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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334299/mucoadhesive-buccal-film-containing-ornidazole-and-dexamethasone-for-oral-ulcers-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-studies
#1
Chengliang Zhang, Yanan Liu, Wei Li, Ping Gao, Dong Xiang, Xiuhua Ren, Dong Liu
A bilayered mucoadhesive buccal film containing a combination of ornidazole (OD) and dexamethasone sodium phosphate (DEX) was prepared using solvent casting to treat oral ulcers. Films were systematically evaluated in vitro to obtain the optimum formulation. The therapeutic effects of these films were investigated in the rabbit oral ulcer model and the in vivo release of OD and DEX in the human oral cavity was also evaluated. The backing layer contained ethyl cellulose and an optimal mucoadhesive layer containing both OD and DEX was produced...
January 15, 2018: Pharmaceutical Development and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331580/local-delivery-of-mometasone-furoate-from-an-eluting-endotracheal-tube
#2
Abu Ammar Aiman, Maayan Gruber, Patrick Martin, Ohad Stern, Forsan Jahshan, Offir Ertracht, Eyal Sela, Samer Srouji, Eyal Zussman
Laryngeal and tracheal morbidity is a common complication of endotracheal tube (ETT)-based airway management, and manifests as local irritation, inflammation, and edema. Systemic corticosteroids are commonly administered to manage these conditions; however, their efficacy is inadequate and limited by potential severe side effects. In the present study, a steroid delivery system for local therapy was developed to generate relatively high local drug concentrations and to improve drug efficacy. ETTs were coated with electrospun poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanofibers loaded with mometasone furoate (MF), creating a microscale thick layer...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311620/dietary-soybean-meal-affects-intestinal-homoeostasis-by-altering-the-microbiota-morphology-and-inflammatory-cytokine-gene-expression-in-northern-snakehead
#3
Shuyan Miao, Chenze Zhao, Jinyu Zhu, Juntao Hu, Xiaojing Dong, Longsheng Sun
A 63-day feeding trial was conducted in northern snakehead to observe the effects of a dietary soybean meal substitution on the microbiota community, morphology and inflammatory cytokine gene expression in the intestine. Four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets containing increasing levels of soybean meal were used to replace 0%, 25%, 50% and 75% of the defatted fishmeal (diets are referred to G1, G2, G3 and G4, respectively). Different dietary soybean meal substitutions significantly affected the intestinal microbiota composition...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311327/functional-characterization-of-the-mucus-barrier-on-the-xenopus-tropicalis-skin-surface
#4
Eamon Dubaissi, Karine Rousseau, Gareth W Hughes, Caroline Ridley, Richard K Grencis, Ian S Roberts, David J Thornton
Mucosal surfaces represent critical routes for entry and exit of pathogens. As such, animals have evolved strategies to combat infection at these sites, in particular the production of mucus to prevent attachment and to promote subsequent movement of the mucus/microbe away from the underlying epithelial surface. Using biochemical, biophysical, and infection studies, we have investigated the host protective properties of the skin mucus barrier of the Xenopus tropicalis tadpole. Specifically, we have characterized the major structural component of the barrier and shown that it is a mucin glycoprotein (Otogelin-like or Otogl) with similar sequence, domain organization, and structural properties to human gel-forming mucins...
January 8, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303209/point-of-care-gastrointestinal-and-urinary-tract-sonography-in-daily-evaluation-of-gastrointestinal-dysfunction-in-critically-ill-patients-guts-protocol
#5
Angel Augusto Perez-Calatayud, Raul Carrillo-Esper, Eduardo Daniel Anica-Malagon, Jesus Carlos Briones-Garduño, Emilio Arch-Tirado, Robert Wise, Manu L N G Malbrain
PURPOSE: There is currently a lack of universally accepted criteria for gastrointestinal (GI) failure or dysfunction in critical care. Also, the clinical assessment of intestinal function is notoriously difficult and thus often goes unrecognized, contributing to poor outcomes. A recent grading system has been proposed to define acute gastrointestinal injury (AGI) in conjunction with other organ function scores (e.g., SOFA). Ultrasonography has become widely accepted as a diagnostic tool for GI problems and pathology...
