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Bat and zoonoses

Jesús Sotomayor-Bonilla, Carlos Antonio Abella-Medrano, Andrea Chaves, Paulina Álvarez-Mendizábal, Óscar Rico-Chávez, Sergio Ibáñez-Bernal, Melinda K Rostal, Rafael Ojeda-Flores, Arturo Barbachano-Guerrero, Gustavo Gutiérrez-Espeleta, A Alonso Aguirre, Peter Daszak, Gerardo Suzán
Arboviruses are important zoonotic agents with complex transmission cycles and are not well understood because they may involve many vectors and hosts. We studied sympatric wild mammals and hematophagous mosquitoes having the potential to act as hosts and vectors in two areas of southern Mexico. Mosquitoes, bats, and rodents were captured in Calakmul (Campeche) and Montes Azules (Chiapas), between November 2010 and August 2011. Spleen samples from 146 bats and 14 rodents were tested for molecular evidence of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV), and West Nile virus (WNV) using PCR protocols...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Charles Rupprecht, Ivan Kuzmin, Francois Meslin
Lyssaviruses are bullet-shaped, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA viruses and the causative agents of the ancient zoonosis rabies. Africa is the likely home to the ancestors of taxa residing within the Genus Lyssavirus, Family Rhabdoviridae. Diverse lyssaviruses are envisioned as co-evolving with bats, as the ultimate reservoirs, over seemingly millions of years. In terms of relative distribution, overt abundance, and resulting progeny, rabies virus is the most successful lyssavirus species today, but for unknown reasons...
2017: F1000Research
Andrés Moreira-Soto, Claudio Soto-Garita, Eugenia Corrales-Aguilar
Dengue is the most widespread arboviral disease affecting humans. Bats are recognized carriers of emerging viral zoonoses and have been proposed as dengue reservoirs, since RNA/NS1 and/or antiviral antibodies have been detected. Yet, experimental inoculation of Artibeus bats failed to show virus replication. This conflicting results prevent drawing further conclusions of whether bats sustain dengue infection. To test bat cellular permissivity to dengue infection, we established primary bat embryonic cells from diverse organs and tissues of Artibeus jamaicensis, Molossus sinaloae, and Desmodus rotundus...
February 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Jordi Serra-Cobo, Marc López-Roig
More than 200 viruses have been detected in bats. Some unique bat characteristics can explain the roles played in the maintenance and transmission of viruses: long phylogenetic history can have originated coevolution processes, great number of species are adapted to live in different environments, big mobility, long lifespan and gregarious behaviour of many species.To analyse zoonoses long longitudinal studies are needed with a multidisciplinary approximation to obtain the following eco-epidemiological data: colony size, number of bats per species, population structure, behaviour of each species, degree of contact between bats, social structure, remaining time of bats in the colony, colony type, foraging area, turnover rate of individuals, shelter temperature, relationship with other colonies and co-infection processes...
October 9, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Raina K Plowright, Alison J Peel, Daniel G Streicker, Amy T Gilbert, Hamish McCallum, James Wood, Michelle L Baker, Olivier Restif
Progress in combatting zoonoses that emerge from wildlife is often constrained by limited knowledge of the biology of pathogens within reservoir hosts. We focus on the host-pathogen dynamics of four emerging viruses associated with bats: Hendra, Nipah, Ebola, and Marburg viruses. Spillover of bat infections to humans and domestic animals often coincides with pulses of viral excretion within bat populations, but the mechanisms driving such pulses are unclear. Three hypotheses dominate current research on these emerging bat infections...
August 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Liam Brierley, Maarten J Vonhof, Kevin J Olival, Peter Daszak, Kate E Jones
Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs), particularly zoonoses, represent a significant threat to global health. Emergence is often driven by anthropogenic activity (e.g., travel, land use change). Although disease emergence frameworks suggest multiple steps from initial zoonotic transmission to human-to-human spread, there have been few attempts to empirically model specific steps. We create a process-based framework to separate out components of individual emergence steps. We focus on early emergence and expand the first step, zoonotic transmission, into processes of generation of pathogen richness, transmission opportunity, and establishment, each with its own hypothesized drivers...
February 2016: American Naturalist
F Rodhain
With more than 1 200 species, bats and flying foxes (Order Chiroptera) constitute the most important and diverse order of Mammals after Rodents. Many species of bats are insectivorous while others are frugivorous and few of them are hematophagous. Some of these animals fly during the night, others are crepuscular or diurnal. Some fly long distances during seasonal migrations. Many species are colonial cave-dwelling, living in a rather small home range while others are relatively solitary. However, in spite of the importance of bats for terrestrial biotic communities and ecosystem ecology, the diversity in their biology and lifestyles remain poorly known and underappreciated...
