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alcohol, diabetes

Ra-Yeong Choi, Ju Ri Ham, Mi-Kyung Lee
This study investigated the effects and mechanism of esculetin (6,7-dihydroxycoumarin) on non-alcoholic fatty liver in diabetic mice fed high-fat diet (HFD). The diabetic mice model was induced by injection of streptozotocin, after which they were fed HFD diet with or without esculetin for 11 weeks. Non-diabetic mice were provided a normal diet. Diabetes induced hepatic hypertrophy, lipid accumulation and droplets; however, esculetin reversed these changes. Esculetin treatment in diabetic mice fed HFD significantly down-regulated expression of lipid synthesis genes (Fasn, Dgat2 and Pap) and inflammation genes (Tlr4, Myd88, Nfkb, Tnfα and Il6)...
October 18, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
Susan J Carson, Jacqueline Burns
DesignCohort studyCohort selectionParticipants were recruited between 1994 and 1998 from the general population with the preferred ages of 35 to 65 years in women and 40 to 65 years in men.Exposure measurementSmoking was assessed using a questionnaire from which pack years of smoking were calculated. Educational attainment, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, alcohol consumption and vitamin or mineral supplements were assessed from measurements and questionnaires. Tooth loss was also assessed by questionnaire returned between 2004 and 2006...
September 2016: Evidence-based Dentistry
Brian J McMahon, Dana Bruden, Lisa Townshend-Bulson, Brenna Simons, Phillip Spradling, Stephen Livingston, James Gove, Annette Hewitt, Julia Plotnik, Chriss Homan, Hannah Espera, Susan Negus, Mary Snowball, Youssef Barbour, Michael Bruce, Prabhu Gounder
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Few studies have examined factors associated with disease progression in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We examined the association of 11 risk factors with adverse outcomes in a population-based prospective cohort observational study of Alaska Native/American Indian persons with chronic HCV infection. METHODS: We collected data from a population-based cohort study of liver-related adverse outcomes of infection in American Indian/Alaska Native persons with chronic HCV living in Alaska, recruited from 1995 through 2012...
October 17, 2016: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Mariya Markova, Olga Pivovarova, Silke Hornemann, Stephanie Sucher, Turid Frahnow, Katrin Wegner, Jürgen Machann, Klaus Jürgen Petzke, Johannes Hierholzer, Ralf Lichtinghagen, Christian Herder, Maren Carstensen-Kirberg, Michael Roden, Natalia Rudovich, Susanne Klaus, Ralph Thomann, Rosemarie Schneeweiss, Sascha Rohn, Andreas F H Pfeiffer
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with increased risk of hepatic, cardiovascular, and metabolic diseases. High-protein diets, rich in methionine and branched chain amino acids (BCAAs), apparently reduce liver fat but may induce insulin resistance. We investigated the effects of diets high in animal protein vs plant protein, which differ in levels of methionine and BCAA, in subjects with type 2 diabetes and NAFLD. We examined levels of liver fat, lipogenic indices, markers of inflammation, serum levels of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), and activation of signaling pathways in adipose tissue...
October 17, 2016: Gastroenterology
Angel Vila-Córcoles, Olga Ochoa-Gondar
There are currently two anti-pneumococcal vaccines available for use in adults: the classical 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (PPV23) and the new 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). The main advantage of the PCV13 is the potentially better immunogenicity, with its major disadvantages being the higher cost and the lower serotype-coverage than the PPV23. The currently available scientific evidence supports the following basic recommendations: (i)among adults with greatest risk (basically asplenia and immunocompromised), a dual vaccination (PCV13+PPV23) is recommended; (ii)among adults with increased risk (basically persons >65years-old and patients 15-64years with chronic pulmonary or heart disease, diabetes and/or alcoholism), a single vaccination with PPV23 is recommended (single dose in primo-vaccinated >65years; re-vaccination at 5-10years in those primo-vaccinated <65years-old); and (iii) in the rest of adults (risk normal/low) vaccination is not recommended...
October 17, 2016: Atencion Primaria
Yuqin Wang, Baochan Wang, Shiyan Yan, Feng Shen, Haixia Cao, Jiangao Fan, Rongrong Zhang, Jun Gu
PURPOSE: Questions remain uncertainty regarding the gender differences in the relationship between type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and liver cancer risk. By considering several confounding factors, we aimed to identify this issue according to a meta-analysis of cohort studies. METHODS: We searched EMBASE and MEDLINE for studies on the association between T2DM and risk of liver cancer up to November 30, 2014. A random-effects model was performed to calculate summary relative risks (SRRs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs)...
