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epilepsy and neonatal hypoxia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916232/neuroinflammation-in-intrauterine-growth-restriction
#1
REVIEW
Julie A Wixey, Kirat K Chand, Paul B Colditz, S Tracey Bjorkman
Disruption to the maternal environment during pregnancy from events such as hypoxia, stress, toxins, inflammation, and reduced placental blood flow can affect fetal development. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is commonly caused by chronic placental insufficiency, interrupting supply of oxygen and nutrients to the fetus resulting in abnormal fetal growth. IUGR is a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality, occurring in approximately 5-10% of pregnancies. The fetal brain is particularly vulnerable in IUGR and there is an increased risk of long-term neurological disorders including cerebral palsy, epilepsy, learning difficulties, behavioural difficulties and psychiatric diagnoses...
November 25, 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27456541/neonatal-seizures-are-associated-with-redistribution-and-loss-of-gabaa-%C3%AE-subunits-in-the-hypoxic-ischaemic-pig
#2
Stephanie M Miller, Susan M Sullivan, Zoe Ireland, Kirat K Chand, Paul B Colditz, S Tracey Bjorkman
Seizures are a common manifestation of hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury in the neonate. In status epilepticus models alterations to GABAA R subunit expression have been suggested to contribute to 1) abnormal development of the GABAergic system, 2) why seizures become self-sustaining and 3) the development of pharmacoresistance. Detailed investigation of GABAA R subunit protein expression after neonatal hypoxia-ischaemia (HI) is currently insufficient. Using our pig model of HI and subsequent spontaneous neonatal seizures, we investigated changes in protein expression of the three predominant α-subunits of the GABAA R; α1 , α2 and α3 ...
July 26, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27047695/plasticity-in-the-neonatal-brain-following-hypoxic-ischaemic-injury
#3
REVIEW
Eridan Rocha-Ferreira, Mariya Hristova
Hypoxic-ischaemic damage to the developing brain is a leading cause of child death, with high mortality and morbidity, including cerebral palsy, epilepsy, and cognitive disabilities. The developmental stage of the brain and the severity of the insult influence the selective regional vulnerability and the subsequent clinical manifestations. The increased susceptibility to hypoxia-ischaemia (HI) of periventricular white matter in preterm infants predisposes the immature brain to motor, cognitive, and sensory deficits, with cognitive impairment associated with earlier gestational age...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26943480/time-dependent-impact-of-perinatal-hypoxia-on-growth-hormone-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-and-insulin-like-growth-factor-binding-protein-3
#4
Ömer Kartal, Seçil Aydınöz, Ayşe Tuğba Kartal, Taha Kelestemur, Ahmet Burak Caglayan, Mustafa Caglar Beker, Ferhan Karademir, Selami Süleymanoğlu, Mustafa Kul, Burak Yulug, Ertugrul Kilic
Hypoxic-ischemia (HI) is a widely used animal model to mimic the preterm or perinatal sublethal hypoxia, including hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. It causes diffuse neurodegeneration in the brain and results in mental retardation, hyperactivity, cerebral palsy, epilepsy and neuroendocrine disturbances. Herein, we examined acute and subacute correlations between neuronal degeneration and serum growth factor changes, including growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) after hypoxic-ischemia (HI) in neonatal rats...
August 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26434705/models-of-hypoxia-and-ischemia-induced-seizures
#5
REVIEW
Hongyu Sun, Halvor M Juul, Frances E Jensen
Despite greater understanding and improved management, seizures continue to be a major problem in childhood. Neonatal seizures are often refractory to conventional antiepileptic drugs, and can result in later life epilepsy and cognitive deficits, conditions for which there are no specific treatments. Hypoxic and/or ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is the most common cause for neonatal seizures, and accounts for more than two-thirds of neonatal seizure cases. A better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms is essential for identifying new therapeutic strategies that control the neonatal seizures and its cognitive consequences...