October 2015: Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique
Sagan Friant, Sarah B Paige, Tony L Goldberg
Bushmeat hunting threatens biodiversity and increases the risk of zoonotic pathogen transmission. Nevertheless, limited information exists on patterns of contact with wildlife in communities that practice bushmeat hunting, especially with respect to social drivers of hunting behavior. We used interview responses from hunters and non-hunters in rural hunting communities in Nigeria to: 1) quantify contact rates with wildlife, 2) identify specific hunting behaviors that increase frequency of contact, 3) identify socioeconomic factors that predispose individuals to hunt, and 4) measure perceptions of risk...
May 2015: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
C E Rupprecht, G W Burgess
As most newly characterized emerging infectious diseases are considered to be zoonotic, a modern pre-eminence ascribed within this classification lies clearly within the viral taxonomic realm. In particular, RNA viruses deserve special concern given their documented impact on conservation biology, veterinary medicine and public health, with an unprecedented ability to promote an evolutionary host-pathogen arms race from the ultimate infection and immunity perspective. However, besides the requisite molecular/gross anatomical and physiological bases for infectious diseases to transmit from one host to another, both viral pathogens and their reservoirs/vectors exploit a complex anthropological, cultural, historical, psychological and social suite that specifically defines the phylodynamics within Homo sapiens, unlike any other species...
May 2015: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Mónica Marcela Galicia, Alejandra Buenrostro, Jesús García
Specific bacterial diversity in bats of different food guilds in Southern sierra Oaxaca, Mexico. Bats have different ecologic roles in variable ecosystems that have been already described. They have been linked to several zoonoses, however little is known about the relationship between bat microbiota and their diet, and studies on the bacterial ecology of the microbiota in bats are limited. To contribute with the description of this important interaction between microbiota and host, the aim of this work was to characterize the composition and bacterial diversity in the oral and anal regions of 10 species of bats, in relation to food guild...
December 2014: Revista de Biología Tropical
Raina K Plowright, Peggy Eby, Peter J Hudson, Ina L Smith, David Westcott, Wayne L Bryden, Deborah Middleton, Peter A Reid, Rosemary A McFarlane, Gerardo Martin, Gary M Tabor, Lee F Skerratt, Dale L Anderson, Gary Crameri, David Quammen, David Jordan, Paul Freeman, Lin-Fa Wang, Jonathan H Epstein, Glenn A Marsh, Nina Y Kung, Hamish McCallum
Viruses that originate in bats may be the most notorious emerging zoonoses that spill over from wildlife into domestic animals and humans. Understanding how these infections filter through ecological systems to cause disease in humans is of profound importance to public health. Transmission of viruses from bats to humans requires a hierarchy of enabling conditions that connect the distribution of reservoir hosts, viral infection within these hosts, and exposure and susceptibility of recipient hosts. For many emerging bat viruses, spillover also requires viral shedding from bats, and survival of the virus in the environment...
January 7, 2015: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Alexandra O Kamins, J Marcus Rowcliffe, Yaa Ntiamoa-Baidu, Andrew A Cunningham, James L N Wood, Olivier Restif
Emerging zoonotic pathogens from wildlife pose increasing public health threats globally. Bats, in particular, host an array of zoonotic pathogens, yet there is little research on how bats and humans interact, how people perceive bats and their accompanying disease risk, or who is most at risk. Eidolon helvum, the largest and most abundant African fruit bat species, is widely hunted and eaten in Ghana and also carries potentially zoonotic pathogens. This combination raises concerns, as hunting and butchering bushmeat are common sources of zoonotic transmission...
March 2015: EcoHealth
Joshua Kamani, Gad Baneth, Mark Mitchell, Kosta Y Mumcuoglu, Ricardo Gutiérrez, Shimon Harrus
Previous and ongoing studies have incriminated bats as reservoirs of several emerging and re-emerging zoonoses. Most of these studies, however, have focused on viral agents and neglected important bacterial pathogens. To date, there has been no report investigating the prevalence of Bartonella spp. in bats and bat flies from Nigeria, despite the fact that bats are used as food and for cultural ritual purposes by some ethnic groups in Nigeria. To elucidate the role of bats as reservoirs of bartonellae, we screened by molecular methods 148 bats and 34 bat flies, Diptera:Hippoboscoidea:Nycteribiidae (Cyclopodia greeffi) from Nigeria for Bartonella spp...