January 5, 2018: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300314/fungi-in-bronchiectasis-a-concise-review
#6
REVIEW
Luis Máiz, Rosa Nieto, Rafael Cantón, Elia Gómez G de la Pedrosa, Miguel Ángel Martinez-García
Although the spectrum of fungal pathology has been studied extensively in immunosuppressed patients, little is known about the epidemiology, risk factors, and management of fungal infections in chronic pulmonary diseases like bronchiectasis. In bronchiectasis patients, deteriorated mucociliary clearance-generally due to prior colonization by bacterial pathogens-and thick mucosity propitiate, the persistence of fungal spores in the respiratory tract. The most prevalent fungi in these patients are Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus; these are almost always isolated with bacterial pathogens like Haemophillus influenzae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, making very difficult to define their clinical significance...
January 4, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288412/closed-loop-doluisio-colon-small-intestine-and-single-pass-intestinal-perfusion-colon-jejunum-in-rat-biophysical-model-and-predictions-based-on-caco-2
#7
Isabel Lozoya-Agullo, Isabel Gonzalez-Alvarez, Moran Zur, Noa Fine-Shamir, Yael Cohen, Milica Markovic, Teresa M Garrigues, Arik Dahan, Marta Gonzalez-Alvarez, Matilde Merino-Sanjuán, Marival Bermejo, Alex Avdeef
PURPOSE: The effective rat intestinal permeability (P eff ) was deconvolved using a biophysical model based on parameterized paracellular, aqueous boundary layer, transcellular permeabilities, and the villus-fold surface area expansion factor. METHODS: Four types of rat intestinal perfusion data were considered: single-pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP) in the jejunum (n = 40), and colon (n = 15), closed-loop (Doluisio type) in the small intestine (n = 78), and colon (n = 74)...
December 29, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280285/treatment-related-changes-after-short-term-exposure-of-sd-rats-to-aloe-vera-whole-leaf-freeze-dried-powder
#8
Tao Chen, Li Wang, Chunyan Hu
Aloe vera is a widely used natural herb from which many sorts of commercial products have been derived using different preparation technologies. Aloe whole-leaf powder is one of the most popular subtypes. The long-term impact of aloe products has already been reported; however, there have been few studies about short-term exposure, and especially about the relative impact of Aloe vera whole-leaf freeze-dried powder (AWFP). To provide more toxicological data and to document the early changes induced by AWFP, in this study 120 SD rats were divided into four groups (control and 400/1200/2000 mg/kg treatment groups) and were administered AWFP once daily by oral gavage for 28 consecutive days, followed by a two week recovery phase...
October 2017: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250584/endoscopic-full-thickness-resection-for-t1-early-rectal-cancer-a-case-series-and-video-report
#9
Paola Soriani, Gian Eugenio Tontini, Helmut Neumann, Germana de Nucci, Domenico De Toma, Barbara Bruni, Sara Vavassori, Luca Pastorelli, Maurizio Vecchi, Pavlos Lagoussis
Background and study aims:  Endoscopic treatment of malignant colorectal polyps is often challenging, especially for early rectal cancer (ERC) localized close to the dentate line. Conversely, the surgical approach may result in temporary or definitive stoma and in frequent post-surgical complications. The Full-Thickness Resection Device (FTRD ® ) System (Ovesco Endoscopy, Tübingen, Germany) is a novel system that, besides having other indications, appears to be promising for wall-thickness excision of intestinal T1 carcinoma following incomplete endoscopic resection...