February 15, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26354320/ischemic-injury-suppresses-hypoxia-induced-electrographic-seizures-and-the-background-eeg-in-a-rat-model-of-perinatal-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#6
A Zayachkivsky, M J Lehmkuhle, J J Ekstrand, F E Dudek
The relationship among neonatal seizures, abnormalities of the electroencephalogram (EEG), brain injury, and long-term neurological outcome (e.g., epilepsy) remains controversial. The effects of hypoxia alone (Ha) and hypoxia-ischemia (HI) were studied in neonatal rats at postnatal day 7; both models generate EEG seizures during the 2-h hypoxia treatment, but only HI causes an infarct with severe neuronal degeneration. Single-channel, differential recordings of acute EEG seizures and background suppression were recorded with a novel miniature telemetry device during the hypoxia treatment and analyzed quantitatively...
November 2015: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26341542/effects-of-hypoxia-induced-neonatal-seizures-on-acute-hippocampal-injury-and-later-life-seizure-susceptibility-and-anxiety-related-behavior-in-mice
#7
Natalia Rodriguez-Alvarez, Eva M Jimenez-Mateos, Mark Dunleavy, John L Waddington, Geraldine B Boylan, David C Henshall
Seizures are common during the neonatal period, often due to hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and may contribute to acute brain injury and the subsequent development of cognitive deficits and childhood epilepsy. Here we explored short- and long-term consequences of neonatal hypoxia-induced seizures in 7 day old C57BL/6J mice. Seizure activity, molecular markers of hypoxia and histological injury were investigated acutely after hypoxia and response to chemoconvulsants and animal behaviour was explored at adulthood...
November 2015: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25729383/antimicrobial-peptides-and-complement-in-neonatal-hypoxia-ischemia-induced-brain-damage
#8
REVIEW
Eridan Rocha-Ferreira, Mariya Hristova
Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a clinical condition in the neonate, resulting from oxygen deprivation around the time of birth. HIE affects 1-5/1000 live births worldwide and is associated with the development of neurological deficits, including cerebral palsy, epilepsy, and cognitive disabilities. Even though the brain is considered as an immune-privileged site, it has innate and adaptive immune response and can produce complement (C) components and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Dysregulation of cerebral expression of AMPs and C can exacerbate or ameliorate the inflammatory response within the brain...
2015: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25598140/a-dual-role-for-amp-activated-protein-kinase-ampk-during-neonatal-hypoxic-ischaemic-brain-injury-in-mice
#9
Catherine I Rousset, Fiona C Leiper, Anton Kichev, Pierre Gressens, David Carling, Henrik Hagberg, Claire Thornton
Perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) occurs in 1-2 in every 1000 term infants and the devastating consequences range from cerebral palsy, epilepsy and neurological deficit to death. Cellular damage post insult occurs after a delay and is mediated by a secondary neural energy failure. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a sensor of cellular stress resulting from ATP depletion and/or calcium dysregulation, hallmarks of the neuronal cell death observed after HIE. AMPK activation has been implicated in the models of adult ischaemic injury but, as yet, there have been no studies defining its role in neonatal asphyxia...
April 2015: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24667913/mechanisms-of-perinatal-arterial-ischemic-stroke
#10
REVIEW
David Fernández-López, Niranjana Natarajan, Stephen Ashwal, Zinaida S Vexler
The incidence of perinatal stroke is high, similar to that in the elderly, and produces a significant morbidity and severe long-term neurologic and cognitive deficits, including cerebral palsy, epilepsy, neuropsychological impairments, and behavioral disorders. Emerging clinical data and data from experimental models of cerebral ischemia in neonatal rodents have shown that the pathophysiology of perinatal brain damage is multifactorial. These studies have revealed that, far from just being a smaller version of the adult brain, the neonatal brain is unique with a very particular and age-dependent responsiveness to hypoxia-ischemia and focal arterial stroke...