September 2014: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Bryant J Webber, Karyn J Ayers, Brad S Winterton, Heather C Yun, Thomas L Cropper, Johnnie Foster, Matthew C Kren, Brianna Y Meek, Tiffany A Oliver, Christopher M Hudson
In January 2014, members of the Joint Base San Antonio (JBSA)-Lackland, Texas, preventive medicine and public health teams evaluated a U.S. Air Force basic training squadron for potential exposure in sleeping bays to rabies virus carried by Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis). Exposure to bats while asleep or otherwise unaware is an important risk factor for rabies in the United States. Over the past several decades, most indigenous human rabies infections in the United States have resulted from the bite of an infected bat, and the bite was not reported in more than half of the cases...
August 29, 2014: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Lihong Yuan, Min Li, Linmiao Li, Corina Monagin, Aleksei A Chmura, Bradley S Schneider, Jonathan H Epstein, Xiaolin Mei, Zhengli Shi, Peter Daszak, Jinping Chen
Bats are recognized reservoirs for many emerging zoonotic viruses of public health importance. Identifying and cataloguing the viruses of bats is a logical approach to evaluate the range of potential zoonoses of bat origin. We characterized the fecal pathogen microbiome of both insectivorous and frugivorous bats, incorporating 281 individual bats comprising 20 common species, which were sampled in three locations of Yunnan province, by combining reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays and next-generation sequencing...
May 2014: Viruses
Kevin J Olival, David T S Hayman
Filoviruses, including Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus, pose significant threats to public health and species conservation by causing hemorrhagic fever outbreaks with high mortality rates. Since the first outbreak in 1967, their origins, natural history, and ecology remained elusive until recent studies linked them through molecular, serological, and virological studies to bats. We review the ecology, epidemiology, and natural history of these systems, drawing on examples from other bat-borne zoonoses, and highlight key areas for future research...
April 2014: Viruses
Neil M Vora, Modupe Osinubi, Ryan M Wallace, Abimbola Aman-Oloniyo, Yemi H Gbadegesin, Yennan Kerecvel Sebastian, Olugbon Abdullateef Saliman, Mike Niezgoda, Lora Davis, Sergio Recuenco
Bats provide vital ecologic services that humans benefit from, such as seed dispersal and pest control, and are a food source for some human populations. However, bats also are reservoirs for a number of high-consequence zoonoses, including paramyxoviruses, filoviruses, and lyssaviruses. The variety of viruses that bats harbor might be related to their evolutionary diversity, ability to fly large distances, long lifespans, and gregarious roosting behaviors. Every year a festival takes place in Idanre, Nigeria, in which males of all ages enter designated caves to capture bats; persons are forbidden from entering the caves outside of these festivities...
April 18, 2014: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Elena Vargas-Linares, Franco Romaní-Romaní, Ricardo López-Ingunza, Juan Arrasco-Alegre, Martín Yagui-Moscoso
The Potos flavus is a nocturnal mammal that lives in neotropical forests from Central America to South America. A study of four cases of rabies in Potos flavus was conducted; these occurred in April 2012 in the Madre de Dios region in Peru and were collected as part of epidemiological surveillance. The analysis performed in the regional reference laboratory of Madre de Dios determined the presence of the rabies virus antigen in three of the brain tissue samples. Results were verified in the Laboratory of Viral Zoonoses of the Peruvian National Institute of Health by direct immunofluorescence...
2014: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
Kate S Baker, Pablo R Murcia
Poxviruses are important pathogens of man and numerous domestic and wild animal species. Cross species (including zoonotic) poxvirus infections can have drastic consequences for the recipient host. Bats are a diverse order of mammals known to carry lethal viral zoonoses such as Rabies, Hendra, Nipah, and SARS. Consequent targeted research is revealing bats to be infected with a rich diversity of novel viruses. Poxviruses were recently identified in bats and the settings in which they were found were dramatically different...
April 2014: Viruses
Bonnie R Lei, Kevin J Olival
BACKGROUND: Emerging bacterial zoonoses in bats and rodents remain relatively understudied. We conduct the first comparative host-pathogen coevolutionary analyses of bacterial pathogens in these hosts, using Bartonella spp. and Leptospira spp. as a model. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used published genetic data for 51 Bartonella genotypes from 24 bat species, 129 Bartonella from 38 rodents, and 26 Leptospira from 20 bats. We generated maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenies for hosts and bacteria, and tested for coevoutionary congruence using programs ParaFit, PACO, and Jane...
March 2014: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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