September 22, 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
H Wang, R Y Hu, J M Zhong, Y J Qian, C M Wang, K X Xie, L L Chen, Z Bian, Y Guo, M Yu, Z M Chen, L M Li
Objective: To explore the associations between age at menarche and diabetes in adult women. Methods: We analyzed the baseline data of 32 364 female participants who were aged 30-79 years and had been enrolled into China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB) study from Tongxiang, Zhejiang province. Multiple logistic regression analysis were used to investigate the putative associations after adjusting for potential confounders. Variables of menarche age and others were added to the logistic regression model to evaluate the multiplicative interaction, respectively...
October 10, 2016: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
Thomas Gilliland, Sylvie Dufour, Gerald I Shulman, Kitt Falk Petersen, Sukru H Emre
NAFLD is a common condition linked to obesity, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Simple hepatic steatosis is a risk factor for inflammatory reactions in the liver (NASH), which may lead to cirrhosis. While the mechanism is unclear, NAFLD and NASH are associated with panhypopituitarism, which in the pediatric population often results from craniopharyngioma or pituitary adenoma and the sequelae of treatment, causing hypothyroidism, adrenal insufficiency, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and GH deficiency...
October 20, 2016: Pediatric Transplantation
Karina Friis, Benedicte Donslund Vind, Rebecca K Simmons, Helle Terkildsen Maindal
Background. People with diabetes who have poor health behaviours are at greater risk for a range of adverse health outcomes. We aimed to investigate the relationship between health literacy and health behaviour (smoking, alcohol, physical activity, and diet) in people with diabetes. Methods. The study was based on respondents aged 25 years or older from a population-based survey in 2013 who reported having diabetes (n = 1685). Two dimensions from the Health Literacy Questionnaire were used: "understand health information" and "actively engage with healthcare providers...
2016: Journal of Diabetes Research
Fiona H McKay, Christina Cheng, Annemarie Wright, Jane Shill, Hugh Stephens, Mary Uccellini
INTRODUCTION: Increasing smartphones access has allowed for increasing development and use of smart phone applications (apps). Mobile health interventions have previously relied on voice or text-based short message services (SMS), however, the increasing availability and ease of use of apps has allowed for significant growth of smartphone apps that can be used for health behaviour change. This review considers the current body of knowledge relating to the evaluation of apps for health behaviour change...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare
Jerrold J Heindel, Bruce Blumberg, Mathew Cave, Ronit Machtinger, Alberto Mantovani, Michelle A Mendez, Angel Nadal, Paola Palanza, Giancarlo Panzica, Robert Sargis, Laura N Vandenberg, Frederick Vom Saal
The recent epidemics of metabolic diseases, obesity, type 2 diabetes(T2D), liver lipid disorders and metabolic syndrome have largely been attributed to genetic background and changes in diet, exercise and aging. However, there is now considerable evidence that other environmental factors may contribute to the rapid increase in the incidence of these metabolic diseases. This review will examine changes to the incidence of obesity, T2D and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the contribution of genetics to these disorders and describe the role of the endocrine system in these metabolic disorders...
October 16, 2016: Reproductive Toxicology
Petra Rust, Cem Ekmekcioglu
Excessive dietary salt (sodium chloride) intake is associated with an increased risk for hypertension, which in turn is especially a major risk factor for stroke and other cardiovascular pathologies, but also kidney diseases. Besides, high salt intake or preference for salty food is discussed to be positive associated with stomach cancer, and according to recent studies probably also obesity risk. On the other hand a reduction of dietary salt intake leads to a considerable reduction in blood pressure, especially in hypertensive patients but to a lesser extent also in normotensives as several meta-analyses of interventional studies have shown...
October 19, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Jose R Bucheli, Ahmad Manshad, Mark D Ehrhart, Jenny Camacho, Mark R Burge
Smoking is the leading cause of avoidable death and is associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. Previous studies on the impact of passive smoking have not been applied to a Hispanic-majority population. We investigated the association between active smoking, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and pre-diabetes risk in a New Mexico population. We hypothesized that pre-diabetes risk increases with increasing smoking status after adjustment for important covariates. We screened 219 adults from an ongoing study who were categorized according to their smoking status (never smoker, current smoker, previous smoker) and their exposure to ETS (exposed or unexposed)...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
Tanmay Mahapatra, Kaushik Chakraborty, Sanchita Mahapatra, Umakanta Mahapatra, Naren Pandey, Peter L Thomson, Arthur W Musk, Ramendra N Mitra
BACKGROUND: Progressive burden of diabetes mellitus is a major concern in India. Data on the predictors of poor glycemic control among diabetics are scanty. A population-based cross-sectional study nested in an urban cohort was thus conducted in West Bengal, India to determine the burden and correlates of total and uncontrolled abnormalities in glucose metabolism (AGM) in a representative population. METHODS: From 9046 adult cohort-members, 269 randomly selected consenting subjects (non-response = 7...