June 2014: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24658933/pyridoxine-responsiveness-in-novel-mutations-of-the-pnpo-gene
#11
Barbara Plecko, Karl Paul, Philippa Mills, Peter Clayton, Eduard Paschke, Oliver Maier, Oswald Hasselmann, Gudrun Schmiedel, Simone Kanz, Mary Connolly, Nicole Wolf, Eduard Struys, Sylvia Stockler, Lucia Abela, Doris Hofer
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether patients with pyridoxine-responsive seizures but normal biomarkers for antiquitin deficiency and normal sequencing of the ALDH7A1 gene may have PNPO mutations. METHODS: We sequenced the PNPO gene in 31 patients who fulfilled the above-mentioned criteria. RESULTS: We were able to identify 11 patients carrying 3 novel mutations of the PNPO gene. In 6 families, a homozygous missense mutation p.Arg225His in exon 7 was identified, while 1 family was compound heterozygous for a novel missense mutation p...
April 22, 2014: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24568703/clinical-proton-mr-spectroscopy-in-central-nervous-system-disorders
#12
REVIEW
Gülin Oz, Jeffry R Alger, Peter B Barker, Robert Bartha, Alberto Bizzi, Chris Boesch, Patrick J Bolan, Kevin M Brindle, Cristina Cudalbu, Alp Dinçer, Ulrike Dydak, Uzay E Emir, Jens Frahm, Ramón Gilberto González, Stephan Gruber, Rolf Gruetter, Rakesh K Gupta, Arend Heerschap, Anke Henning, Hoby P Hetherington, Franklyn A Howe, Petra S Hüppi, Ralph E Hurd, Kantarci Kantarci, Dennis W J Klomp, Roland Kreis, Marijn J Kruiskamp, Martin O Leach, Alexander P Lin, Peter R Luijten, Malgorzata Marjańska, Andrew A Maudsley, Dieter J Meyerhoff, Carolyn E Mountford, Sarah J Nelson, M Necmettin Pamir, Jullie W Pan, Andrew C Peet, Harish Poptani, Stefan Posse, Petra J W Pouwels, Eva-Maria Ratai, Brian D Ross, Tom W Scheenen, Christian Schuster, Ian C P Smith, Brian J Soher, Ivan Tkáč, Daniel B Vigneron, Risto A Kauppinen
A large body of published work shows that proton (hydrogen 1 [(1)H]) magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy has evolved from a research tool into a clinical neuroimaging modality. Herein, the authors present a summary of brain disorders in which MR spectroscopy has an impact on patient management, together with a critical consideration of common data acquisition and processing procedures. The article documents the impact of (1)H MR spectroscopy in the clinical evaluation of disorders of the central nervous system...
March 2014: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24526342/neuroprotective-effect-of-levetiracetam-on-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury-in-neonatal-rats
#13
Mustafa Komur, Cetin Okuyaz, Yalcin Celik, Bora Resitoglu, Ayse Polat, Senay Balci, Lulufer Tamer, Semra Erdogan, Huseyin Beydagi
PURPOSE: Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury that occurs in the perinatal period is one of the leading causes of mental retardation, visual and auditory impairment, motor defects, epilepsy, cerebral palsy, and death in neonates. The severity of apoptosis that develops after ischemic hypoxia and reperfusion is an indication of brain injury. Thus, it may be possible to prevent or reduce injury with treatments that can be given before the reperfusion period following hypoxia and ischemia. Levetiracetam is a new-generation antiepileptic drug that has begun to be used in the treatment of epilepsy...
June 2014: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24524454/neonatal-seizures-advances-in-mechanisms-and-management
#14
REVIEW
Hannah C Glass
Seizures occur in approximately 1 to 5 per 1000 live births and are among the most common neurologic conditions managed by a neonatal neurocritical care service. There are several, age-specific factors that are particular to the developing brain, which influence excitability and seizure generation, response to medications, and impact of seizures on brain structure and function. Neonatal seizures are often associated with serious underlying brain injury such as hypoxia-ischemia, stroke, or hemorrhage. Conventional, prolonged, continuous video electroencephalogram is the gold standard for detecting seizures, whereas amplitude-integrated EEG is a convenient and useful bedside tool...
