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Holly M Bik, Julia M Maritz, Albert Luong, Hakdong Shin, Maria Gloria Dominguez-Bello, Jane M Carlton
In densely populated urban environments, the distribution of microbes and the drivers of microbial community assemblages are not well understood. In sprawling metropolitan habitats, the "urban microbiome" may represent a mix of human-associated and environmental taxa. Here we carried out a baseline study of automated teller machine (ATM) keypads in New York City (NYC). Our goal was to describe the biodiversity and biogeography of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbes in an urban setting while assessing the potential source of microbial assemblages on ATM keypads...
November 2016: MSphere
Katerina G Oikonomou, Adib Alhaddad
INTRODUCTION: The diagnostic validity of urinalysis in asymptomatic Hemodialysis (HD) patients is low and there is limited data on the diagnostic value of urinalysis in HD patients with fever, sepsis, or suspected Urinary Tract Infection (UTI). AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of pyuria, bacteriuria, Leukocyte Esterase (LE) and nitrite positivity in symptomatic, febrile or/and septic HD patients...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Toby Bressler, Beth Popp
PURPOSE: To examine the factors that influence Orthodox Jewish (OJ) thought leaders' perceptions of genetic counseling and testing for BRCA mutations. The specific aims of this study were to describe (1) OJ thought leaders' views on genetic counseling and testing for BRCA mutation status and (2) insights into this high-risk faith-based minority group and their beliefs about counseling and testing for BRCA mutations. METHODS: In-depth focus groups and demographic questionnaires were used in this descriptive, qualitative study, which was performed in the cancer center of a 750-bed community teaching hospital in Brooklyn, New York...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Oncology Practice
Betsy Brock, Samantha C Carlson, Molly Moilanen, Barbara A Schillo
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of novel policies designed to increase cheap cigar prices by setting minimum prices at the local level. METHODS: Between June 2013 and July 2015, we conducted assessments at tobacco retailers in Minnesota cities of Brooklyn Center (n = 26 in sample; n = 18 assessed before and after policy implementation), Saint Paul (n = 25 in sample; n = 14 assessed pre- and postpolicy), and Maplewood (n = 22 in sample; n = 18 assessed pre- and postpolicy), before and after the adoption of policies setting minimum cigar pricing...
November 17, 2016: American Journal of Public Health
Pascal James Imperato
Charles William Lacaillade (1904-1978) was an eminent biologist in the middle decades of the twentieth century. He was born in Lawrence, Massachusetts of parents whose ancestors were French Canadians. His father, also named Charles William Lacaillade, was a dentist who graduated from Tufts University School of Dentistry in 1898. His mother, Elodia Eno, came from a family of very successful businessmen. Lacaillade was the third of six children. His two older brothers, Harold Carleton and Hector Eno, both graduated from the University of Louisville, School of Dentistry, while his younger brother, Lawrence, became a businessman...
November 5, 2016: Journal of Community Health
Sarah R Lowe, Laura Sampson, Oliver Gruebner, Sandro Galea
Persons living in communities with limited resources are at heightened risk of posttraumatic stress (PTS) after disasters, especially if they were highly exposed. The support deterrence desistence model and the conservation of resources theory suggest that this risk might increase in the longer-term aftermath of disasters. In the present study, we aimed to test this hypothesis. Two population-based samples of New York City residents in communities affected by Hurricane Sandy were surveyed at either 13-16 months (Time 1; n = 421) or 25-28 months (Time 2; n = 420) postdisaster...
October 2016: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Andrew P Smith, Catherine A Millares-Sipin, Marian James, Henry Cohen
OBJECTIVES: Evaluate the clinical impact of pharmacist-initiated vancomycin monitoring and dosing in a long-term care setting. DESIGN: Single-center, pretest, post-test design. SETTING: Rutland Nursing Home, Brooklyn, New York. PARTICIPANTS: Nursing facility residents treated with intravenous vancomycin (N = 198). OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary objective is to determine the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) a year before and a year after implementation of a pharmacist-initiated vancomycin-monitoring protocol...