November 2017: Endoscopy International Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226886/two-cases-of-laparoscopic-direct-spiral-closure-of-large-defects-in-the-second-portion-of-the-duodenum-after-laparoscopic-endoscopic-co-operative-surgery
#10
Saseem Poudel, Yuma Ebihara, Kimitaka Tanaka, Yo Kurashima, Soichi Murakami, Toshiaki Shichinohe, Satoshi Hirano
Curative endoscopic resection of non-ampullary duodenal lesions, although possible, is challenging. In recent years, although a novel surgical technique named laparoscopic-endoscopic cooperative surgery (LECS), which combines laparoscopic and endoscopic techniques, has made the resection of nonampullary duodenal lesions relatively easier, closure of the defect is still controversial. We report two cases of the duodenal lesion which were closed using a novel technique for primary closure utilising the free wall of the duodenum...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Minimal Access Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225457/corneal-regeneration-by-induced-human-buccal-mucosa-cultivated-on-an-amniotic-membrane-following-alkaline-injury
#11
Rohaina Che Man, Then Kong Yong, Ng Min Hwei, Wan Haslina Wan Abdul Halim, Aida Zairani Mohd Zahidin, Roszalina Ramli, Aminuddin Bin Saim, Ruszymah Binti Hj Idrus
Various clinical disorders and injuries, such as chemical, thermal, or mechanical injuries, may lead to corneal loss that results in blindness. PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to differentiate human buccal mucosa (BMuc) into corneal epithelial-like cells, to fabricate engineered corneal tissue using buccal mucosal epithelial cells, and to reconstruct a damaged corneal epithelium in a nude rat model. Methods: BMuc were subjected to 10 d of induction factors to investigate the potential of cells to differentiate into corneal lineages...
2017: Molecular Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224829/plasticity-of-oral-mucosal-cell-sheets-for-accelerated-and-scarless-skin-wound-healing
#12
Jong-Lyel Roh, Jaewang Lee, Eun Hye Kim, Daiha Shin
OBJECTIVES: Wound healing is generally faster and associated with less scarring in the oral mucosa than in the skin. Although rarely studied, oral mucosa equivalents may contribute to rapid, scarless cutaneous wound healing. Therefore, we examined the potential utility of our newly developed oral mucosal cell sheet in skin wound healing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Oral mucosa and skin samples were obtained from surgical patients and Sprague-Dawley rats. Keratinocytes and fibroblasts were primarily cultured for in vitro cell expansion...
December 2017: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223636/revisiting-lip-shave-a-solution-for-disorders-of-the-vermilion-border
#13
A Sayan, S Wijesinghe, S Paraneetharan, V Ilankovan
Actinic keratosis, leukoplakia, carcinoma in situ, and superficially invasive carcinomas of the lower lip are caused mainly by the cumulative effects of exposure of the vermilion of the lower lip to ultraviolet radiation. Current treatments all have limitations: cryosurgery or electrosurgery is suitable to treat only focal lesions; topical chemotherapy, which is an option for diffuse actinic damage, yields unreliable results; and laser treatment fails to rejuvenate the vermilion. However, "lip shave", which involves full-thickness excision of the damaged vermilion and reconstruction with an advancement labial mucosal flap, will produce a fresh mucosal lining to the vermilion border...
December 6, 2017: British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214351/regenerative-medicine-for-the-esophagus
#14
REVIEW
Kengo Kanetaka, Shinichiro Kobayashi, Susumu Eguchi
Advances in tissue engineering techniques have made it possible to use human cells as biological material. This has enabled pharmacological studies to be conducted to investigate drug effects and toxicity, to clarify the mechanisms underlying diseases, and to elucidate how they compensate for impaired organ function. Many researchers have tried to construct artificial organs using these techniques, but none has succeeded in growing a whole organ. Unlike other digestive organs with complicated functions, such as the processing and absorption of nutrients, the esophagus has the relatively simple function of transporting content, which can be replicated easily by a substitute...
December 6, 2017: Surgery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212517/is-hematoxylin-eosin-staining-in-rectal-mucosal-and-submucosal-biopsies-still-useful-for-the-diagnosis-of-hirschsprung-disease
#15
Suellen Serafini, Maria Mercês Santos, Ana Cristina Aoun Tannuri, Maria Claudia Nogueira Zerbini, Maria Cecília de Mendonça Coelho, Josiane de Oliveira Gonçalves, Uenis Tannuri
BACKGROUND: Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining of a full-thickness rectal wall fragment is classically used for the diagnosis of Hirschsprung disease (HD). However, this technique requires large fragments for a better diagnosis. Additionally, the histochemical and immunohistochemical methods of staining small fragments of rectal mucosal and submucosal biopsies are not available in all centers. Therefore, the possibility of diagnosing HD through HE staining in these biopsies could be a valuable alternative for centers that do not have more specific techniques...