March 2014: Clinics in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23916668/activin-a-regulation-under-global-hypoxia-in-developing-mouse-brain
#15
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Florian A Brackmann, Andrea S Link, Susan Jung, Mandy Richter, Daniel Zoglauer, Gail Walkinshaw, Christian Alzheimer, Regina Trollmann
Activin A is a multifunctional growth and differentiation factor with pronounced neuroprotective properties that is strongly up-regulated in various forms of acute brain disorders and injuries including epilepsy, stroke and trauma. In a pediatric context, activin A has been advanced as a potential marker for the severity of perinatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. Here we investigated the regulation of activin A under global hypoxia without ischemia in primary cultures of cortical neurons and in neonatal and adult mice of two strains (C57BL/6 and CD-1)...
September 19, 2013: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23897145/-advances-in-the-management-of-neonatal-hypoxia
#16
REVIEW
Rudimar dos Santos Riesgo, Michele M Becker, Josiane Ranzan, Maria Isabel B Winckler, Lygia Ohlweiler
INTRODUCTION: During the birth, physiological changes occur in virtually all organs of the child, including the central nervous system. In this transitional phase, it is possible some degree of hypoxemia, generally well tolerated by the newborn. But, if neonatal hypoxia is intense and continuous it can lead to neonatal encephalopathy, which characterizes a critical situation for the infant. The proper approach is essential to ensure a good long-term prognosis. DEVELOPMENT: We up-to-date information regarding hypoxia neonatal and review recent evidence-based medicine publications addressing its approach...
September 6, 2013: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23891141/epilepsy-in-children-with-periventricular-leukomalacia
#17
Barış Ekici, Nur Aydınlı, Kubilay Aydın, Mine Çalışkan, Emine Eraslan, Meral Özmen
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to analyze the development of epilepsy in a patient group with periventricular leukomalacia followed at a tertiary pediatric neurology center. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included 108 children aged between 2 and 8 years with radiologically proven periventricular leukomalacia who had been regularly observed at the Istanbul University, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Neurology outpatient clinic between January 2006 and December 2011...
October 2013: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23815572/decreased-a-currents-in-hippocampal-dentate-granule-cells-after-seizure-inducing-hypoxia-in-the-immature-rat
#18
Bi-Wen Peng, Jason A Justice, Xiao-Hua He, Russell M Sanchez
PURPOSE: Cerebral hypoxia is a major cause of neonatal seizures, and can lead to epilepsy. Pathologic anatomic and physiologic changes in the dentate gyrus have been associated with epileptogenesis in many experimental models, as this region is widely believed to gate the propagation of limbic seizures. However, the consequences of hypoxia-induced seizures for the immature dentate gyrus have not been extensively examined. METHODS: Seizures were induced by global hypoxia (5-7% O2 for 15 min) in rat pups on postnatal day 10...
July 2013: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23746578/epidemiology-and-aetiology-of-neonatal-seizures
#19
REVIEW
Chakrapani Vasudevan, Malcolm Levene
Neonatal seizures constitute the most frequent and distinctive neurological symptom in the neonatal period. Seizures in the neonatal period differ considerably from those observed later in life with respect to their aetiological profile and clinical presentation. In addition, the aetiological profile in preterm infants is different from that seen in term infants. Hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy is the most frequent cause of neonatal seizures in term babies followed by focal ischaemia (stroke), cerebral malformations and metabolic disturbances...
August 2013: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23651512/a-novel-reproducible-model-of-neonatal-stroke-in-mice-comparison-with-a-hypoxia-ischemia-model
#20
Masahiro Tsuji, Makiko Ohshima, Akihiko Taguchi, Yukiko Kasahara, Tomoaki Ikeda, Tomohiro Matsuyama
Neonatal stroke occurs in 1/4000 live births and leaves life-long neurological impairments, such as cerebral palsy and epilepsy. Currently, the rodent models of neonatal stroke that are available exhibit significant inter-animal variability, which makes it difficult to accurately assess the mechanisms of brain injury and the efficacy of candidate treatments. We aimed to introduce a novel, highly reproducible model of stroke, middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), in immature mice, and to evaluate the reproducibility of this model compared with a conventional hypoxia-ischemia (HI) model...
September 2013: Experimental Neurology
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