(+) restriction. This renal response involves contributions from different nephron segments, and aims to diminish the rate of excretion of K(+) as a result of: decreasing the rate of electrogenic (and increasing the rate of electroneutral) reabsorption of sodium in the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron (ASDN), decreasing the abundance of renal outer medullary K(+) channels in the luminal membrane of principal cells in the ASDN, decreasing the flow rate in the ASDN, and increasing the reabsorption of K(+) in the cortical and medullary collecting ducts...
November 1, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102324/prolonged-versus-short-term-intravenous-infusion-of-antipseudomonal-%C3%AE-lactams-for-patients-with-sepsis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomised-trials
#20
Konstantinos Z Vardakas, Georgios L Voulgaris, Athanasios Maliaros, George Samonis, Matthew E Falagas
BACKGROUND: The findings of randomised controlled trials (RCT), observational studies, and meta-analyses vary regarding the effectiveness of prolonged β-lactam infusion. We aimed to identify the effectiveness of prolonged versus short-term infusion of antipseudomonal β-lactams in patients with sepsis. METHODS: We did a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare prolonged versus short-term intravenous infusion of antipseudomonal β-lactams in patients with sepsis...
October 25, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
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