September 2016: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
Deborah R Gustafson, Michelle M Mielke, Sheila A Keating, Susan Holman, Howard Minkoff, Howard A Crystal
CONTEXT: Case-control study of women with and without HIV infection. OBJECTIVE: To explore the association of cognition and the adipokines, leptin and adiponectin (total; high molecular weight, HMW), in women with (HIV+) and without HIV (HIV-) infection. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analyses of adipokines and cognition using linear regression models of log-transformed adipokines, and Trails A, Trails B, Stroop interference time, Stroop word recall, Stroop color naming and reading, and Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) with consideration for age, HIV infection status, education, CD4 count, diabetes, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and race/ethnicity...
October 2015: Journal of Gerontology & Geriatric Research
Veena Venugopalan, Nathan Trustman, Nyla Manning, Nehal Hashem, Leonard Berkowitz, Levita Hidayat
Antimicrobial stewardship programmes (ASPs) are used in numerous institutions in an effort to promote safe and effective antimicrobial use. The objectives of this study were to (i) assess physicians' perceptions, attitudes and knowledge about antimicrobial use, resistance and the ASP at The Brooklyn Hospital Center (TBHC) and (ii) measure physicians' beliefs and attitudes to the current system of prior authorisation of antimicrobials. A 75-item, anonymous, voluntary, traditional paper and pencil survey was distributed to resident physicians at TBHC...
March 2016: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Kimberly S George, Calpurnyia B Roberts, Stephen Beasley, Margaretta Fox, Kweli Rashied-Henry
PURPOSE: Design, implement, and evaluate a 6-week social marketing campaign (SMC) to raise awareness of obesity and increase involvement in type 2 diabetes prevention, nutrition, and fitness programs offered by the Brooklyn Partnership to Drive Down Diabetes (BP3D) in two low-income, urban communities. DESIGN: This was a nonexperimental, formative research, mixed-methods study. SETTING: The study took place in Central Brooklyn and East New York, two of the most impoverished, high-need communities in New York City...
March 2016: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
Vahe Shahnazarian, Parag Mehta
At a community hospital in Brooklyn, New York, the process for ordering add-on testing to drawn blood tubes involved filling out a paper sheet, then faxing and bulleting that sheet to the lab. It was a very inefficient, cumbersome, and unsatisfactory way of completing the process. In light of this, an EMR intervention was implemented in which the add-on order was placed as an EMR order. The study spanned over almost five years, over a year of which was post-intervention. There was a statistically significant increase in the number of add-on orders being placed as a result of the intervention...
2016: BMJ Quality Improvement Reports
Pascal James Imperato
The 1977 New York City blackout began at 9:36 p.m. on 13 July and lasted some 25 h until 10:39 p.m. on 14 July. The New York City Department of Health rapidly set up a Blackout Contingency Plan, established priorities, and mobilized its staff to address remedial interventions. Top priorities included water supplies, sewage disposal, perishable food supplies, hospital and emergency room services, solid waste disposal, beach contamination with untreated sewage , and assisting those on electrically powered home life support systems...
August 2016: Journal of Community Health
Bethany Johnson, Margaret M Quinlan
Twilight Sleep (TS) is an obstetric intervention during which a laboring woman enters a semiconscious state via injection. TS received enthusiastic support in Brooklyn, NY, in The Brooklyn Eagle (TBE) newspaper between 1914 and 1918. The purpose of this article is to analyze the framing of TS in TBE as the most popular obstetric intervention among wealthy, White socialites in Brooklyn during the period. The coverage in TBE prompted a nearly universally positive perception of TS among the newspaper's wider readership...