2016: PloS One
J Michael Gaziano
The health effects of alcohol have been studied for decades. While it is clear that excessive alcohol consumption is harmful, hundreds of studies have demonstrated that light to moderate alcohol consumption may reduce the risk of certain cardiovascular conditions. Light to moderate alcohol consumption has been consistently associated with lower risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) among a wide variety of population groups including men and women, those with hypertension, diabetes and heart disease. Alcohol has been associated with increases in HDL cholesterol and lower risks of diabetes...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Yongsoon Park
A healthy lifestyle is important in CVD prevention and treatment through effects on modifiable CVD risk factors, particularly blood pressure. Although the major drawback is the low level of adherence over time, appropriate lifestyle changes may safely and effectively prevent and treat hypertension. The recommended dietary approaches that have been shown to be capable of reducing blood pressure are: salt restriction, moderation of alcohol consumption, high consumption of vegetables and fruits and low-fat and other types of diet, and weight reduction...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Hirochika Ryuno, Kei Kamide, Yasuyuki Gondo, Mai Kabayama, Ken Sugimoto, Takeshi Nakagawa, Kazunori Ikebe, Hiroki Inagaki, Yukie Masui, Yasumichi Arai, Tatsuro Ishizaki, Hiromi Rakugi
OBJECTIVE: It is well-documented that midlife hypertension (HT) is associated with decline of cognitive function. Recently, we reported that the influence of HT and/or elevated blood pressure on the progression of cognitive decline was attenuated at late life aged 70 of the general population in cross-sectional analysis. The purpose of this study is to investigate the 3 years' longitudinal effect of HT and additive risk factors on decline of cognitive function for 70-year-old general Japanese population in the Septuagenarians, Octogenarians and Nonagenarians Investigation with Centenarians (SONIC) study, which is a narrow age range cohort...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Hiroshi Hirose, Michiyo Takayama, Ryoko Shimizu-Hirota, Yasushi Iwao, Hiroshi Kawabe
OBJECTIVE: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) or metabolic syndrome have a larger visceral fat area (VFA) and a higher homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index; however, the associations of VFA and HOMA-IR with hypertension (HT) remains unclear. We investigated the relationships of blood pressure (BP) status with various metabolic parameters, including VFA, subcutaneous fat area (SFA) and HOMA-IR, in participants in our health checkup program. DESIGN AND METHOD: A total of 3,854 male and 2,545 female Japanese subjects, aged 16-93 years (median: 60 years), who participated in our comprehensive health checkup program between August 2012 and March 2015, were enrolled in this study...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Suzanne Oparil
Heart disease, stroke, and kidney failure are leading causes of death worldwide, and hypertension is a significant risk factor for each. Hypertension is less common in women, compared to men, in those younger than 45 years of age. This trend is reversed in those 65 years and older. In the US between 2011-2014, the prevalence of hypertension in women and men by age group was 6% vs 8% (18-39 years), 30% vs 35% (40-59 years), and 67% vs 63% (60 years and over). Awareness, treatment, and control rates differ between genders with women being more aware of their diagnosis (85% vs 80%), more likely to take their medications (81% vs 71%) and more frequently having controlled hypertension (55% vs 49%)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Seung Won Lee, Hyeon Chang Kim, Yong-Ho Lee, Hansol Choi, Ji Hye Park, Yumie Rhee, Chang Oh Kim
OBJECTIVE: We examined whether HbA1c is associated with carotid atherosclerosis in a community-dwelling elderly Korean population with normal fasting glucose. DESIGN AND METHOD: Using data from the Korean Urban Rural Elderly study, we conducted a cross-sectional analysis in 1,133 participants (335 men and 798 women) with mean age 71.8 years. All participants had fasting blood glucose less than 100   mg/dL (5.6mmol/L) and a level of HbA1c below 6.5% (48 mmol/mol)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
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