December 6, 2017: Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205096/anatomical-and-functional-changes-to-the-colonic-neuromuscular-compartment-after-experimental-spinal-cord-injury
#16
Amanda White, Gregory M Holmes
A profound reduction in colorectal transit time accompanies spinal cord injury (SCI), yet the colonic alterations after SCI have yet to be fully understood. The loss of descending supraspinal input to lumbosacral neural circuits innervating the colon is recognized as one causal mechanism. However, remodeling of the colonic enteric nervous system/smooth muscle junction in response to inflammation is recognized as one factor leading to colonic dysmotility in other pathophysiological models. We investigated the alterations to the neuromuscular junction in rats with experimental high-thoracic (T3) SCI...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204575/healing-of-the-nasal-septal-mucosa-in-an-experimental-rabbit-model-of-mucosal-injury
#17
Kyu Young Choi, Sung Woo Cho, Jun-Jae Choi, Yu-Lian Zhang, Dae Woo Kim, Doo Hee Han, Hyun Jik Kim, Dong-Young Kim, Chae-Seo Rhee, Tae-Bin Won
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the regeneration process of the nasal mucosa after a surgically created mucosal defect in the rabbit nasal septum, and to evaluate the effects of different interventions. Methods: A 7 mm-diameter circular mucosal defect was made in the septum of forty New Zealand white rabbits. The rabbits were divided into four groups (ten rabbits in each group) according to the type of intervention; no treatment (control), silastic sheet (SS), hyaluronic acid (HA), and silastic sheet and hyaluronic acid (SS + HA) group...
March 2017: World Journal of Otorhinolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204253/value-of-histomorphometric-tumour-thickness-and-smoothelin-for-conventional-m-classification-in-early-oesophageal-adenocarcinoma
#18
Katharina Endhardt, Bruno Märkl, Andreas Probst, Tina Schaller, Daniela Aust
AIM: To test the validity of tumour thickness measurement in distinguishing between the different infiltration depths, especially when the duplication of muscularis mucosae cannot be demarcated clearly. METHODS: We re-evaluated 100 completely embedded Barrett's adenocarcinomas regarding m-classification, maximum tumour thickness, and muscularis mucosae duplication. For validation, smoothelin staining was performed on a subset of cases. RESULTS: The m1-, m2- and m3-classified adenocarcinomas showed a significant lower tumour thickness compared to the m4- and sm1-classified lesions (P < 0...
November 15, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187493/braf-nras-and-c-kit-advanced-melanoma-clinico-pathological-features-targeted-therapy-strategies-and-survival
#19
Giovanni Ponti, Marco Manfredini, Stefano Greco, Giovanni Pellacani, Roberta Depenni, Aldo Tomasi, Monia Maccaferri, Stefano Cascinu
BACKGROUND/AIM: The mutational status of stage III and IV melanomas should be recognized in order to allow for targeted therapies. The aim of our study was the characterization of BRAF, NRAS and C-KIT melanoma patients, in order to define their optimal management. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 1991 and 2015, 63 mutated melanoma patients were treated and monitored during their diagnostic and therapeutic management at a single institution. RESULTS: BRAF-mutated melanoma patients were the most common, representing 70% of the study population, while NRAS- and C-KIT-mutated melanoma represented 19% and 11% respectively...
December 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160624/buccal-patches-of-atenolol-formulated-using-fenugreek-trigonella-foenum-graecum-l-seed-mucilage
#20
Surya Narayan Ratha Adhikari, Satyabrata Panda
BACKGROUND: The use of mucoadhesive natural polymers in designing mucoadhesive patch systems has received much attention. OBJECTIVES: The study involved the development and evaluation of buccal patches of atenolol using fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) seed mucilage with hydroxylpropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC K4M) and a backing membrane (ethyl cellulose 5% w/v). MATERIAL AND METHODS: These atenolol-releasing buccal patches were prepared using a solvent casting technique...
January 2017: Polimery W Medycynie
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