May 9, 2016: Health Communication
Howard A Crystal, Susan Holman, Yvonne W Lui, Alison E Baird, Hua Yu, Ronald Klein, Diana Marcella Rojas-Soto, Deborah R Gustafson, Glenn T Stebbins
OBJECTIVE: The fractal dimension of retinal arteries and veins is a measure of the complexity of the vascular tree. We hypothesized that retinal fractal dimension would be associated with brain volume and white matter integrity in HIV-infected women. DESIGN: Nested case-control within longitudinal cohort study. METHODS: Women were recruited from the Brooklyn site of the Women's Interagency HIV study (WIHS); 34 HIV-infected and 21 HIV-uninfected women with analyzable MRIs and retinal photographs were included...
2016: PloS One
Laura A Geer, Benny F G Pycke, Joshua Waxenbaum, David M Sherer, Ovadia Abulafia, Rolf U Halden
BACKGROUND: Prior studies suggest associations between fetal exposure to antimicrobial and paraben compounds with adverse reproductive outcomes, mainly in animal models. We have previously reported elevated levels of these compounds for a cohort of mothers and neonates. OBJECTIVE: We examined the relationship between human exposure to parabens and antimicrobial compounds and birth outcomes including birth weight, body length and head size, and gestational age at birth...
February 5, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Andrea M Morris, Karen A Ricci, Anne R Griffin, Kevin C Heslin, Aram Dobalian
BACKGROUND: Adequate hospital staffing during and after a disaster is critical to meet increased health care demands and to ensure continuity of care and patient safety. However, when a disaster occurs, staff may become both victim and responder, decreasing their ability and willingness to report for work. This qualitative study assessed the personal and professional challenges that affected staff decisions to report to work following a natural disaster and examined the role of management in addressing staff needs and concerns...
2016: BMC Emergency Medicine
Brooklyn J Fraser, Quan L Huynh, Michael D Schmidt, Terence Dwyer, Alison J Venn, Costan G Magnussen
PURPOSE: The objective of this study is to determine whether childhood muscular fitness phenotypes (strength, endurance, and power) are independently associated with adult metabolic syndrome (MetS). METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal study including 737 participants who had muscular fitness measures in 1985 when age 9, 12, or 15 yr and attended follow-up in young adulthood 20 yr later when measures of MetS were collected. Childhood measures of muscular fitness included strength (right and left grip, leg, and shoulder extension and flexion), endurance (number of push-ups in 30 s), and power (distance of a standing long jump)...
September 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Beth M Isaac, Abbey Masonbrink, Joseph Kennedy, Sharon K Greene, Robin R Hennessy, Jennifer B Rosen, Lisa Trieu, Stephanie Ngai, Stephen S Morse, Don Weiss
OBJECTIVE: To determine rates of reportable bacterial infections among infants in New York City and identify populations at risk and preventable causes of morbidity. STUDY DESIGN: This retrospective cohort study matched live births in New York City from 2001-2009 to reported cases of bacterial infections among infants less than 1 year of age. Characteristics recorded on birth certificates were compared between infants with bacterial enteric infection, bacterial nonenteric infection, and no reportable bacterial infection...
July 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
Timothy Nguyen, Elaine Wong, Antony Pham
PURPOSE: To obtain student perceptions of team-based learning and compare the effectiveness of team-based learning and traditional lecture formats in a clinical pharmacology course for physician assistant (PA) students. METHODS: Clinical pharmacology is a course offered to PA students in their first year of training at LIU Brooklyn, Brooklyn, NY. In spring 2014, half of the course was offered in a traditional lecture format and the remaining half was offered in a team-based learning format...
March 2016: Journal of Physician Assistant Education
P Daniel, R Gist, A Grock, S Kohlhoff, P Roblin, B Arquilla
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to describe an educational method teaching Disaster Medicine to American Emergency Medicine (EM) physicians and to evaluate knowledge attainment using this method. METHODS: This was an observational study using a pre-test and a post-test. A full-scale disaster exercise (FSE) was conducted at a large academic center with two hospitals in Brooklyn, New York (USA). Eighty-two EM residents (physicians in training, post medical school) participated in the study...
June 2016: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
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